Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization

Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization


Statute of the Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committees

Chapter I. - Goal
"Art. 1. The goal of BMARC is to secure full political autonomy for the Macedonia and Adrianople regions."
"Art. 2. To achieve this goal they [the committees] shall raise the awareness of self-defense in the Bulgarian population in the regions mentioned in Art. 1., disseminate revolutionary ideas - printed or verbal, and prepare and carry on a general uprising."

Chapter II. - Structure and Organization
"Art. 3. A member of BMARC can be any Bulgarian, independent of gender,..."]
250px|right|thumb|Excerpt from the statute of SMARO, 1902 (in Bulgarian)">

Statute of the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization

Chapter I. - Goal
"Art. 1. The Secret Macedonian-Adrianople organization has the goal of uniting all the disgruntled elements in Macedonia and the Adrianople region, regardless of their nationality, to win, through a revolution, a full political autonomy for these two regions."
"Art. 2. To achieve this goal the organization fights to throw over the chauvinist propagandas and nationalist quarrels that are splintering and discouraging the Macedonian and Adrianople populations in his struggle against the common enemy; acts to bring in a revolutionary spirit and consciousness among the population, and uses all the means and efforts for the forthcoming and timely armament of the population with all that is needed for a general and universal uprising."

Chapter II. - Structure and Organization
"Art. 3. The Secret Macedonon-Adrianoplitan revolutionary organization consists of local revolutionary organizations (bands) consisting of the members of local towns or villages."
"Art. 4. A member of SMARO can be any Macedonian, or Adrianoplitan..."

250px|right|thumb|Excerpt from the statute of IMARO, 1906 (in Bulgarian)">

Statute of Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (amended at the general congress in 1906)

Chapter I. - Goal
"Art. 1. - The goal of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization is to unite any and all dissatisfied elements in Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilyaet without regard to their nationality so that political autonomy can be gained for these two regions."
"Art. 2. The Organization opposes any other country's intensions to divide and conquer these two regions."

Chapter II. - Means
"Art. 3. To achieve this goal, the Organization aims to abolish chauvinist propaganda and nationalistic disputes, which split and weaken...

The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Bulgarian: "Vatreshna Makedonska Revoliucionna Organizacia", Вътрешна македонска революционна организация, ВМРО, in Macedonian: "Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija", VMRO, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, ВМРО), commonly known in English as IMRO, was the name of a revolutionary political organization in the Macedonia and Thrace regions of the Ottoman Empire, as well as in Bulgaria, and after 1913 in the Macedonian regions of Greece and Serbia (later Yugoslavia). The organization has changed its name on several occasions ("see below").

In Bulgaria a right-wing party carrying the prefix "VMRO" was established in the 1990s, while in the Republic of Macedonia right-wing party was established with the prefix "VMRO-DPMNE".

Ottoman era

Origins and goals

The organization was founded in 1893 in Ottoman Thessaloniki by a "small band of anti-Ottoman Macedono-Bulgarian revolutionaries. [ The Balkans. From Constantinople to Communism. Dennis P Hupchik, page 299 ] "They considered Macedonia an indivisible territory and all of its inhabitants "Macedonians", no matter their religion or ethnicity". The organisation was a secret revolutionary society operating in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the goal of liberating and uniting Macedonia with Bulgaria. They shortly after realized that ideal was too similar to San Stefano Bulgaria and politically too challinging and changed course an strive for an autonomous, free and independent state. The Macedonian-Revolutionary-Organization was founded by Hristo Tatarchev, Dame Gruev, Petar Pop-Arsov, Andon Dimitrov, Hristo Batandzhiev and Ivan Hadzhinikolov. Its first name after Hristo Tatarchev's "Memoirs" was Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (MRO). Ivan Hadzhinikolov in his memoirs underlines the five basic principles of the MRO's foundation:

#The revolutionary organization should be established within Macedonia and should act there, so that the Greeks and Serbs couldn't label it as a tool of the Bulgarian government.
#Its founders should be locals and living in Macedonia.
#The political motto of the organization should be the autonomy of Macedonia.
#The organization should be secret and independent, without any links with the governments of the liberated neighborly states, and
#From the Macedonian emigration in Bulgaria and the Bulgarian society, only moral and material help for the struggle of the Macedonian revolutionaries should be required.|ref|Hadzhinikolov

According to Dr. Hristo Tatarchev:

In Dame Gruev's memoirs, the MRO's goals are stated as follows:

Based on historical evidencesref|gpetrovref|yavorov1, it is believed by Bulgarian and Western historiansref|Perryref|adanirref|pandev1ref|pandev2ref|pandev3 that in 1896 or 1897 this first and probably unofficial name was changed to Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committees (BMARC); and the organisation existed under this name until 1902 when it changed it to Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (SMARO). While some Macedonian historiansref|katardzhievref|bitoski acknowledge the existence of the name "ВMARC" in the very early period of the Organisation, in the Republic of Macedonia it is generally assumed that in the 1896–1902 period the name of the organization was "SMARO". Both sides lack conclusive documentary evidence, as neither of these names appears in the IMRO documents but is known from undated printed or handwritten statutes. However, Macedonian historians point to the fact that a copy of the "SMARO" statute is kept in London under the year of 1898.ref|makdoc It is not disputed that the organization changed its name to Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO) in 1905 and it is under this name referred to in Bulgarian historiography.ref|bghist After disbanding itself during the Bulgarian liberation of Macedonia (1915–1918), the organization was revived in 1920 under the name Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), under which it is generally known today.

