Sui generis

Sui generis

"Sui generis" (English pronunciation (): IPA|/ˌsuːiˈdʒɛnərɪs/, roughly "SOO-ee JEN-a-ris", Latin pronunciation: IPA|/ˌsuːiˈgeneris/) is a Neo-Latin expression, literally meaning "of its own kind/genus" or unique in its characteristics. [ "Word of the day" 2001-06-14 [] accessed 2007-10-14] The expression was effectively created by scholastic philosophy to indicate an idea, an entity or a reality that cannot be included in a wider concept.Fact|date=October 2007 In the structure "genus" → "species" a species that heads its own genus is known as "sui generis". This does not mean, however, that all genera with only a single member are composed of "sui generis" species. It is only if the genus was specifically created to refer to that one species, with no other known examples, that the species is "sui generis". If the species is alone merely due to extinction, as in the case of the "Homo" genus, the surviving species is not "sui generis", because other members of the genus are known, even if they are not currently extant.

Legal applications

In law, it is a term of art used to identify a legal classification that exists independently of other categorizations because of its uniqueness or due to the specific creation of an entitlement or obligation. Courts have used the term in describing cooperative apartment corporations, mostly because this form of housing is considered real property for some purposes and personal property for other purposes. In intellectual property there are rights which are known as being "sui generis" to owners of a small class of works, such as intellectual property rights in mask works, ship hull designs, databases, or plant varieties. When referring to case citations and authorities, lawyers (and Judges) may refer to an authority cited as being 'sui generis', meaning in that context, it is one confined (or special) to its own facts, and therefore may not be of broader application.


In statutory interpretation, it refers to the problem of giving meaning to groups of words where one of the words is ambiguous or inherently unclear. For example, in criminal law, a statute might require a "mens rea" element of "unlawful and malicious" intent. Whereas the word "malicious" is well-understood, the word "unlawful" in this context is less clear. Hence, it must be given a meaning of the "same kind" as the word of established meaning.

This is particularly the case when the two or more words are conjoined, linked by the word "and", as opposed to placed in a disjunctive relationship, linked by the word "or". The interpretation of the two or more words might be different depending on the circumstances. Courts sometimes have to attribute a conjunctive (X "and" Y) intention to the legislature even though the list is disjunctive (X "or" Y) because, otherwise, no overall interpretation of the law in question would make sense.

Town planning

In British town planning law, certain uses of land are labeled "sui generis" to indicate that they are not covered by a 'Use Class' – effectively in a class of their own. Change of use of land within a Use Class does not require planning permission; however, changing between certain Use Classes, or any change of use of "sui generis" land, requires planning permission. Examples of "sui generis" use (identified in the Use Classes Order 1987) include theatres, amusement arcades, laundrettes, taxi or vehicle hire businesses, petrol filling stations, scrapyards, nightclubs, motor car showrooms, retail warehouses, clubs and hostels.Fact|date=August 2008

Aboriginal law

The term has also been used in the context of Canadian aboriginal law to describe the nature of aboriginal title.

Political science

In political science, the unparalleled development of the European Union as compared to other international organizations has led to its designation as a "sui generis" geopolitical entity. There has been widespread debate over the legal nature of the EU given its mixture of intergovernmental and supranational elements, with the organisation thus possessing some characteristics common to confederal and federal entities.

A similar case which has led to the use of the label "sui generis" is the unique relationship between France and New Caledonia, since the legal status of New Caledonia can aptly be said to lie "somewhere between an overseas collectivity and a sovereign nation". Whereas there are perhaps other examples of such a status for other disputed or dependent territories, this arrangement is certainly unique within the French Republic.

The old Holy Roman Empire may also fit under this category for its unique organization and place in European history.

In local government, a "sui generis" entity is one which does not fit with the general scheme of local governance of a country. For example in England, the City of London and the Isles of Scilly are the two "sui generis" localities, as their forms of local government are both very different from those of elsewhere in the country (for historical and geographical reasons).

