- Queen Anne Style architecture
The Queen Anne Style is a style of architecture, furniture and decoration that reached its greatest popularity in the last quarter of the 19th century, manifesting itself in a number of different ways in different countries. It consisted largely of influences that harked back to "Old English" or even Tudor styles and characteristics.
This Queen Anne style derived from the influence of
Richard Norman Shaw, [A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture, Apperly (Angus and Robertson) 1994, p.132] an influential British architect of the late Victorian era. Seen from the 1870s onwards, this style revived features of English architecture from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, including, initially, elements from the historical reign of Queen Anne (1702-14) [Cambridge Encyclopedia, Crystal (Cambridge University Press) 1994, p.69] .
19th Century Queen Anne
(1831-1912). Norman Shaw published a book of architectural sketches as early as 1858, and his evocative pen-and-ink drawings began to appear in trade journals and artistic magazines in the 1870s. American commercial builders were quick to pick up the style.
emphasising corners; a central triangular pediment set against a hipped roof with dormers; typically box-like "double pile" plans, two rooms deep.)
In the late 1850s, the name "Queen Anne" was in the air, following publication in 1852 of
William Makepeace Thackeray's novel, "The History of Henry Esmond, Esq., A Colonel in the Service of Her Majesty Queen Anne".
One minor side effect of Thackeray's novel and Norman Shaw's freehand picturesque vernacular Renaissance survives to this day. When, in the early 1870s, Chinese-inspired Early Georgian furniture on cabriole legs, featuring smooth expanses of walnut, and chairs with flowing lines and slat backs began to be looked for in out-of-the-way curio shops (Macquoid 1904), the style was misattributed to the reign of Queen Anne, and the "Queen Anne" misnomer has stuck to this day, in American as well as English furniture style designations. (Even the most stylish and up-to-date furnishings of the historical reign of Queen Anne, as inventories reveal, was in a style that would be immediately identified now as "William and Mary.")
The British Victorian version of the style is closer in empathy to the
arts and crafts movementthan its American counterpart. Its historic precedents were broad: it combined fine brickwork, often in a warmer, softer finish than the Victorians were characteristically using, varied with terra-cotta panels, or tile-hung upper stories, with crisply painted white woodwork, or blond limestone detailing: oriel windows, often stacked one above another, corner towers, asymmetrical fronts and picturesque massing, Flemish mannerist sunken panels of strapwork, deeply shadowed entrances, broad porches, in a domesticated free Renaissance style.
When an open architectural competition was announced in 1892, for a County Hall ("see photo, right") to be built in
Wakefield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the instructions to competitors noted that "the style of architecture will be left to the competitors but the Queen Anne or Renaissance School of Architecture appears suited to an old town like Wakefield" (ref. Wakefield). The executed design, by James Gibson and Samuel Russell, architects of London, combines a corner turret, grandly domed and with gargoyles at the angles, freely combined with Flemish Renaissance stepped gables.
American Queen Anne style
Queen Anne Style buildings in America came into vogue in the 1880s, replacing the French-derived
Second Empireas the "style of the moment." The popularity of high Queen Anne Style waned in the early 1900s, but some elements, such as the wraparound front porch, continued to be found on buildings into the 1920s.
In America, "Queen Anne" is loosely used of a wide range of picturesque buildings with "free Renaissance"— non-
Gothic Revival— details rather than of a specific formulaic style in its own right. Unlike its British counterpart's use of "crisp white trim" (see the example from Lebanon, Illinois), Queen Anne in America eschewed white for bold color resulting in Polychromepaint schemes on exteriors, often referred to as " painted ladies", a term that rose in popularity in the 1970s.
The "Queen Anne" style arrived in New York with the new housing for the New York House and School of Industry [The New York House and School of Industry was absorbed in 1951 by Greenwich House, a more extensive privately-funded social services agency.] (
Sidney V. Stratton, architect, 1878) at 120 West 16th Street. Gabled and domestically scaled, it is of warm, soft brick enclosing some square terracottapanels, with an arched side passage leading to an inner court and back house; its detailing is largely confined to the treatment of its picturesquely-disposed windows, with small-paned upper sashes and plate glass lower ones. There are triple windows of Serlian motif and a two-storey orielthat projects asymmetrically. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE7DC113EF935A3575AC0A961948260 Christopher Gray, "Streetscapes: The New York House and School of Industry; Where the Poor Learned 'Plain and Fine Sewing'", "New York Times", September 6, 1987] Accessed 19 August 2008.] E. Francis Baldwin's stations for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, built variously of brick and wood, are also familiar examples of the style.