The stated goal of the original Committee was to unite all elements dissatisfied with the Ottoman oppression in Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilayet, eventually obtaining political autonomy for the two regions. In this task the organisation hoped to enlist the support of the local Vlachs, Greeks and even Turks. Efforts were concentrated on moral propaganda and the prospect of rebellion and terrorist actions seemed distant. The organization developed quickly: only in a matter of a few years, the Committee had managed to establish a wide network of local organisations across Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilayet. These usually centered around the schools of the Bulgarian Exarchate and had as leaders local or Bulgarian-born teachers.ref|Banac1

Although IMRO was predominantly ethnic Bulgarian since its establishment, it favoured the idea of an autonomous Macedonia and preferred to disassociate itself from official Bulgarian policy and was not under government control. Its founding leaders believed that an autonomous movement was more likely to find favour with the Great Powers than one which was a tool of the Bulgarian government. ref|Banac2 In the words of British contemporary observer Henry Brailsford:

What is more, some of its younger leaders espoused radical socialist and anarchist ideas and saw their goal as the establishment of a new form of government rather than unification with Bulgaria. Eventually these considerations led the organisation to change its statute and accept as members not only Bulgarians but all Macedonians and Odrinians regardless of ethnicity or creed. In reality, however, besides some Vlach members, its membership remained overwhelmingly Bulgarian Exarchist.ref|n4

In regards to the socialist and cosmoplitan ideas within the revolutionary movement, the American Albert Sonnichsen says:

It is claimed by contemporary historians that the right wing supporters within the IMRO were probably much more likely to see unification with Bulgaria as a natural final outcome of Macedonian autonomy. Among other documents, they cite as an expression of this understanding the official letter that Dame Gruev and Boris Sarafov, leaders of the headquarters of the Second Macedonian-Adrianople revolutionary district during Ilinden uprising, wrote to the Bulgarian government:

Krste Misirkov, a highly controversial writer who alternated between pan-Bulgarian and pan-Macedonian nationalism throughout his lifetime described the IMARO in his pro-Macedonian publication "On Macedonian Matters" written in the wake of the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie uprising as Bulgarian officials working for Bulgarian interests and linked in name, and in church and school matters, to the people of Bulgaria, their country and their interestsref|Mak. Misirkov wrote:

Armed struggle against the Ottomans

The initial period of idealism for IMARO ended, however, with the Vinitsa Affair and the discovery by the Ottoman police of a secret depot of ammunition near the Bulgarian border in 1897. The wide-scale repressions against the activists of the Committee led to its transformation into a militant guerilla organization, which engaged into attacks against Ottoman officials and punitive actions against suspected traitors. The guerilla groups of IMARO, known as "chetas" (чети) later (after 1903) also waged a war against the pro-Serbian and pro-Greek armed groups during the Greek Struggle for Macedonia.

IMARO's leadership of the revolutionary movement was challenged by two other factions: the Supreme Macedono-Adrianopolitan Committee in Sofia ("Vurhoven мakedono-оdrinski komitet"- Върховен македоно-одрински комитет) and a smaller group of Bulgarian conservatives in Salonica (Thessalonica). The latter was incorporated in IMARO by 1902 but its members were to exert a significant influence on the organization. They were to push for the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising and later became the core of IMRO right-wing faction. The former organisation became known earlier than IMRO, after the 1895 raids into Turkish territory it organised from Bulgaria. Its founders were Macedonian immigrants in Bulgaria as well as Bulgarian army officers. They became known as the "supremists" or "externals" since they were based outside of Macedonia. The supremists resorted to terrorism against the Ottomans in the hope of provoking a war and thus Bulgarian annexation of Macedonia. For a time in the late 1890s IMARO leaders managed to gain control of the Supreme Committee but it soon split into two factions: one loyal to the IMARO and one led by some officers close to the Bulgarian prince. The second one staged an ill-fated uprising in Eastern Macedonia in 1902, where they were opposed militarily by local IMARO bands led by Yane Sandanski and Hristo Chernopeev, who were later to become the leaders of the IMARO left wing. ref|n6

In Spring 1903, a group by young anarhysts connected with IMARO from the "Gemidzhii Circle" - graduates from the Bulgarian secondary school in Thessaloniki launched a campaign of terror bombing with the aim to attract the attention of the Great Powers to Ottoman oppression in Macedonia and Eastern Thrace.

In the same time the undisputed leader of the organization, Gotse Delchev, was killed in a skirmish with Turkish forces. Although Delchev had opposed the ideas for an uprising as premature, he finally had no choice but agree to that course of action but at least managed to delay its start from may to August. After his death in 1903 IMARO organised the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans in Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilayet, which after the initial successes including the forming of the Krushevo Republic, was crushed with much loss of life.

After Ilinden

The failure of the 1903 insurrection resulted in the eventual split of the IMARO into a left-wing (federalist) faction in the Seres and Strumica districts and a right-wing faction (centralists) in the Salonica, Monastir, and Uskub (present-day Skopje) districts. The left-wing faction opposed Bulgarian nationalism and advocated the creation of a Balkan Socialist Federation with equality for all subjects and nationalities. The Supreme Committee was disbanded in 1905 but the centralist faction of the IMORO drifted more and more towards Bulgarian nationalism as its regions became increasingly exposed to the incursions of Serb and Greek armed bands, which started infiltrating Macedonia after 1903. The years 1905-1907 saw lots of violent fighting between IMORO and Turkish forces as well as between VMORO and Greek and Serb detachments. Meanwhile the split between the two factions became final when in 1907 Todor Panitza killed the right-wing activists Boris Sarafov and Ivan Garvanov.ref|n5

After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 both factions laid down their arms and joined the legal struggle. The federalist wing welcomed in the revolution of 1908 and later joined mainstream political life as the People's Federative Party (Bulgarian section). Some of its leaders like Sandanski and Chernopeev participated in the march on Istanbul to depose the counter-revolutionaries. The former centralists formed the Bulgarian Constitutional Clubs and like the PFP participated in Ottoman elections. Soon, however, the Young Turk regime turned increasingly nationalist and sought to suppress the national aspirations of the variopus minorities in Macedonia and Thrace. This prompted most right-wing and some left-wing IMARO leaders to resume the armed fight in 1909.ref|carnegie1 In 1911 a new Central Committee of IMARO was formed consisting of Todor Alexandrov, Hristo Chernopeev and Petar Chaulev. Its aim was to restore unity to the Organisation and direct the new armed struggle against the Turks more efficiently. After Chernopeev was killed in action in 1915 as a Bulgarian officer in World War I, he was replaced by the former supremist leader General Alexander Protogerov.

