- Sacred geometry
**Sacred geometry**isgeometry used in the design ofsacred architecture andsacred art . The basic belief is that geometry andmath ematical ratios, harmonics and proportion are also found inmusic ,light ,cosmology . Thisvalue system is seen as widespread even inprehistory , acultural universal of thehuman condition . It is considered foundational to building sacred structures such astemple s,mosque s,megalith s,monuments and churches; sacred spaces such asaltar s, temenoi andtabernacle s; meeting places such assacred grove s,village green s andholy well s and the creation of religious art,iconography and using "divine" proportions. Alternatively, sacred geometry based arts may be ephemeral, such asvisualization ,sandpainting andmedicine wheel s.**As worldview**Sacred geometry may be understood as a

worldview ofpattern recognition , acomplex system of religious symbols and structures involvingspace ,time andform . According to this view the basicpatterns of existence are perceived assacred . By connecting with these, a believer contemplates the "Mysterium Magnum ", and the Great Design. By studying the nature of these patterns, forms and relationships and their connections, insight may be gained into the mysteries – thelaw s andlore of theUniverse .**Music**The discovery of the relationship of geometry and mathematics to music within the

Classical Period is attributed toPythagoras , who found that a string stopped halfway along its length produced anoctave , while a ratio of 3/2 produced a fifth interval and 4/3 produced a fourth. Pythagoreans believed that this gave music powers of healing, as it could "harmonize" the out-of-balance body, and this belief has been revived in modern times [*http://www.aniwilliams.com/geometry_music_healing.htm*] . Hans Jenny, a physician who pioneered the study of geometric figures formed by wave interactions and named that studycymatics , is often cited in this context. However, Dr. Jenny did not make healing claims for his work.**Cosmology**:"See also

Kepler conjecture ,Mysterium Cosmographicum ,Pythagoreanism "At least as late asJohannes Kepler (1571 -1630 ), a belief in the geometric underpinnings of the cosmos persisted among scientists. Kepler explored the ratios of the planetary orbits, at first in two dimensions (having spotted that the ratio of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn approximate to the in-circle and out-circle of an equilateral triangle). When this did not give him a neat enough outcome, he tried using thePlatonic solids . In fact, planetary orbits can be related using two-dimensional geometric figures, but the figures do not occur in a particularly neat order. Even in his own lifetime (with less accurate data than we now possess) Kepler could see that the fit of the Platonic solids was imperfect. However, other geometric configurations are possible.**Natural forms**Many forms observed in nature can be related to geometry (for sound reasons of resource optimization). For example, the

chambered nautilus grows at a constant rate and so its shell forms alogarithmic spiral to accommodate that growth without changing shape. Also,honeybee s construct hexagonal cells to hold their honey. These and other correspondences are seen by believers in sacred geometry to be further proof of the cosmic significance of geometric forms. But some scientists see such phenomena as the logical outcome of natural principles.**Art and architecture**The

golden ratio , geometric ratios, and geometric figures were often employed in the design of Egyptian, ancient Indian, Greek and Romanarchitecture . Medieval European cathedrals also incorporated symbolic geometry. Indian and Himalayan spiritual communities often constructed temples andfortification s on design plans of mandala and yantra. For examples of sacred geometry in art and architecture refer:*

Labyrinth (anEulerian path , as distinct from amaze )

*Mandala

*Flower of Life

*Parthenon

*Taijitu (Yin-Yang)

*Tree of Life

*Rose Window

*Celtic art such as theBook of Kells

*Yantra

*Swastika

*Dharmacakra

*Vesica piscis

*Metatron's Cube **Contemporary usage**A contemporary usage of the term "sacred geometry" describes assertions of a mathematical order to the intrinsic nature of the

universe . Scientists see the same geometric and mathematical patterns as arising directly from natural principles.Some of the most prevalent traditional geometric forms ascribed to sacred geometry include the

sine wave , thesphere , thevesica piscis , the 5platonic solids , thetorus (donut), thegolden spiral , thetesseract (4-dimensional cube), and themerkaba (2 oppositely oriented and interpenetrating tetrahedrons).**ee also***

Arabesque

*Bindu

*Sri Chakra

*Crop circle

*Bush Barrow

*Ley lines

*Fractal

*Folk mathematics

*Proportion (architecture)

*Platonic solids

*Golden ratio

*Golden spiral

*Astrological aspects

*

*Sangaku **Further reading***cite book|author=Lesser, George|title=Gothic cathedrals and sacred geometry|location=London|publisher=A. Tiranti|year=1957-64

*"Beginnings : Geomancy, Builders' Rites and Electional Astrology in the European Tradition" byNigel Pennick

*"Sacred Geometry : Symbolism and Purpose in Religious Structures" byNigel Pennick

*"The Ancient Science of Geomancy : Living in Harmony with the Earth" byNigel Pennick

*"The Sacred Art of Geometry: Temples of the Phoenix" byNigel Pennick

*"The Oracle of Geomancy " byNigel Pennick

*"The Ancient Science of Geomancy : Man in Harmony with the Earth" byNigel Pennick

*George Bain. "Celtic Art: The Methods of Construction". Dover, 1973. ISBN 0-486-22923-8.

*Robert Lawlor . "Sacred Geometry: Philosophy and practice (Art and Imagination)". Thames & Hudson, 1989 (1st edition 1979, 1980, or 1982). ISBN 0-500-81030-3.

*John Michell. "City of Revelation". Abacus, 1972. ISBN 0-349-12320-9.

*Michael S. Schneider. "A Beginner's Guide to Constructing the Universe: Mathematical Archetypes of Nature, Art, and Science". Harper Paperbacks, 1995. ISBN 0-06-092671-6

* Lucy R Lippard: Overlay: Contemporary Art and the Art of Prehistory. Pantheon Books New York 1983 ISBN 0-394-54812-8

* Johnson, Anthony: "Solving Stonehenge, the New Key to an Ancient Enigma". Thames & Hudson 2008 ISBN 978-0-500-05155-9

*cite book|title=The Fourth Dimension : Sacred Geometry, Alchemy, and Mathematics|author=Steiner, Rudolf|coauthors=Catherine Creeger|year=2001|publisher=Anthroposophic Press|isbn=0880104724|authorlink=Rudolf Steiner

*cite book|author=Critchlow, Keith|title=Order In Space: A Design Source Book|location=New York|publisher=Viking|year=1970|authorlink=Keith Critchlow

*cite book|title=The Theology of Arithmetic: On the Mystical, Mathematical and Cosmological Symbolism of the First Ten Numbers|author=Iamblichus|coauthors=Robin Waterfield, Keith Critchlow, Translated by Robin Waterfield|publisher=Phanes Press|year=1988|isbn=0933999720|authorlink=Iamblichus

*cite book|title=Islamic Patterns: An Analytical and Cosmological Approach|author=Critchlow, Keith|publisher=Schocken Books|year=1976|isbn=0805236279

*"The Golden Mean", Parabola magazine, v.16, n.4 (1991)

*West, John Anthony, "Inaugural Lines: Sacred geometry at St. John the Divine", Parabola magazine, v.8, n.1, Spring 1983

*Bamford, Christopher, "Homage to Pythagoras: Rediscovering Sacred Science", Lindisfarne Press, 1994, ISBN 0-940262-63-0**External links***dmoz|Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Arts/Visual/Sacred_Geometry_and_Art/

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