The most famous American Queen Anne residence (see photo left) is the William M. Carson Mansion of
Eureka, California. Newsom and Newsom, notable builder-architects of 19th Century Californiahomes and public buildings, designed and constructed (1884-1886) this 18-room home for one of California's first lumber barons. All styles described below as well as others are present in this example of American Queen Anne Style.
Distinctive essential features of American Queen Anne style included an
asymmetrical facade; dominant front-facing gable, often cantilevered out beyond the plane of the wall below; overhanging eaves; round, square, or polygonaltower(s); shaped and Dutch gables; a porchcovering part or all of the front facade, including the primary entrance area; a second-story porch or balconies; pedimented porches; differing wall textures, such as patterned wood shingles shaped into varying designs, including resembling fish scales, or terra cotta tiles or reliefpanels, wooden shingles over brickwork, etc; dentils; classical columns; spindle work; oriel and bay windows; horizontal bands of leaded windows; monumental chimneys; white painted balustrades; and slateroofs. Basements were abolished, and front gardens had wooden fences rather than iron railings of the preceding Second Empire style. [ [http://www.buffaloah.com/a/archsty/queen/index.html Queen Anne Style ] ]
Within the American Queen Anne Style, there are also the broad Stick, Eastlake, and Shingle Styles:
The Stick style sought to bring a translation of the balloon framing used in houses in the era by alluding to them through plain trim boards, soffits, aprons, and other decorative features, while eliminating overtly ornate features such as rounded towers and gingerbread trim. Maximum picturesque value could be achieved within the means of a house-carpenter equipped with a
woodturninglathe. Recognizably "Queen Anne" details: interpenetrating roof planes with bold panelled brick chimneys, the embedded corner tower (rendered as an octagon) with its conical roof, the wrap-around porch, spindle detailing, the "panelled" sectioning of blank wall, crown detailing along the roof peaks, radiating spindle details at the gable peaks.
The home of President
Warren G. Harding("not illustrated") in Marion, Ohio, is another example of stick style architecture; however the porch (which is best known as the home of the Front Porch Campaign of 1920) designed by architect Frank Packardand built onto the house is neo-classical in style, while influenced by the Queen Anne era in that it wraps around the house. Highly stylized and decorative versions of the Stick style are often referred to as Eastlake.
The Eastlake Style is named for
Charles Eastlake(1836-1906), an Englishman whose "Hints on Household Taste in Furniture, Upholstery, and Other Details" (1868) was highly influential in American design, by translating John Ruskinand William Morris' ideas into a decorative vocabulary for the carpenter and builder. The Eastlake style's importance is delineated by the use of geometric shapes made possible by modern machine techniques of the era. By making these intricate shapes with machines, it was possible to duplicate the exact complex patterns repeatedly, and in unusual places, such as the inside plates of a hinge. It's important to realize, however, that Eastlake always emphasized "simple, elegant motifs" rather than the florid decorative excesses of high Victorian style, and the majority of the items labeled "Eastlake" appalled him, as he frequently wrote during his lifetime. This is particularly evident in the United States, where basic Eastlake motifs were usually multiplied into a dizzying geometric mandala of Victorian intricacy.
