A symphony is a
musical composition, often extended and usually for orchestra. "Symphony" does not imply a specific form. Many symphonies are tonal works in four movements with the first in sonata form, and this is often described by music theorists as the structure of a "classical" symphony, although even some symphonies by the acknowledged classical masters of the form, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozartand Ludwig van Beethoven, do not conform to this model.
History of the form
The word "symphony" derives from Greek polytonic|συμφωνία, meaning "agreement or concord of sound", "concert of vocal or instrumental music", from polytonic|σύμφωνος, "harmonious" ("Oxford English Dictionary").
Isidore of Sevillewas the first to use the Latin word "symphonia", as the name of a two-headed drum, and from ca. 1155 to 1377 the French form "symphonie" was the name of the "organistrum" or hurdy-gurdy. In late medieval England, "symphony" was used in both of these senses, whereas by the sixteenth century it was equated with the dulcimer. In German, "Symphonie" was a generic term for spinets and virginalsfrom the late 16th century to the 18th century (Marcuse 1975, 501). In the sense of "sounding together" the word begins to appear in the titles of some works by 16th- and 17th-century composers including Giovanni Gabrieli("Sacrae symphoniae", 1597, and "Symphoniae sacrae, liber secundus", 1615), Adriano Banchieri("Eclesiastiche sinfonie", 1607), Lodovico Grossi da Viadana("Sinfonie musicali", 1610), and Heinrich Schütz("Symphoniae sacrae", 1629).
In the 17th century, for most of the Baroque period, the terms "symphony" and "sinfonia" were used for a range of different compositions, including instrumental pieces used in
operas, sonatasand concertos—usually part of a larger work. The "opera sinfonia", or "Italian overture" had, by the 18th century, a standard structure of three contrasting movements: fast; slow; fast and dance-like. It is this form that is often considered as the direct forerunner of the orchestral symphony. The terms "overture", "symphony" and "sinfonia" were widely regarded as interchangeable for much of the 18th century.Fact|date=January 2008
Another important progenitor of the symphony was the "ripieno concerto"—a relatively little-explored form resembling a
concertofor strings and continuo, but with no solo instruments. The earliest known ripieno concerti are by Giuseppe Torelli(his set of six, opus five, 1698). Antonio Vivaldialso wrote works of this type.Fact|date=January 2008 Perhaps the best known ripieno concerto is Johann Sebastian Bach's "Brandenburg Concerto No. 3".
18th century symphony
Early symphonies, in common with both "overtures" and "ripieno concertos", have three movements, in the
tempiquick-slow-quick. However, unlike the ripieno concerto, which uses the usual ritornelloform of the concerto, at least the first movement of these symphonies is in binary form. They are distinguishable from Italian overtures in that they were written to stand on their own in concert performances, rather than to introduce a stage work—although a piece originally written as an "overture" was sometimes later used as a "symphony", and vice versa. The vast majority of these early symphonies are in a major key.Fact|date=January 2008
Symphonies at this time, whether for concert, opera, or church use, were not considered the major works on a program: often, as with concerti, they were divided up between other works, or drawn from suites or overtures. Vocal music was dominant, and symphonies provided preludes, interludes, and postludes. At the time most symphonies were relatively short, lasting between 10 and 20 minutes.Fact|date=January 2008
The "Italian" style of symphony, often used as overture and entr'acte in opera houses, became a standard three movement form: a fast movement, a slow movement, and then another fast movement. Mozart's early symphonies are in this layout. The early three-movement form was eventually replaced by a four-movement layout which was dominant in the latter part of the 18th century and most of the 19th century. This symphonic form was influenced by Germanic practice, and would come to be associated with the "classical style" of Haydn and Mozart. The important changes were the addition of a "dance" movement and the change in character of the first movement to becoming "first among equals."Fact|date=January 2008
The normal four-movement form became, then:1. an opening allegro2. a slow movement3. a minuet or scherzo4. an allegro or rondo.
Variations on this layout were common, for instance the order of the middle two movements, or the addition of a slow introduction to the first movement. The first known symphony to introduce the minuet as the third movement is a work in D major of 1740 by
Georg Matthias Monn, while the first composer to consistently add a minuet as part of a four-movement form was Johann Stamitz.Fact|date=January 2008
The composition of early symphonies was centred on
Viennaand Mannheim. Early exponents of the form in Vienna included Georg Christoph Wagenseil, Wenzel Raimund Birckand Georg Monn, while the Mannheim schoolincluded Johann Stamitz. Symphonies were written throughout Europe, however, with examples by Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Andrea Luchesiand Antonio Brioschifrom Italy, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bachfrom northern Germany, Leopold Mozartfrom Salzburg, François-Joseph Gossecfrom Paris, and Johann Christian Bachand Carl Friedrich Abelfrom London.Fact|date=January 2008
Later significant Viennese composers of symphonies include
Johann Baptist Vanhal, Karl Ditters von Dittersdorfand Leopold Hoffmann. The most important symphonists of the latter part of the 18th century are Joseph Haydn, who wrote at least 108 symphonies over the course of 36 years (Webster and Feder 2001), and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who wrote at least 56 symphonies in 24 years (Eisen and Sadie 2001).