During the Balkan Wars former IMARO leaders of both the left and the right joined the Macedono-Odrinian Volunteers and fought with the Bulgarian Army. Others like Sandanski with their bands assisted the Bulgarian army with its advance and still others penetrated as far as the region of Kastoria southwestern Macedonia.ref|Gramos In the Second Balkan War IMORO bands fought the Greeks and Serbs behind the front lines but were subsequently routed and driven out. Notably, Petar Chaulev was one of the leaders of the Ohrid Uprising in 1913 organised jointly by IMORO and the Albanians of Western Macedonia.

The result of the Balkan Wars was that the Macedonian region and Adrianople Thrace was partitioned between Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia and the Ottoman Empire (the new state of Yugoslavia was created as after 1918 and started its existence as Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenians "SHS"), with Bulgaria getting the smallest share. In 1913 the whole Bulgarian population from the Ottoman part of Adrianople Thrace was forcibly expelled to Bulgariaref|Miletich1. IMARO, now led by Todor Aleksandrov, maintained its existence in Bulgaria, where it played a role in politics by playing upon Bulgarian irredentism and urging a renewed war to liberate Macedonia. This was one factor in Bulgaria allying itself with Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I. During the First World War in Macedonia (1915-1918) the organization supported Bulgarian army and joined to Bulgarian war-time authorities when they took control over Vardar Macedonia temporarily until the end of war. In this period the autonomism as political tactics was abandoned from all internal IMARO streams and all of them shared annexationist positions, supporting eventual incorporation of Macedonia in Bulgaria.ref|bazhdarov IMARO organised the Valandovo action of 1915, which was an attack on a large Serbian force. Bulgarian army, supported by the organization's forces, was successful in the first stages of this conflict, managed to drive out the Serbian forces from Vardar Macedonia and came into positions on the line of the pre-war Greek-Serbian border, which was stabilized as a firm front until end of 1918.

Interwar period

The post-war Treaty of Neuilly again denied Bulgaria what it felt was its share of Macedonia and Thrace. After this moment the combined Macedonian-Adrianopolitan revolutionary movement separated into two detached organizations: Internal Thracian Revolutionary Organisation ("bulg." Вътрешна тракийска революционна организация) and Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation.ref|No19Letter ITRO was a revolutionary organisation active in the Greek regions of Thrace and Macedonia to the river Strymon and Rhodope Mountains between 1922 and 1934. The reason for the establishment of ITRO was the transfer of the region from Bulgaria to Greece in May 1920. ITRO proclaimed its goal as the "unification of all the disgruntled elements in Thrace regardless of their nationality", and to win full political independence for the region. Later IMRO created as a satellite organisation the Internal Western Outland Revolutionary Organisation ("bulg." Вътрешна западнопокрайненска революционна организация), which operated in the areas of Tsaribrod and Bosilegrad, ceded to Yugoslavia.

IMRO began sending armed bands called "cheti" into Greek and Yugoslav Macedonia and Thrace to assassinate officials and stir up the spirit of the oppressed population. In 1923 IMRO agents assassinated Bulgarian Prime Minister Aleksandar Stamboliyski, who favoured a détente with Greece and Yugoslavia, so that Bulgaria could concentrate on its internal problems. IMRO had "de facto" full control of Pirin Macedonia (the Petrich District of the time) and acted as a "state within a state", which it used as a base for hit and run attacks against Yugoslavia with the unofficial support of the right-wing Bulgarian government and later Fascist Italy. Because of this, contemporary observers described the Yugoslav-Bulgarian frontier as the most fortified in Europe. In 1923 and 1924 during the apogee of interwar military activity according to IMRO statistics in the region of Yugoslav (Vardar) Macedonia operated 53 "chetas" (armed bands), 36 of which penetrated from Bulgaria, 12 were local and 5 entered from Albania. The aggregate membership of the bands was 3245 "komitas" (guerilla rebels) led by 79 "voivodas" (commanders), 54 subcommanders, 41 secretaries and 193 couriers. 119 fights and 73 terroristic acts were documented. Serbian casualties were 304 army and gendarmery officers, soldiers and paramilitary fighters, more than 1300 were wounded. IMRO lost 68 "voivodas" and "komitas", hundreds were wounded. In the region of Greek (Aegean) Macedonia 24 chetas and 10 local reconnaissance detachments were active. The aggregate membership of the bands was 380 "komitas" led by 18 "voivodas", 22 subcommanders, 11 secretaries and 25 couriers. 42 battles and 27 terrorist acts were performed. Greek casualties were 83 army officers, soldiers and paramilitary fighters, over 230 were wounded. IMRO lost 22 "voivodas" and "komitas", 48 were wounded. Thousands of locals were repressed by the Yugoslav and Greek authorities on suspicions of contacts with the revolutionary movement.ref|MNI1 The population in Pirin Macedonia was organized in a mass people's home guard. This militia was the only force, which resisted to the Greek army when general Pangalos launched a military campaign against Petrich District in 1925, speculatively called the War of the Stray Dog. In 1934 the Bulgarian army confiscated 10,938 rifles, 637 pistols, 47 machine-guns, 7 mortars and 701,388 cartridges only in the Petrich and Kyustendil Districts.ref|MNI2

In 1924 IMRO entered negotiations with the Comintern about collaboration between the communists and the Macedonian movement and the creation of a united Macedonian movement. The idea for a new unified organization was supported by the Soviet Union, which saw a chance for using this well developed revolutionary movement to spread revolution in the Balkans and destabilize the Balkan monarchies. Alexandrov defended IMRO's independence and refused to concede on practically all points requested by the Communists. No agreement was reached besides a paper "Manifesto" (the so-called May Manifesto of 6 May 1924), in which the objectives of the unified Macedonian liberation movement were presented: independence and unification of partitioned Macedonia, fighting all the neighbouring Balkan monarchies, forming a Balkan Communist Federation and cooperation with the Soviet Union.ref|Grishina1

Failing to secure Alexandrov's cooperation, the Comintern decided to discredit him and published the contents of the Manifesto on 28 July 1924 in the "Balkan Federation" newspaper. VMRO's leaders Todor Aleksandrov and Aleksandar Protogerov promptly denied through the Bulgarian press that they've ever signed any agreements, claiming that the May Manifesto was a communist forgery.ref|Grishina2

