- Eastern Ghats
The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains along
India's eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats run from West Bengalstate in the north, through Orissaand Andhra Pradeshto Tamil Naduin the south. They are eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. The mountain ranges run parallel to the Bay of Bengal. The Deccan Plateaulies to the west of the range, between the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. The coastal plains lies between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The Eastern Ghats are not as high as the Western Ghats. As with the Western Ghats, these mountain ranges also have their local names, e.g. the Velikonda Rangeof Andhra Pradesh.
At their southern end, the Eastern Ghats form several ranges of low hills. The southernmost of the Eastern Ghats are the low
Sirumalaiand Karanthamalai Hillsof southern Tamil Nadu. North of the River Kaveriare higher Kollimalai, Pachaimalai, Shevaroy (Servaroyan), Kalrayan Hills, Chitteri, Palamalaiand Mettur Hillsin northern Tamil Nadu state. The climate of the higher hill ranges is generally cooler and wetter than the surrounding plains and the hills are home to coffeeplantations and enclaves of dry forest. The hill stationof Yercaudis located in the Shevaroy Hills. The Bilgiri Hills, which run east from the Western Ghats to the River Kaveri, forms a forested ecological corridor that connects the Eastern and Western Ghats, and allows the second-largest wild elephant population in India to range between the South Eastern Ghats, the Biligiri and Nilgiri Hills, and the South Western Ghats.
The Ponnaiyar and Palar Rivers flow from headwaters on the
Kolar Plateaueastward through gaps in the Ghats to empty into the Bay of Bengal; the Javadhu Hillslie between the two rivers. There are waterfalls in remote areas, such as the Kiliyur Falls. [cite web
North of the
Palar Riverin Andhra Pradesh, the central portion of the Eastern Ghats consist of two parallel ranges running approximately north-south; the lower Velikonda Rangelies to the east, and the higher Palikonda-Lankamalla-Nallamalla Ranges lie to the west. The Palar Rivercuts through the ranges. The Velikonda Range eventually descends to the coastal plain in northern Nelloredistrict, while the Nallamalla Range continues to the River Krishna. A range of low hills lie between the Krishna and the Godavari, but north of the Godavari the Eastern Ghats increase again in height, forming the boundary between Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.
The region boasts of fertile soil but
hydropowergeneration here is not as profitable as it is in the Western Ghats.
The Eastern Ghats are older than the Western Ghats, and have a complex geologic history, related to the assembly and breakup of the ancient supercontinent of
Rodiniaand the assembly of the Gondwanasupercontinent.
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