As the 20th century approached, there was then a revival of old forms in furniture under the name of the Queen Anne, although frequently spoken of by dealers, with absurd anachronism, as the Early English. While the articles made according to Mr. Eastlake's instructions may be considered a reform, and the Neo-Jacobean a fashion, the revival of the Queen Anne seems to have sufficiently positive features to be regarded as a style. This revival is said to be the work of that knot of poets and artists and connoisseurs of "bric-a-brac" at whose head stand
Dante Gabriel Rossettiand William Morris, and the traces of Italian fancy and English quaintness combined in it declare that it might have been their work if it is not. cite journal|title=Elizabethan and later English furniture|journal=Harper's New Monthly Magazine|date=1877-12|first=|last=|coauthors=|volume=56|issue=331|pages=18–33|id= |url=|format=|accessdate= ]
Its introduction was associated with a revival of Queen Anne forms in architecture, such as the somewhat Dutch character of country house with red brick trimmings and curved gables, to be found in the latter years of William and Mary, qualified by new invention and modern taste. Of course it met with opposition and criticism; for it seemed to have sprung into notice full grown, not like a growth answering a need, but like a surprise. Animated discussions concerning its merits and demerits, displaying equal acrimony and ignorance, took place in the meetings of the architects and others interested in such things, various voices declaring that nobody would credit Queen Anne's epoch with any style at all, and that if the epoch had a style, it was not this; that this was a mongrel, violating classic rules while pretending to be a form of classic, and yet really not unsuited to Gothic surroundings; and that, being an attempt to unite the truthfulness, variety, and picturesqueness of the Gothic with the common sense of the Italian, it should be called the Free Classic, for it was in reality only a Renaissance, less strict and refined that the old Renaissance. A writer in "The Builder" said: "We are now offered in some quarters the revival of the furniture of the Queen Anne and Georgina Period, of which Chippendale and Sheraton were the leading makers. This type of furniture revels in curved lines and surfaces really unsuitable, as we have before said, to wood construction and which, in fact, seem designed to create difficulties of execution in order to overcome them." But it is not all this "bombe" furniture referred to, with its curved lines and surfaces, that was chosen for the archetype of the new Queen Anne. It is true that Chippendale and Sheraton produced such designs, but they also, as we have seen, produced others more characteristic of themselves and of the period. The first portion of Chippendale's
One Hundred and Sixty Plateshas examples of the rolling abominations of the Rococo, but the rest is a collection of simple and rather elegant shapes; and what resemblance there is between the Chippendale furniture and the Queen Anne is confined to the latter portion of his illustrations and the articles manufactured from those designs.
The revived Queen Anne and that which was purely home bred and national of the original style, revels in no curves whatever but is severely square and straight. Its lines are a rebound from the curves of two centuries. All of its articles stand well off the floor, upon strong supports, the construction perfectly apparent, the corners sharp, the panels many and small; it carries much plate glass, cut always with a deep bevel, and it has a great deal of carving in the face, that is, in such relief, of the conventional forms of fruit, flowers, foliage, birds, and animals, and their idealized suggestions; it uses but little metal in its heavy articles, but illuminates itself with numberless small and precious mirrors, with brass sconces and candelabra, and with rare china, and its mantelpieces overflow with sculptured beauty of column and capital and frieze. Some of the choicer traits of the Elizabethan occasionally appear in the carving of the cabinets; there is even a hint of the Louis Quinze in the long reedy legs that now and then uphold some light square object. Generally it was thoroughly eclectic, and if there was the least reminiscence of the Gothic in the tops of sideboards, buffets, and cabinets, there was also a general character of the Louis Quinze throughout the whole. But the style has struck the beauty loving eye wherever it has been seen. The Queen Anne was perhaps the most satisfactory American domestic furniture, being reasonable and sufficiently beautiful. It is quaint and picturesque, and has the simplicity and quietness of old work, without architectural pretension.
The Shingle Style in America was made popular by the rise of the New England school of architecture, which eschewed the highly ornamented patterns of the Eastlake style. In the Shingle Style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial. Architects emulated colonial houses' plain, shingled surfaces as well as their massing, whether in the simple gable of McKim Mead and White's Low House or in the complex massing of Kragsyde, which looked almost as if a colonial house had been fancifully expanded over many years. This impression of the passage of time was enhanced by the use of shingles. Some architects, in order to attain a weathered look on a new building, even had the cedar shakes dipped in buttermilk, dried and then installed, to leave a grayish tinge to the façade.
The Shingle Style also conveyed a sense of the house as continuous volume. This effect—of the building as an envelope of space, rather than a great mass, was enhanced by the visual tautness of the flat shingled surfaces, the horizontal shape of many shingle style houses, and the emphasis on horizontal continuity, both in exterior details and in the flow of spaces within the houses.
McKim, Mead and Whiteand Peabody and Stearnswere two of the notable firms of the era that helped to popularize the Shingle Style, through their large scale commissions for "seaside cottages" of the rich and the well-to-do in such places as Newport, Rhode Island. However the most famous Shingle Style house built in American was " Kragsyde" (1882) the summer home commissioned by Bostonian G. Nixon Black, from Peabody and Stearns. Kragsyde was built atop the rocky coastal shore near Manchester-By-the-Sea, Massachusetts, and embodied every possible tenet of the Shingle style.