Shortly after, Todor Alexandrov was assassinated in unclear circumstances and IMRO came under the leadership of Ivan Mihailov, who became a powerful figure in Bulgarian politics. While IMRO's leadership was quick to ascribe Alexandrov's murder to the communists and even quicker to organise a revenge action against the immediate perpetrators, there is some doubt that Mihailov himself might have been responsible for the murder. Some Bulgarian and Macedonian historians like Zoran Todorovski speculate that it might have been the circle around Mihailov who organised the assassination on inspiration by the Bulgarian government, which was afraid of united IMRO-Communist action against it. However, neither version is corroborated by conclusive historical evidence. The result of the murder was further strife within the organisation and several high-profile murders, including that of Petar Chaulev (who led the Ohrid uprising in 1913 against the Serbian occupation) in Milan and ultimately Protogetov himself.ref|Grishina3

In this interwar period IMRO led by Aleksandrov and later by Mihailov took actions against the former left-wing assassinating several former members of IMORO's Sandanist wing, who meanwhile had gravitated towards the Bulgarian Communist Party. Gjorche Petrov was killed in Sofia in 1922, Todor Panitsa (who previously killed the right-wing oriented Boris Sarafov and Ivan Garvanov) was assassinated in Vienna in 1924 by Mihailov's future wife Mencha Karnichiu. Dimo Hadjidimov, Georgi Skrizhovski, Alexander Bujnov, Chudomir Kantardjiev and many others were killed in the events on 1925.

Meanwhile, the left-wing later did form the new organisation based on the principles previously presented in the May Manifesto. The new organisation which was an opponent to Mihailov's IMRO was called IMRO (United). It was founded in 1925 in Vienna. However, it did not have real popular support and remained based abroad with no revolutionary activities in Macedonia. It remained active until 1936 and was funded by and closely linked to the Comintern and the Balkan Communist Federation.ref|Banac3

Mihailov's group of young IMRO cadres soon got into conflict with the older guard of the organisation. The latter were in favour of the old tactic of incursions by armed bands, whereas the former favoured more flexible tactics with smaller terrorist groups carrying selective assassinations. The conflict grew into a leadership struggle and Mihailov soon in turn ordered the assassination in 1928 of a rival leader, General Aleksandar Protogerov, which sparked a fratricidal war between "Mihailovists" and "Protogerovists". The less numerous Protogerovists soon became allied with Yugoslavia and certain Bulgarian military circles with fascist leanings and who favoured rapprochement with Yugoslavia.

The policy of assassionations was effective in making Serbian rule in Vardar Macedonia feel insecure but in turn provoked brutal reprisals on the local peasant population. Having lost a lot of popular support in Vardar Macedonia due to his policies, Mihailov favoured the "internationalization" of the Macedonian question.
Yugoslavian king Alexander.
He established close links with the Croatian Ustashi and Italy. Numerous assassinations were carried out by IMRO agents in many countries, the majority in Yugoslavia. The most spectacular of these was the assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and the French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou in Marseille in 1934 in collaboration with the Croatian Ustashi. The killing was carried out by the VMRO assassin Vlado Chernozemski and happened after the suppression of IMRO following the 19 May 1934 military coup in Bulgaria.

IMRO's constant fratricidal killings and assassinations abroad provoked some within Bulgarian military after the coup of 19 May 1934 to take control and break the power of the organization, which had come to be seen as a gangster organization inside Bulgaria and a band of assassins outside it. In 1934 Mihailov was forced to escape to Turkey. He ordered to his supporters not to resist to the Bulgarian army and to accept the disarmament peacefully, thus avoiding fratricides, destabilization of Bulgaria, civil war or external invasion.ref|MNI3 Many inhabitants of Pirin Macedonia met this disbandment with satisfaction because it was perceived as relief from an unlawful and quite often brutal parallel authority. IMRO kept its organization alive in exile in various countries, but ceased to be an active force in Macedonian politics except for brief moments during Word War II.

Second World War period

As the Bulgarian army entered Yugoslav Vardar Macedonia in 1941, it was greeted by most of the population as liberators and former IMRO members were active in organising Bulgarian Action Committees charged with taking over the local authorities. Some former IMRO (United) members such as Metodi Shatorov, who were members of the Yugoslav Communist Party, also refused to define the Bulgarian forces as occupiersref|PK0 (contrary to instructions from Belgrade) and called for the incorporation of the local Macedonian Communist organisations within the Bulgarian Communist Party. This policy changed towards 1943 with the arrival of the Montenegrin Serb Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo, who began in earnest to organise armed resistance to the Bulgarian occupation. Many former IMRO members assisted the authorities in fighting Tempo's partizans. IMRO was also active in organising Bulgarian militias in Greek Macedonia against Greek nationalist and communist bands. With the help of Mihailov and Macedonian emigres in Sofia, several pro-German armed detachments "Ohrana" were organised in the Kastoria, Florina and Edessa districts. These were led by Bulgarian officers originally from Greek Macedonia - Andon Kalchev and Georgi Dimchev.ref|15 It was apparent that Mihailov had broader plans which envisaged the creation of an Macedonian state under a German control. It was also anticipated that the IMRO volunteers would form the core of the armed forces of a future Independent Macedonia in addition to providing administration and education in the Florina, Kastoria and Edessa districts.

On the 2nd of August 1944 (what in the F Y Republic of Macedonia is referred to as the Second Ilinden) in the St. Prohor Pčinjski monastery at the Antifascist assembly of the national liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM) with Panko Brashnarov (the former IMRO revolutionary from the Ilinden period and the IMRO United) as a first speaker, the modern Macedonian state was officially proclaimed, as a federal state within Tito's Yugoslavia, receiving recognition from the Allies.

