Sabantuy is a Tatar and
Idel-Uralian summer festival, that dates back to the Volga Bulgarian epoch. At first Sabantuy was a festival of farmers in rural areas, but it later became a national holiday and now is widely celebrated in the cities. In 2008, KazanSabantuy was celebrated on June 21.
Sabantuy (Сабантуй, IPA| [sʌbɑn`tuɪ] ), or, more correctly, Saban tuyı (Сабан туе, IPA| [sʌb`ɑn tu`jɯ] ) is a Tatar name for the holiday. Its plural form is "Sabantuylar" IPA| [sʌbɑntuɪ`lɑr] ).
The holiday is also celebrated by other
Turkic peoplesliving along the Volga. In Bashkir, it is known as Habantuy (Һабантуй) [English: IPA| [hʌbɑn`tuɪ] ] , in Chuvash — as Akatuy (Акатуй) [English: IPA| [ɑkɑ`tuɪ] ] .
holiday's name means " plough's feast" in Turkic languages. Sometimes, it is also referred to as "plough's holiday", or Saban bäyräme (Сабан бәйрәме) [IPA| [ sʌb`ɑn bæɪræ`me] ] .
Sabantuy traces its origins to the pre-
Islamic epoch, when it was celebrated before the sowingseason. The presence of Sabantuy was noticed by ibn Fadlanas early as in 921. Traditional songs and other customs of the Sabantuy probably had a religious connotation at that time.
Later, with the spread of
Islamamong Tatarsand Bashkirsand Christianityamong Chuvashs, it became a secular holiday. In each region, villages took turns to celebrate the holiday.
In the beginning of the 20th century Sabantuy gained recognition as the national festival of the Tatars. The Soviet authorities approved of this festival probably due to its humble rural origin. However, they moved Sabantuy to the after-sowing season, thus merging it with the ancient summer festival "
Cíın" [Cyrillic: Җыен, IPA| [ʓɯɪ`ɯn] ; spells in English IPA| [ʤɪ`jɪn] ; "jee-yen"] .
Recently, Moscown announced plans to nominate Sabantuy for the inclusion into the
Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanitylist in 2007.
The main distinctive elements of Sabantuy include the traditional sporting competitions such as "
köräş" (Tatar wrestling), horse racing, race-in-sack, pillar-climbing, egg-in-spoon-in-mouth-racing, sacks-battle on the crossbar, pots crashing [http://www.ogoniok.com/common/archive/1996/4459/28-10-11/28-11-1b.gif] , finding a coin in a "qatıq" (a beverage made from sour milk), and other contests. Such activities take place on the " mäydan" [Мәйдан; IPA| [mæɪ`dɑn] ; also "maydan", майдан, IPA| [mʌɪ`dɑn] in spoken language] , which would usually be located at the edge of a forest.
A tradition, called "sörän" [Сөрән; IPA| [sœ`ræn] ; English: [sɛ:`ræn] ] , was held to collect a fare for guests of the festival and prizes for the winners of the contests. "Qarğa botqası" (Rook's porridge) [Карга боткасы, IPA| [qʌr`ɣɑ bɔtqɑ`sɯ] ; English: [kʌr`gɑ bɔtkɑ`sɪ] ] , a ritual porridge, was cooked before the Sabantuy to treat children in the village. Another tradition was praying at the cemetery.
In the recent years Sabantuy is also often combined with the folk and pop music festivals, as well as accordion music festivals, named "Play, accordion!" ("Uyna, ğarmun!").
Köräş[Көрәш, transliterated koeraesh, English: IPA| [kɜ:`ræʃ] ] =
wrestling("Tatarça köräş" [Татарча көрәш, IPA| [tʌ`tɑrʆɑ kɶ`ræʃ] ] ), is the main competition of Sabantuy. Wrestlers [Tatar: köräşçe(lär)/көрәшче(ләр)] use towels and the aim is to knock down the opponent.
Usually young boys start the competition. At the end of Sabantuy, the main event of the festival is the final of köräş. The winner becomes the "
batır" [IPA| [bʌ`tɯr] English: IPA| [ bʌ`tɪr] , also батыр/batyr, Unicode|паттӑр/pattăr] , the hero of the Sabantuy. The prize varies from a ram at the village to a carin the city.
Calendar of the festival
Sabantuylar do not have a set date. The festivities take place approximately from June 15 to July 1, and usually fall on a Sunday. Initially, Sabantuylar are arranged in villages, followed by Sabantuylar in rural districts, and the final ones taking place in major cities. The last Sabantuy is held in
Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan. A similar schedule is applied for Akatuy in Chuvashiaand Habantuy in Bashkortostan.
In the last few years the Russian government arrangeed federal Sabantuylar in Moscow. Many cities in
Europeand Asiathat have major Tatar diasporas, such as Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Tallinn, Prague, Istanbul, Kievand Tashkent, also hold Sabantuylar.
Today Sabantuy can be characterized as an international festival attracting many people of various ethnicities who participate in Sabanuylar, both in Tatarstan, and all over the world.
Sabantuy is a symbol of Tatarstan. This is why every Russian president visiting the republic takes part in the Sabantuy held in Kazan. During his visit to Kazan in the mid-1990s
Boris Yeltsinbecame the center of attention at a Sabantuy when he took part in a traditional competition in which the participants try to crash a clay pot while being blindfolded. Vladimir Putintook part in a humorous competition during which he tried to deep his face into a jar full of sour milk in order to fish out a coin without using his hands. [ru icon [http://2001.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2001/41n/n41n-s07.shtml] ]
*TES|Saban tuyı/Сабан туе
*en icon [http://www.ogoniok.com/archive/2002/4758-2/91-04-09/ Traditions of Sabantuy, "Ogonyok", photos]
*en icon [http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/sahabetdinov/sabantui_e/sabantui_photo/istory.htm History of Habantuy]
*en icon [http://gov.cap.ru/home/chuv_adm/album/2003/06_07/akatuy.htm Photos of Akatuy]
*ru icon [http://www.ogoniok.com/archive/2002/4754-2/90-04-09/ Традиции Сабантуя, "Огонёк"]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SDamzGwKZw Video on YouTube: Sabantui in Prague]
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