Fifty nine Particulars laid down for the Regulating things

Fifty nine Particulars laid down for the Regulating things

"Fifty nine Particulars laid down for the Regulating of things" is an English pamphlet that scholars attribute to publication in 1659 by George Fox, founding preacher of Quakerism. It calls for a long list of social reforms, and purports to have been sent to members of Parliament, which ignored it. [cite journal
last = Stumer
first = Andrew
title = The Sixteenth Century Apocalypse: the Fifth Monarchists
journal = Access: History
volume = 2
issue = 2
pages = 21–30
publisher = University of Queensland
date = summer 1999
url =
] The pamphlet was never reprinted, probably due toFact|date=January 2008 its politically assertive nature and the desire of post-Restoration Quakers to make themselves respectable and non-threatening to the established authorities, who ever since the execution of Charles I had been concerned about political revolution. Though long unknown to mass Quaker audiences, it was never a "lost" document, being known to some historians (Quaker and otherwise) throughout the period [cite journal
last = Maclear
first = James F.
title = Quakerism and the End of the Interregnum: A Chapter in the Domestication of Radical Puritanism
journal = Church History
volume = 19
issue = 4
pages = 240–270
publisher = American Society of Church History
date=December 1950
url =
doi = 10.2307/3161160
He calls the "Particulars" Fox's "most socially radical tract"
] [cite journal
last = Ingle
first = H. Larry
title = George Fox, Millenarian
journal = Albion
volume = 24
issue = 2
pages = 261–278
publisher = Appalachian State University (NC)
url =
doi = 10.2307/4050813
, page 276
] [Stumer 1999, note 38] until its republication in 2002, online and in print, by the Quaker Universalist Fellowship.

Ingle commentary

The introduction by H. Larry Ingle in the QUF edition associates George Fox with the "Good Old Cause" or "revolution," which had convulsed England since the early 1640s and resulted in the execution of the king in 1649. Many early Quakers were soldiers or veterans and longed to see the fruits of their military service preserved; Fox was only articulating the goals of many of these folk. The Introduction also suggests that Fox may have been a "manic-depressive" who retreated to a state of depression for 10 weeks after Parliament failed to consider the proposals and voted to restore the monarchy.

Consistency issues relative to Fox's other writings

While most of the 59 articles are compatible with Fox's views as recorded elsewhere, nowhere in the [ Journal's] many letters to government, or in his [ 410 Epistles,] did Fox request government to aid him by legislating his views, beyond hopes to:
# stop the persecution of Quakers,
# simplify laws so that every citizen could carry a copy of all laws of the country in their pocket,
# make the laws compatible with "the conscience of all men", and
# in the context of Parliament enacting legislation reviewing the credentials of priests, not to approve any who asked for money. To the contrary, Fox frequently wrote strong criticism against religious sects that sought the aid of governments to uphold their religious doctrines. All of the requests to government in the "Fifty nine Particulars," other than to relieve persecution of the Quakers, are not compatible with any of Fox's hundreds of published letters, pamphlets, and books; nor the publishings of countless other early Quakers, (See Discussion). Such incompatibilities only serve to underscoreFact|date=January 2008 the hope and desperation he no doubt experienced and the basic radicalism contained in the document. Examples of such restraint, despite his opposing the wearing of crosses, include never instructing Quakers to remove them from their Bibles, nor suggesting removal crosses from the flag, and his mentions, several times in his Journal, of using a market cross for posting notices).


External links

* [ Text of "Fifty nine particulars" on QUF website]
* [ QUF reprinting at] , webpage archived by

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