After the declaration of war by Bulgaria on Germany, in September 1944 Mihailov arrived in German occupied Skopje, where the Germans hoped that he could form a pro - German Macedonian state with their support. Seeing that the war is lost to Germany and to avoid further bloodshed, he refused. Mihailov eventually ended up in Rome where he published numerous articles, books and pamphlets on the Macedonian Question.ref|PK1

Post-war period

Members of the IMRO (United) participated in the forming of Republic of Macedonia as a federal state of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and some of the leading members entered the government: Dimitar Vlahov, Panko Brashnarov, Pavel Shatev (the latter was the last surviving member of "Gemidzhii" or "Varkarides" in Greek, the group that executed the Thessaloniki bombings of 1903). However, they were quickly ousted by cadres loyal to the Yugoslav Communist Party in Belgrade, who had has pro-Serbian leanings before the war. ref|PK2 According to Macedonian historian Ivan Katardjiev such Macedonian activists came from IMRO (United) and the Bulgarian Communist Party never managed to get rid of their pro-Bulgarian bias and on many issues opposed the Serbian-educated leaders, who held most of the political power. Pavel Shatev went as far as to send a petition to the Bulgarian legation in Belgrade protesting the anti-Bulgarian policies of the Yugoslav leadership and the Serbianisation of the Bulgarian language.ref|Katardjiev

From the start, the Yugoslav authorities organised frequent purges and trials of Macedonian communists and non-party people charged with autonomist deviation. Many of the left-wing IMRO government officials, including Pavel Shatev and Panko Brashnarov, were purged from their positions too, then isolated, arrested, imprisoned or executed by the Yugoslav federal authorities on various (in many cases fabricated) charges including: pro-Bulgarian leanings, demands for greater or complete independence of Yugoslav Macedonia, collaboration with the Cominform after the Tito-Stalin split in 1948, forming of conspirative political groups or organisations, demands for greater democracy, etc. One of the victims of these campaigns was Metodija Andonov Cento, a wartime partisan leader and president of ASNOM, who was convinced of having worked for a "completely independent Macedonia" as an IMRO member. A survivor among the communists associated with the idea of Macedonian autonomy was Dimitar Vlahov, who was used "solely for window dressing".ref|PK3

On the other hand, former Mihailovists were also persecuted by the Belgrade-controlled authorities on accusations of collaboration with the Bulgarian occupation, Bulgarian nationalism, anti-communist and anti-Yugoslav activities, etc. Notable victims included Spiro Kitinchev, mayor of Skopje, Ilija Kocarev, mayor of Ohrid and Georgi Karev, the mayor of Krushevo during the Bulgarian occupation and brother of Ilinden revolutionary Nikola Karev. ref|Brown Another IMRO activist, Sterio Guli, son of Pitu Guli, reportedly shot himself upon the arrival of Tito's partisans in Krushevo in despair over what he saw as a second period of Serbian dominance in Macedonia.

IMRO's supporters in Bulgarian Pirin Macedonia fared no better. With the help of some former Protogerovists, their main activists were hunted by the Communist police and many of them killed or imprisoned. Because some IMRO supporters openly opposed the then official policy of Communist Bulgaria to promote Macedonian ethnic consciousness in Pirin Macedonia they were repressed or exiled to the interior of Bulgaria.

Despite the fact that Yugoslav Macedonian historical scholarship reluctantly acknowledged the Bulgarian ethnic self-identification of the Ilinden IMRO leaders, they were adopted in the national pantheon of Yugoslav Macedonia as ethnic Macedonians. Official Yugoslav historiography asserted a continuity between the Ilinden of 1903 and the Ilinden of ASNOM in 1944 ignoring the fact that the first one included the uprising in the Adrianople part of Thrace region as well. The names of the IMRO revolutionaries Gotse Delchev, Pitu Guli, Dame Gruev and Yane Sandanski were included in the lyrics of the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia Denes nad Makedonija ("Today over Macedonia").


Republic of Macedonia

With both Bulgaria and Yugoslavia under Communist rule, there was no scope for IMRO's revival. After the death of Josip Broz Tito in 1980 Yugoslavia began to disintegrate and democratic politics in Macedonia revived. Many exiles returned to Macedonia from abroad, and a new generation of young Macedonian intellectuals rediscovered the history of Macedonian nationalism. In these circumstances it was not surprising that the IMRO name was revived. A new IMRO was founded on 17 June 1990 in Skopje. Although IMRO claims a line descent from the old IMRO, there is no real connection between the old IMRO and the new one.

The Republic of Macedonia became independent on 8th of September 1991, and IMRO emerged as the leading nationalist party. The country's second presidential elections in 1994, however, were won by a moderate former Communist Kiro Gligorov. IMRO's appeal to Macedonian nationalism was helped by the refusal of Greece to recognize the new state. But IMRO was kept out of power until 1998 by the combination of President Gligorov and Prime Minister Branko Crvenkovski of the Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (SDSM).

By the later 1990s the main issue in Macedonian politics was relations with the large Albanian minority, and in 1998 IMRO came to power under Ljubco Georgievski in coalition with the radical Democratic Party of the Albanians led by Arben Xhaferi. In 1999 the IMRO candidate Boris Trajkovski was elected President under disputed circumstances, completing IMRO's takeover. Once in office Trajkovski pursued a more moderate policy. In 2002 Georgievski's government was defeated at legislative elections. In 2004 Trajkovski was killed in a plane crash and Branko Crvenkovski was elected President, defeating the IMRO candidate.

The party called the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (In Macedonian: "Vnatrešno-Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija-Demokratska Partija za Makedonsko Narodno Edinstvo", or VMRO-DPMNE) describes itself as a Christian Democratic party which supports the admission of Macedonia to NATO and the European Union.

After series of internal conflicts Georgievski was replaced by Nikola Gruevski. Subsequently Georgievski's followers dissociated from VMRO-DPMNE and in 2004 founded separate new party, called Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party (In Macedonian: "Vnatrešno-Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija-Narodna Partija", or VMRO-NP). Meanwhile other smaller parts from VMRO-DPMNE split from the core and formed different parties using historical abbreviation VMRO in their names - VMRO-DOM, VMRO-Vistinska, VMRO-DP, etc.

VMRO-DPMNE returned into power after gaining over 32% in the July 5 2006 parliamentary elections. With 45 of 120 seats, the party formed coalition with five other parties, which successfully elected new government with 68 votes. Nikola Gruevski became prime-minister. Ljubco Georgievski's VMRO-NP remained in opposition with 6 deputies.