19th century symphony
With the rise of established professional orchestras, the symphony assumed a more prominent place in concert life between approximately 1790 and 1820.
Ludwig van Beethoven's first Academy Concert advertised "Christ on the Mount of Olives" as the featured work, rather than his performances of two of his symphonies and a piano concerto.Fact|date=January 2008
Beethoven dramatically expanded the symphony. His "Symphony No. 3" (the "Eroica"), has a scale and emotional range which sets it apart from earlier works. His "Symphony No. 9" takes the unprecedented step of including parts for vocal soloists and choir in the last movement, making it a
choral symphony. Hector Berlioz, who coined the term "choral symphony," built on this concept in his "dramatic symphony" "Roméo et Juliette" while explaining his intent in the five-paragraph introduction in that work's score (Berlioz 1857, 1). Beethoven and Franz Schubertreplaced the usual genteel minuet with a livelier scherzo.Fact|date=January 2008 In Beethoven's "Pastoral Symphony", a program work, the composer inserted a "storm" section before the final movement; Berlioz's " Symphonie Fantastique", also a programme work, has both a marchand a waltz, and five movements instead of the customary four. Robert Schumannand Felix Mendelssohnwere two leading German composers whose symphonies added the expanded harmonic vocabulary of Romantic music. Some composers also wrote explicitly programmatic symphonies, such as the French Hector Berliozand the Hungarian Franz Liszt. Johannes Brahms, who took Schumann and Mendelssohn as his point of departure, composed symphonies with very high levels of structural unity; other important symphonists of the late 19th century included Anton Bruckner, Antonín Dvořákand Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.Fact|date=January 2008
By the end of the 19th century, some French
organists named some of their organ compositions "symphony": their instruments (many built by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll) allowed an orchestral approach. Charles-Marie Widor's and Louis Vierne's orchestral symphonies are heard much less often than their organ symphonies.Fact|date=January 2008
20th century symphony
At the beginning of the 20th century,
Gustav Mahlerwrote long, large-scale symphonies (his eighth is nicknamed the "Symphony of a Thousand" because of the forces required to perform it). The twentieth century also saw further diversification in the style and content of works which composers labelled as "symphonies" (Anon. 2008). Some composers, including Dmitri Shostakovich, Sergei Rachmaninoffand Carl Nielsen, continued to write in the traditional four-movement form, while other composers took different approaches: Jean Sibelius' "Symphony No. 7", his last, is in one movement, whereas Alan Hovhaness's Symphony No. 9, "Saint Vartan" (1949–50) is in twenty-four.
There remained, however, certain tendencies: symphonies were still, on the whole, orchestral works. Symphonies with vocal parts, or parts for solo instrumentalists, were the exception rather than the rule.Fact|date=January 2008 Designating a work a "symphony" still implied a degree of sophistication, and seriousness of purpose. The word "
sinfonietta" came into use to designate a work that was "lighter" than a "symphony".
In the 20th and early 21st century symphonies have been written for Wind Ensemble and Band. In Europe one example is Paul Hindemith's Symphony in B-flat for band (1951).Or|date=July 2008 , whereas in America
Alan Hovhaness's Symphonies Nos. 4, 7, 14 and 23 are a good example of composers providing amateur-playable symphonic works for the school and college wind band movement.
Composers continue to write works which they call "symphonies", although exactly what qualifies a work as a symphony is not well-defined. As can be seen from examples as diverse as those by
Witold Lutosławski, Olivier Messiaen, Henri Dutilleux, Luciano Berio, Glenn Brancaand Philip Glass, it can denote an artistic purpose other than conformity with any symphonic tradition.Or|date=May 2008
* Anon. 2008. " [http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/opr/t237/e10019 Symphony] ." "The Oxford Dictionary of Music", 2nd ed. rev., edited by Michael Kennedy, associate editor Joyce Bourne. Oxford Music Online (Accessed
24 July 2008) (Subscription access)
* Berlioz, Hector. 1857. "Roméo et Juliette: Sinfonie dramatique: avec choeurs, solos de chant et prologue en récitatif choral, op. 17". Partition de piano par Th. Ritter. Winterthur: J. Rieter-Biedermann.
* Bukofzer, Manfred F. 1947. "Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach". New York: W. W. Norton.
* Eisen, Cliff, and Stanley Sadie. 2001. "Mozart (3): (Johann Chrysostum) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart". "The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians", ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell. London: Macmillan.
* Marcuse, Sybil. 1975. "Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary". Revised edition. The Norton Library. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-00758-8.
* Newman, William S. 1972. "The Sonata in the Baroque Era". New York: W. W. Norton.
* Schubert, Giselher. 2001. "Hindemith, Paul." "The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians", edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: MacMillan.
* Tarr, Edward H. 1974. Unpaginated editorial notes to his edition of Giuseppe Torelli, "Sinfonia a 4, G. 33, in C major". London: Musica Rara.
* Webster, James, and Georg Feder. 2001. "Haydn, (Franz) Joseph". "The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians", ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell. London: Macmillan.
* [http://www.kylegann.com/Symphony.html A Chronology of the Symphony 1730-2005] A list of selected major symphonies composed 1800-2005, with composers of 18th century symphonies
* [http://library.thinkquest.org/22673/index.html The Symphony - Interactive Guide]
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