Recently, the term has been applied somewhat controversially by supporters of George W. Bush's "War on Terror" due to the application of wartime policies such as labelling prisoners enemy combatants and, indeed, the use of the term war itself without a clear enemy. While the use of the term "war" in this manner is not unique (War on Poverty, War on Drugs, War on Pornography), proponents have argued that this constitutes a sui generis in that it is the first literal war which in effect could last in perpetuity without any declaration of war or clear enemy. [?]


In the sociology of Emile Durkheim, "sui generis" is used to illustrate his theories on social existence. Durkheim states that the main object of sociology is to study social facts. These social facts can only be explained by other social facts. They have a meaning of their own and cannot be reduced to psychological or biological factors. Social facts have a meaning of their own, they are 'sui generis'.Durkheim states that when one takes an organization and replaces some individuals with some others, the essence of the organization does not (necessarily) change. It can happen, for example, that over the course of a few decades, the entire staff of an organisation is replaced, while the organisation retains its distinctive character. Durkheim does not limit this thought to organisation, but extends it to the whole society: he maintains that society, as it was there before any living individual was born, is independent of all individuals. His "sui generis" (its closest English meaning in this sense being 'independent') society will furthermore continue its existence after the individual ceases to interact with it.

ee also

*Judicial activism


External links

* [ Changes of Use of Buildings and Land (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister)]

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  • sui generis — ● sui generis locution adjectivale (latin sui generis, de son espèce) Qui caractérise exclusivement quelque chose ou quelqu un : Une odeur sui generis. sui generis (Mots lat.) loc. adj. Caractéristique de l espèce, qui n appartient qu à elle. Une …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • sui generis — sui ge·ner·is / sü ˌī je nə rəs, sü ē / adj [Latin, of its own kind]: constituting a class alone: unique or particular to itself the lawyer that makes no distinction among various legal and factual nuances in each sui generis case has the… …   Law dictionary

  • Sui generis — est un terme latin de droit, signifiant « de son propre genre » et qualifiant une situation juridique dont la singularité prévient tout classement dans une catégorie déjà répertoriée et nécessite de créer des textes spécifiques.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • sui generis — (lat. „eigener Art“) ist ein lateinischer Ausdruck mit der wörtlichen Bedeutung „eigener Gattung/eigenen Geschlechts“ oder „einzigartig in seinen Charakteristika“. Der Begriff wurde von der scholastischen Philosophie entwickelt, um eine Idee,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sui generis — (lat. „eigener Art“) ist ein lateinischer Ausdruck, wörtlich bedeutet er eigener Gattung/eigenen Geschlechts oder einzigartig in seinen Charakteristika. Der Begriff wurde von der scholastischen Philosophie entwickelt, um eine Idee, eine Entität… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sui Generis — Pays d’origine  Argentine Genre musical Rock argentin, rock progressif, Folk Rock Années d activité …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sui generis — (суи генерис; букв. своеобразный, единственный в своём роде)  латинское выражение, означающее уникальность правовой конструкции (акта, закона, статуса и т. д.), которая, несмотря на наличие известного сходства с другими подобными… …   Википедия

  • sui\ generis — [ sɥiʒeneris ] loc. adj. • 1743; mots lat. « de son espèce » ♦ Propre à une espèce, à une chose, qui n appartient qu à elle. ⇒ spécial, spécifique. « C est un humoriste qui mérite une place à part; il y a là une saveur sui generis, un goût fin… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • sui géneris — Loc. lat. que significa literalmente ‘de su género o especie’. Se emplea con el sentido de ‘singular o peculiar’: «Tenía un humor muy sui géneris» (Arrabal Torre [Esp. 1982]). La pronunciación corriente en español es [sui jéneris]. Debe evitarse… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • sui generis — / sui dʒɛneris/ locuz. lat. (propr. di genere proprio ), usata in ital. come agg. [di persona, oggetto, pensiero e sim., fuori dalle regole: un carattere sui generis ] ▶◀ a sé (stante), originale, particolare, singolare. ↑ bizzarro, strano.… …   Enciclopedia Italiana

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