A distinct IMRO organization was also revived in Bulgaria after 1989 first under the name VMRO-SMD (ВМРО-СМД - Съюз на македонските дружества) and then simply VMRO (ВМРО) as a cultural organisation.

In 1996 the leaders of the organisation registered it as a political party in Bulgaria under the name IMRO - Bulgarian National Movement (ВМРО - Българско национално движение). This group continues to maintain that Slav Macedonians are in fact Bulgarians. The group is not among the major parties but it was the only significant right-wing organization in Bulgarian politics until the unexpected success of extremist National Union Attack at the parliamentary elections on 25 June 2005.

At the very same election, the Bulgarian IMRO won 5.7% of the popular vote and 13 out of 240 seats in the parliament together with its partners from Bulgarian People's Union, the Bulgarian Agrarian People's Union-People's Union and the Union of Free Democrats. Thus, IMRO has a total of 5 MPs in the current Bulgarian parliament, including one from the traditional base of the movement in Blagoevgrad Province (Pirin Macedonia).

References and notes

# "Illustration Ilinden", Sofia, 1936, b. I, p. 4-5
# "The first central committee of IMRO. Memoirs of d-r Hristo Tatarchev", Materials for the Macedonian liberation movement, book IX (series of the Macedonian scientific institute of IMRO, led by Bulgarian academician prof. Lyubomir Miletich), Sofia, 1928, p. 102 , поредица "Материяли за историята на македонското освободително движение" на Македонския научен институт на ВМРО, воден от българския академик проф. Любомир Милетич, книга IX, София, 1928; contemporary Macedonian translation: [ Tatarchev] ).
# Materials about the History of the Macedonian Liberation Movement, Book V, Memoirs of Damjan Gruev, Boris Sarafov and Ivan Garvanov, Sofia 1927, pp. 8 - 11; the original in Bulgarian.
# Gjorche Petrov in his memoirs speaking about the Salonica congress of 1896 writes: "There was pointed out the need for a statute and official rules. Until then we had a very short list of rules in force, drafted by Dame (with the oath). That little list was unsystematic, lytographed. It was decided to come up with a full list of rules, a statute. When I came to Sofia, I compiled it there (with Delchev).".
#Пейо Яворов, "Събрани съчинения", Том втори, "Гоце Делчев", Издателство "Български писател", София, 1977, стр. 27: "Тоя събор утвърждава един устав на революционната организация, почти копие на стария български, твърде оригинален с положението, че само еkзархисти българи се приемат за членове на комитетите."bg icon In English: Peyo Yavorov, "Complete Works", Volume 2, biography "Gotse Delchev", Publishing house "Bulgarian writer", Sofia, 1977, p. 27: "This meeting sanctioned a statute of the revolutionary organisation, almost a copy of the old Bulgarian, rather original because of the condition that only Bulgarians Exarchists would be admitted to membership in the committees."
#Пандев, К. "Устави и правилници на ВМОРО преди Илинденско-Преображенското въстание", "Исторически преглед", 1969, кн. I, стр. 68—80. bg icon
# Пандев, К. "Устави и правилници на ВМОРО преди Илинденско-Преображенското въстание", "Извeстия на Института за история", т. 21, 1970, стр. 250-257. bg icon
# Константин Пандев, "Национално-освободителното движение в Македония и Одринско", София, 1979, с. 129-130. (Konstantin Pandev, "The National Liberation Movement in Macedonia and the Odrin Region", Sofia 1979, pp. 129-130.)
# Duncan Perry "The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Liberation Movements, 1893-1903 ", Durham, Duke University Press, 1988. pp. 40-41, 210 n. 10.
# Fikret Adanir, "Die Makedonische Frage: ihre entestehung und etwicklung bis 1908.", Wiessbaden 1979, p. 112.
# Академик Иван Катарџиев, "Верувам во националниот имунитет на македонецот", интервjу, "Форум". (Academician Ivan Katardzhiev, "I believe in Macedonian national immunity", interview, "Forum" magazine.)
# Битоски, Крсте, сп. "Македонско Време", Скопје - март 1997
# Public Record Office - Foreign Office 78/4951 Turkey (Bulgaria). From Elliot. 1898; УСТАВ НА ТМОРО. S. 1. punlished in "Документи за борбата на македонскиот народ за самостојност и за национална држава", Скопје, Универзитет "Кирил и Методиј":Факултет за филозофско-историски науки, 1981, page 331 - 333.
# Prior to the publication of Pandev's article Bulgarian historiography seemed to agree that the name SMARO dates back to 1896/7 (e.g. Silyanov, 1933, vol. 1, p. 46). Contemporary Macedonian historians accuse Pandev of a nationalist bias.
# Ivo Banac, "The Macedoine" (pp. 307-328 in of "The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics", Cornell University Press, 1984)
# Ivo Banac, "The Macedoine" (pp. 307-328 in of "The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics", Cornell University Press, 1984)
# H. N. Brailsford , MACEDONIA: ITS RACES AND THEIR FUTURE, Methuen & Co., London, 1906.
# Хр. Силянов , “Освободителнитe борби на Македония, том I”, изд. на Илинденската Орг., София, 1933; (Hristo Silyanov, "The Liberational Struggles of Macedonia", vol. 1, The Ilinden Organisation, Sofia, 1933.)
# Albert Sonnichsen: Confessions of a Macedonian Bandit: A Californian in the Balkan Wars, Narrative Press, ISBN 1-58976-237-1.
# A letter from the headquarters of the Second Macedonian-Adrianople revolutionary district, centered around Monastir (Bitola) (present-day Bitola), represented by Dame Gruev and Boris Sarafov, to Bulgarian government from 9. IX. 1903. Macedonian translation.
# Krste Misirkov, "On Macedonian Matters", Sofia, 1933 []
# Krste Misirkov, "On Macedonian Matters", Sofia, 1933 []
# Георги Баждаров, "Моите спомени", издание на Институт "България - Македония", София, 2001, стр. 78-81. (In Bulgarian, In English: Georgi Bazhdarov, "My memoirs", published by the Institute "Bulgaria-Macedonia", Sofia, 2001, pp. 78-81.)
