- Pama-Nyungan languages
Infobox Language family
Victoria River, Northern Territory
child2 = Pama-Maric
child3 = Nyawaygic
child4 = Waka-Kabic
child5 = Durubalic
child6 = Yuin-Kuric
child7 = Wiradhuric
child8 = Baagandji
child9 = Yotayotic
child10 = Kulinic
child11 = Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic
child12 = Karnic
child13 = "Pitta-Pitta"
child14 = "Arabana"
child15 = Yardli
child16 = Wagaya-Warluwaric
child17 = Kalkatungic
child18 = Arandic
child19 = Southwest (Nyungic)
child20 = "Muk Thang"
"Kala Lagaw Ya" (Mabuiag)
"Pallangahmiddang"The Pama-Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of
Indigenous Australian languages.
The Pama-Nyungan family was identified and named by
Kenneth Hale, in his work on the classification of Native Australian languages. Hale realised that of the Aboriginal Australian languages, one relatively closely-interrelated family had spread and proliferated over most of the continent, while approximately a dozen other families were concentrated along the North coast. The Pama-Nyungan family accounts for most of the geographic spread, most of the Aboriginal population, and the greatest number of languages.
The name "Pama-Nyungan" was derived from the names of two widely-separated groups, the Pama languages from the Northeast, and the Nyungan languages from the Southwest. The terms "pama" and "nyunga" are expressions meaning "man" in the languages from their respective regions.
The other language families indigenous to the continent of Australia are occasionally referred to, by exclusion, as
Non-Pama-Nyungan languages, though this is not a proper taxonomic term.
Although counting languages is not, in general, a well-defined operation, there are on the order of hundreds of Pama-Nyungan languages. Most of the Pama-Nyungan languages are spoken by small ethnic groups, with thousands of speakers or fewer. Many are considered
endangered languages, and many have recently become extinct.
Classification and Languages
According to Nicholas Evans at the Australian National University, the closest relative of Pama-Nyungan is the Garawa isolate, followed by the small Tankic family. He then proposes a more distant relationship with the
Gunwinyguan languagesin a macro-family he calls Macro-Pama-Nyungan.
Pama-Nyungan proper includes approximately 175 languages in 14 extant and numerous extinct branches.
Yolŋu Matha: Djinang, Dhangu, Dhuwal, Djinba, Ritharngu, Dhay'yi, Yan-nhangu
*"Kala Lagaw Ya" (Mabuiag)
**(See article for membership)
*Nyawaygic: Nyawaygi, Wulguru
*Waka-Kabic: Darambal, Bayali, Gureng Gureng, Gabi, Wuliwuli, Waga, Barunggam, Muringam
*Durubalic: Turrubal, Gowar
*Gumbaynggiric: Gumbaynggir, Yaygir
*Yuin-Kuric: Ugarapul, Yugambeh, Nganyaywana, Dyangadi, Worimi, Awabakal, Gudungura, Ngarigu, Thawa, Dyirringany, Dhurga, Dharawal, Darkinyung, Dharuk
*Baagandji: Bandjigali, Baagdandji
*Yotayotic: Yotayota, Yabula-Yabula
*Kulinic: Wemba Wemba, Nari Nari, Wathawurung, Kolakngat, Wuywurung, Bungandidj, Kuurn Kopan Noot, Chaap Wuurong
*Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic: Ngarinyeri, Ngayawung, Yuyu, Keramin, Yitha-Yitha
*Karnic (reduced): Ngamini, Yandruwandha, Diyari, Pirlatapa, Yarluyandi, Garuwali, Midhaga, ? Lhanima
*Yardli: Malyangaba, Yardliwarra
*Wagaya-Warluwaric: Wagaya, Yindjilandji, Warluwara
*Kalkatungic: Kalkatungu, Yalarnnga
*Arandic: Kaytetye, Alyawarre, Arrernte, Lower Arrernte, Andegerebinha, Anmatyerre
**(See article for membership)
Southwest Pama-Nyungan languages
*McConvell, Patrick and Nicholas Evans. (eds.) 1997. "Archaeology and Linguistics: Global Perspectives on Ancient Australia." Melbourne: Oxford University Press
*Evans, Nicholas. (eds.) 2003. "The Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages of Northern Australia. Comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region." Canberra: Pacific Linguistics
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