Repeating rifle

Repeating rifle

A repeating rifle is a single barreled rifle containing multiple rounds of ammunition. These rounds are loaded from a magazine by means of a manual or automatic mechanism, and the action that reloads the rifle also typically recocks the firing action. The term repeating rifle is most often applied to weapons in which the next cartridge is loaded by a manual action, as opposed to self-loading rifles, in which the force of one shot is used to load the next.

Repeating rifles were a significant advance over the preceding breech loaded single-shot rifles when used for military combat, as they allowed a much greater rate of fire.

Manual mechanism

Revolver action

While some early long guns were made using the revolver mechanism popular in hand guns, these did not have longevity in the marketplace. Although the revolver mechanism was fine for pistols, it posed a problem with long guns: without special sealing details, the cylinder produces a gas discharge close to the face when the weapon is fired from the shoulder, as all long guns were.

Bolt action

The bolt closes the breech end of the barrel and contains the firing pin. The bolt is held in place with a lever that fits into a notch. Moving this lever out of the notch will release the restraint on the bolt, allowing it to be drawn back. An extractor removes the spent cartridge, which is then ejected through the lever slot. A spring at the bottom of the magazine pushes up the reserve rounds, positioning the topmost between the bolt and the chamber at the base of the barrel. Pushing the bolt lever forward chambers this round and pushing the lever into the notch locks the bolt and enables the trigger mechanism. The complete cycle action also resets the firing pin. The Mauser rifle of the late 19th and early 20th centuries is the most famous of the bolt action types, with most similar weapons derived from this pioneering design, such as the M1903 Springfield rifle, Karabiner 98 Kurz rifle (abbreviated often as kar98k), Mosin-Nagant rifle or the British Short Magazine Lee Enfield .303 (SMLE).

Lever action

In a lever-action firearm, rounds are individually loaded into a tubular magazine parallel to and below the barrel. A short bolt is held in place with an over center toggle action. Once closed, the over center action prevents opening solely by the force on the bolt when the weapon is fired. This toggle action is operated by a hand grip that forms part of the trigger guard. When operated, a spring in the tubular magazine pushes a fresh round into position. Returning the operating lever to the home position chambers the round and closes the breach. An interlock prevents firing unless the toggle is fully closed. The general operation is similar to that of the bolt action described above. The famous Winchester rifle is exemplary of this type. There also exist lever-action rifles that feed from a box magazine, which allows them to use pointed bullets.

Pump action

With a pump-action firearm, the action is operated by a moveable fore-end that goes backwards and forwards to eject, extract, and chamber a round of ammunition. One example of a pump-action rifle is the Remington Model 7600 series pump-action rifles and carbines

Automatic mechanisms

Magazine designs

ee also

*Antique guns
*Gardner gun
*Gatling gun
*John Browning
*List of firearms
*Marlin Firearms
*Nordenfelt Gun
*Oliver Winchester
*Remington Arms
*Spencer repeating rifle
*Winchester Repeating Arms Company

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