# "ДВИЖЕНИЕТО ОТСАМЪ ВАРДАРА И БОРБАТА СЪ ВЪРХОВИСТИТE по спомени на Яне Сандански, Черньо Пeевъ, Сава Михайловъ, Хр. Куслевъ, Ив. Анастасовъ Гърчето, Петъръ Хр. Юруковъ и Никола Пушкаровъ", съобщава Л. Милетичъ (София, Печатница П. Глушковъ, 1927); Материяли за историята на македонското освободително движение. Издава „Македонскиятъ Наученъ Институтъ". Книга VII. (L. Miletich, ed. "Materials on the History of the Macedonian Liberation Movement", Macedonian Scientific Institute, Sofia, 1927 - "The Movement on this Side of the Vardar and the Struggle with the Supremists according to the memories of Jane Sandanski, Chernjo Peev, Sava Mihajlov, Hr. Kuslev, Iv. Anastasov - Grcheto, Petar Hr. Jurukov and Nikola Pushkarov")
# Хр. Силянов , “Освободителнитe борби на Македония, том II”, изд. на Илинденската Орг., София, 1933; Silyanov] (Hristo Silyanov, "The Liberational Struggles of Macedonia", vol. 2, The Ilinden Organisation, Sofia, 1933.)
# Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, "REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION To Inquire into the causes and Conduct OF THE BALKAN WARS", PUBLISHED BY THE ENDOWMENT WASHINGTON, D.C. 1914.
# Хр. Силянов "От Витоша до Грамос, Походът на една чета през Освободителната война - 1912 г.", Издание на Костурското благотворително братство, София, 1920. From Vitosha to Gramos] (Hr. Silyanov, "From Vitosha to Gramos", published by the Kostur charitable society, Sofia, 1920)
# Любомиръ Милетичъ, "Разорението на тракийските българи презъ 1913 година", Българска Академия на Науките, София, Държавна Печатница 1918 г. Miletich] (L. Miletich, "The Destruction of Thracian Bulgarians in 1913", Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1918)
# [ Circular letter No9] issued by a secret meeting of former IMARO activists and members of its Central committee, held on December 20, 1919, cited in a collective research of the Macedonian Scientific Instutute, "Освободителните борби на Македония", part 4, Sofia, 2002, retrieved on October 26, 2007: "Поради изменилите се условия в Македония и Тракия от Балканските войни насам, организацията се преименува от ВМОРО на ВМРО, като нейната цел си остава извоюване на автономия и обединение на разпокъсаните части на Македония." bg icon
# "Македония. История и политическа съдба", колектив на МНИ под редакцията на проф. Петър Петров, том II, Издателство "Знание", София, 1998, pp. 140-141. (In Bulgarian. In English: P. Petrov, ed. "Macedonia. History and Political Fate", vol. 2, Macedonian Scientific Institute, Sofia, 1998, pp. 140-141.)
# "Македония. История и политическа съдба", колектив на МНИ под редакцията на проф. Петър Петров, том II, Издателство "Знание", София, 1998, p. 206. (In Bulgarian. In English: P. Petrov, ed. "Macedonia. History and Political Fate", vol. 2, Macedonian Scientific Institute, Sofia, 1998, p. 206.)
# Р.П. Гришина, "ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ВЗГЛЯДА НА МАКЕДОНСКИЙ ВОПРОС В БОЛЬШЕВИСТСКОЙ МОСКВЕ 1922-1924 гг." in "МАКЕДОНИЯ - ПРОБЛЕМЫ ИСТОРИИ И КУЛЬТУРЫ", Институт славяноведения, Российская Академия Наук, Москва, 1999. (R. P. Grishina "Formation of a View on the Macedonian Question in Bolshevik Moscow 1922-1924" in "Macedonia. Problems of History and Culture", Institute of Slavistics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1999.)
# Р.П. Гришина, "ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ВЗГЛЯДА НА МАКЕДОНСКИЙ ВОПРОС В БОЛЬШЕВИСТСКОЙ МОСКВЕ 1922-1924 гг." in "МАКЕДОНИЯ - ПРОБЛЕМЫ ИСТОРИИ И КУЛЬТУРЫ", Институт славяноведения, Российская Академия Наук, Москва, 1999. (R. P. Grishina "Formation of a View on the Macedonian Question in Bolshevik Moscow 1922-1924" in "Macedonia. Problems of History and Culture", Institute of Slavistics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1999.)
# Р.П. Гришина, "ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ВЗГЛЯДА НА МАКЕДОНСКИЙ ВОПРОС В БОЛЬШЕВИСТСКОЙ МОСКВЕ 1922-1924 гг." in "МАКЕДОНИЯ - ПРОБЛЕМЫ ИСТОРИИ И КУЛЬТУРЫ", Институт славяноведения, Российская Академия Наук, Москва, 1999. (R. P. Grishina "Formation of a View on the Macedonian Question in Bolshevik Moscow 1922-1924" in "Macedonia. Problems of History and Culture", Institute of Slavistics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1999.)
# Ivo Banac, "The Macedoine" (pp. 307-328 in of "The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics", Cornell University Press, 1984)
# "Македония. История и политическа съдба", колектив на МНИ под редакцията на проф. Петър Петров, том II, Издателство "Знание", София, 1998, pp. 205-206. (In Bulgarian. In English: P. Petrov, ed. "Macedonia. History and Political Fate", vol. 2, Macedonian Scientific Institute, Sofia, 1998, pp. 205-206.)
# Palmer, S. and R. King "Yugoslav Communism and the Macedonian Question", Archon Books (June 1971), pp. 65-67.
# Добрин Мичев. БЪЛГАРСКОТО НАЦИОНАЛНО ДЕЛО В ЮГОЗАПАДНА МАКЕДОНИЯ (1941 – 1944 г.), "Македонски Преглед", 1, 1998.(Dobrin Michev, "Bulgarian National Activity in Southwest Macedonia 1941-1944", "Macedonian Review", 1, 1998.)
# Palmer, S. and R. King "Yugoslav Communism and the Macedonian Question", Archon Books (June 1971), pp. 112-113.
# Palmer, S. and R. King "Yugoslav Communism and the Macedonian Question", Archon Books (June 1971), p. 137.
# Katardjiev's foreword to Васил Ивановски. "Зошто ние, Македонците, сме одделна нација?", Скопје, 1995, pp. 49-56. (Vasil Ivanovski, "Why We Macedonians Are a Separate Nation?", Skopje, 1995)
# Palmer, S. and R. King "Yugoslav Communism and the Macedonian Question", Archon Books (June 1971), p. 137.
# Димитър Гоцев. НОВАТА НАЦИОНАЛНО-ОСВОБОДИТЕЛНА БОРБА ВЪВ ВАРДАРСКА МАКЕДОНИЯ. Македонски научен институт, София, 1998.
# Keith Brown. "The Past in Question: Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of Nation", Princeton University Press (2003)