Many of the concepts of the Shingle Style were adopted by
Gustav Stickley, and adapted to the American version of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Additionally, there are several other notable styles of Victorian architecture, including Italianate, Second Empire, Folk and Gothic revival.
Australian Queen Anne Style
In Australia, the Queen Anne style was absorbed into the Federation style, which was, broadly speaking, the Australian equivalent of the Edwardian style. The Federation period went from 1890 to 1915 and included twelve styles, one of which was the Federation Queen Anne. This became the most popular style for homes built between 1890 and 1910. [A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture, p.132] The style often utilised Tudor-style woodwork and elaborate fretwork that replaced the Victorian taste for wrought iron. Verandahs were usually a feature, as were the image of the rising sun and Australian wildlife; plus circular windows, turrets and towers with conical or pyramid-shaped roofs.The first Queen Anne home in Australia was Caerleon, in the suburb of
Bellevue Hill, New South Wales. [The Federation House, Hugh Fraser (New Holland) 2002, p.24] Caerleon was designed initially by a Sydney architect, Harry Chambers Kent, but was then substantially reworked in London by Maurice Adams. [Sydney Architecture, Graham Jahn (Watermark Press) 1997, p.62] This led to some controversy over who deserved the credit. The house was built in 1885 and was the precursor for the Federation Queen Anne homes that were to become so popular.
Caerleon was followed soon after by West Maling, in the suburb of
Penshurst, New South Wales, and Annesbury, in the suburb of Ashfield, New South Wales, both built circa 1888. These houses, although built around the same time, had distinct styles, West Maling displaying a strong Tudor influence that was not present in Annesbury. The style soon became increasingly popular, appealing predominantly to reasonably well-off people with an "Establishment" leaning. [The Federation House, p.22] The style as it developed in Australia was highly eclectic, blending Queen Anne elements with various Australian influences. Old English characteristics like ribbed chimneys and gabled roofs were combined with Australian elements like encircling verandahs, designed to keep the sun out. One outstanding example of this eclectic approach is Urrbrae House, Adelaide, South Australia, part of the Waite Institute. Another variation with connections to the Federation Queen Anne style was the Federation Bungalow, featuring prominent verandahs. This style generally incorporated familiar Queen Anne elements, but usually in simplified form.
Some prominent examples are: [A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture, pp.132-135]
* West Maling, Penshurst Avenue, Penshurst, Sydney
* Homes, Appian way, Burwood, Sydney
* Caerleon, Bellevue Hill, Sydney (sold for $22 million in January 2008) [Sydney Morning Herald, January 25th 2008, page 3]
* Annesbury, Alt Street, Ashfield
* Weld Club, Barrack Street, Perth
* ANZ Bank, Queens Parade, Fitzroy North, Melbourne
* Campion College, Studley Park Road, Kew, Melbourne
* Otahuna, Tai Tapu, Canterbury, New Zealand
*Girouard, Mark, "Sweetness and Light: The Queen Anne Movement, 1860-1900," Yale University Press, 1984. The primary survey of the movement.
*Macquoid, Percy, "Age of Walnut", 1904.
*Vincent J. Scully Jr, "The Shingle Style and the Stick Style: Architectural Theory and Design from Downing to the Origins of Wright," revised edition, Yale University Press, 1971.
*Rifkind, Carole. "A Field Guide to American Architecture." Penguin Books, New York, 1980.
*Whiffen, Marcus. "American Architecture Since 1780," MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1999.
* [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Federation_Architecture_of_Australia Gallery of Australian Federation Architecture]
* [http://www.wakefield.gov.uk/CultureAndLeisure/HistoricWakefield/Highlights/Buildings/CountyHall/origins.htm Wakefield: the origins of County Hall]
* [http://ah.bfn.org/a/archsty/queen/ Queen Anne Style in Buffalo, New York, 1880-1910]
* [http://historicalhamilton.com Photography of Queen Anne Style Homes in Hamilton, Ontario]
* [http://www.muskegonmuseum.org/hh_site.asp Hackley & Hume Historic Site] , 1889,
* [http://www.qahistory.org/qanames.htm Queen Anne Style Homes, Queen Anne Neighborhood] ,
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