- Political Parties (book)
"Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy" is a book by sociologist
Robert Michels, published in 1911 (translated to English in 1915), and first introducing the concept of iron law of oligarchy. It is considered one of the classics of sociologyand political science.
This work analyzes the
power structures of organizations such as political partiesand trade unions. Michels's main argument is that like all organizations, even those in theory most egalatarian and most committed to democracy - like socialistpolitical parties - are in fact oligarchical, and dominated by a small group of leadership.
*"Who says organization, says oligarchy."
*Gordon Hands, " [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0007-1234(197104)1%3A2%3C155%3ARMATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K Roberto Michels and the Study of Political Parties ] ", British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Apr., 1971), pp. 155-172, [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0007-1234(197104)1%3A2%3C155%3ARMATSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K JSTOR]
* [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/MicPoli.html Political Parties, Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library]
* [http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/michels/ Robert Michels index] , a site featuring a translation of "Political Parties" by Eden and
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