* Пандев, К. "Устави и правилници на ВМОРО преди Илинденско-Преображенското въстание", "Исторически преглед", 1969, кн. I, стр. 68—80. bg icon
* Пандев, К. "Устави и правилници на ВМОРО преди Илинденско-Преображенското въстание", "Извeстия на Института за история", т. 21, 1970, стр. 249-257. bg icon
* Битоски, Крсте, сп. "Македонско Време", Скопје - март 1997, quoting: Quoting: Public Record Office - Foreign Office 78/4951 Turkey (Bulgaria), From Elliot, 1898, "Устав на ТМОРО". S. 1. published in "Документи за борбата на македонскиот народ за самостојност и за национална држава", Скопје, Универзитет "Кирил и Методиј": Факултет за филозофско-историски науки, 1981, pp 331 - 333. mk icon
* Hugh Pouton "Who Are the Macedonians?" , C. Hurst & Co, 2000. p. 53. ISBN 1-85065-534-0
* Fikret Adanir, "Die Makedonische Frage: ihre entestehung und etwicklung bis 1908.", Wiessbaden 1979, p. 112.
* Duncan Perry "The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Liberation Movements, 1893-1903 ", Durham, Duke University Press, 1988. pp. 40-41, 210 n. 10.
* Христо Татарчев, "Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация като митологична и реална същност", София, 1995. bg icon
* Dimitar Vlahov, "Memoirs", 2nd edition, "Slovo" publishing, Skopje, 2003, ISBN 9989-103-22-4. mk icon
* Series of memoirs, published by Macedonian scientific institute in Sofia during the interwar period in several volumes: Slaveiko Arsov, Pando Klyashev, Ivan Popov, Smile Voidanov, Deyan Dimitrov, Nikola Mitrev, Luka Dzherov, Georgi Pop Hristov, Angel Andreev, Georgi Papanchev, Lazar Dimitrov, Damyan Gruev, Boris Sarafov, Ivan Garvanov, Yane Sandanski, Chernyo Peev, Sava Mihailov, Hristo Kuslev, Ivan Anastasov Gyrcheto, Petyr Hr. Yurukov, Nikola Pushkarov] , Macedonian translations, published by "Kultura" publishers, Skopje, in 2 volumes, ISBN 9989-32-022-5 and ISBN 9989-32-077-2
* Георги Баждаров, "Моите спомени", издание на Институт "България - Македония", София, 2001. In English: Georgi Bazhdarov, "My memoirs", published by Institute "Bulgaria-Macedonia", Sofia, 2001.
* Nikola Kirov Majski, "Pages from my life", "Kultura", Skopje. mk icon
* Albert Londres, "Les Comitadjis (Le terrorisme dans les Balkans)", "Kultura", Skopje, ISBN 9989-32-067-5 (original edition: Arlea, Paris, 1992).
* Albert Sonnichsen, "Confessions of a Macedonian Bandit: A Californian in the Balkan Wars", The Narrative Press, ISBN 1-58976-237-1. Also here [ Confessions, Ch. XXIV] en icon, and Macedonian translation.
* Fikret Adanir, "Die Makedonische Frage", Wiessbaden, 1979.
* Константин Пандев, “Национално-освободителното движение в Македония и Одринско”, София, 1979.
* Ivo Banac, "The Macedoine", pp. 307-328 in of "The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics", "Cornell University Press", 1984.
* H. N. Brailsford, "Macedonia: its races and their future", "Methuen & Co.", London, 1906 ( [ Brailsford's photos] )
* Христо Силянов , “Освободителнитe борби на Македония”, том I и II, изд. на Илинденската Организация, София, 1933 и 1943, also volume I
* Любомиръ Милетичъ, "Разорението на тракийските българи презъ 1913 година", Българска Академия на Науките, София, Държавна Печатница, 1918 г.,
* "Македония. История и политическа съдба", колектив на МНИ под редакцията на проф. Петър Петров, том I, II и III, издателство "Знание", София, 1998.
* "Македония - проблемы истории и культуры", Институт славяноведения, Российская Академия Наук, Москва, 1999 (includes Р. П. Гришина, "Формирование взгляда на македонский вопрос в большевистской Москве 1922-1924 гг."), the complete symposium
* Никола Петров, "Кои беа партизаните во Македонија", Скопje, 1998. mk icon
* Palmer, S. and R. King, "Yugoslav Communism and the Macedonian Question", "Archon Books", 1971.
* Добрин Мичев, "Българското нацинално дело в югозападна Македония (1941 – 1944 г.)", "Македонски Преглед", 1, 1998. bg icon
* Keith Brown, "The Past in Question: Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of Nation", "Princeton University Press", 2003.

ee also

*Macedonia (region)
*History of Bulgaria
*History of the Republic of Macedonia
*Internal Revolutionary Organisation
*Internal Thracian Revolutionary Organisation
*Internal Dobrujan Revolutionary Organisation
*Internal Western Outland Revolutionary Organisation

External links

* [ Website of Macedonian VMRO-DPMNE] mk icon/en icon
* [ statute of BMARC from a Macedonian language website]
* [ The complete statute of BMARC]


* [ History of the Greek-Macedonian "andartes", adversaries of the IMRO]


* [ Website of Bulgarian VMRO-BND]


* [ Macedonian site about history of IMRO - includes Dr. Tatarchev's complete memoirs]

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