- Īlām Province
Infobox Iran Province
province_name = Īlām
ostan_name = ایلام
capital = Ilam
latd = 33.6384
longd = 46.4226
area = 20,133
pop = 545,093
pop_year = 2005
pop_density = 27.1
sub_provinces = 7
languages= Luri Kurdish Persian Īlām, also "Elam" Kurdish, is one of the 30 provinces of
Iran. It is in the south-west of the country, bordering Iraq. Its provincial center is the city of Ilam. Covering an area of 19,086 square kilometers, the cities of the province are Ilam, Mehran, Dehloran, Dareh Shahr, Shirvan and Chardavol, Aivanand Abdanan. It neighbors Khuzestanprovince in the south, Lurestanprovince in the east, Kermanshahprovince in the north and Iraqin the west with 425 kilometers of common border. The population of the province is approximately 540,000 people ( 2005estimate).
Ilam province is among the warmer regions of Iran. The mountainous areas of north and north eastern Ilam are relatively cold however. Average annual rainfall in the province is 578 mm.
In 1996, absolute maximum temperature was 38 °C in August and the minimum temperature recorded was 0.4 °C in February. The number of freezing days in winter was 27 days.
Ilam's highest point is the peak
Kabir Kuhat 2790 m, part of the Zagrosmountains.
People and culture
The population of Ilam City is predominantly Kurdish, while the population of Ilam Province is dominated by Lurs. Lurs are mostly living in the southern and eastern parts of the province; for example: Abdanan, Darreshahr, Dehloran and Mehran. The northern part of the province is mostly inhabited by Kurdish tribes who speak with two dialects:
Kalhuriand Feyli. The majority are Feyli Kurds, such as Kurdish tribesof Arkawâzi, Beyrey( Ali Sherwan) , Malek shahiand Shuhan. [ [http://i-cias.com/e.o/ilam.htm LookLex Encyclopaedia] , retrieved 1 Feb 2008] Most are Shi'a Muslims. [ [http://i-cias.com/e.o/ilam.htm LookLex Encyclopaedia] , retrieved 1 Feb 2008]
Limited archaeological studies and discoveries indicate 6,000 years of tribal residence in Ilam. Historical evidence indicates that Ilam province was part of the ancient
In Elamite and Babylonian inscriptions, Ilam is called Alamto or Alam which means "mountains" or "the country of sunrise".By immigration of
Aryansand establisment of Aryankingdoms Ilam became a part of their teritory. It was also part of the Achaemenid Empire. Existence of numerous historical vestiges in Lurestan and Ilam provinces belonging to the Sassanidperiod indicates the specific importance of the region in that time.In this period Ilam province was divided into two regions, MEHRJANKADAKin the eastern part and MÂSABAZÂNat the western part.
In the late 11th century,
Kurdish tribesgoverned the region till the early 13th century.
In 1930, in the division of the country, Ilam became a part of
Kermanshahprovince, only later to become a province by itself. Ilam is still a tribal province in many ways, but in recent years the tribal relations have changed drastically.
Iran-Iraq war, Ilam province took a heavy pounding, and Iraq's intense bombings left no economic infrastructure for the province. Ilam has thus been one of Iran's more undeveloped provinces. Ilam's unemployment rate was 19.9% in 2003.
Only in recent years has the central government began investing in advanced industries like Petrochemical facilities with Japanese help, in Ilam. Ilam also has a bright future in the tourist sector, with 174 historical sites listed under
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization, though it also remains undeveloped.
Colleges and universities
Ilam province contains the following universities:
Ilam University of Medical Sciences
* [http://www.ilam.ac.ir/ University of Ilam]
* Islamic Azad University of Ilam
* Payame noor University of Ilam
Imamzadehs: These are shrines mostly from the Middle Ages: Imamzadeh Ali Saleh, Imamzadeh Seyd mammad Abed, Imamzadeh Seyd Akbar, Imamzadeh Seyd Fakhreddin, Imamzadeh Seyd Nasereddin, Imamzadeh Ibrahim, Imamzadeh Abbas, Imamzadeh Abdullah, Imamzadeh Pir Muhammad, Imamzadeh Baba Seifuddin, Imamzadeh Mehdi Saleh, Imamzadeh Ibrahim Qetal, Imamzadeh Seyd Hasan, Imamzadeh Seyd Salaheddin Muhammad, Imamzadeh Haji Bakhtiar, Imamzadeh Haji Hazer, Imamzadeh Jabir.
*Fire Temples (10 in total): These are
Zoroastrianshrines from the Sassanidera, now in ruins: Siyahgol Iwan, Chahar Taghi in Darreh Shahr.
*Mansions, forts, and castles (90 in total): Ghal'eh Vali (
Qajarera), Posht Ghal'eh Chowar, Ghal'eh Paghela Chekarbuli, Ghal'eh Falahati (Qajar era),Ghal'eh Ghiran ( Achaemenidera), Shiagh castle in Dehloran (Sassanid era), Ismail Khan fort, Sam castle (late Parthian era), Pur Ashraf castle, Mir Gholam Hashemi ghal'eh, Posht Ghal'eh Abdanan (Sassanid), Konjancham fort, Shirin and Farhad Iwanin Mehran(Parthian era), Hezar Dar Castle (Sassanid), Sheikh Makan Fort (Sassanid), Zeinal Fort.
*Bridges from Sassanid era (5 in total).
*Numerous archeological sites (Teppes) and ruins from Sassanid era and earlier (224 in total).
*Ancient reliefs scattered across the province (8 in total).
*Ancient urban settlement ruins (22 in total).
*Springs, caves (like cave of Zinegan) , 3 protected natural habitats, and provincial parks.
Ethnic minorities in Iran
* [http://www.ilam.medu.ir/ Ilam Province Department of Education]
* [http://www.ilamtoday.com/gallery/ Ilam Picture Gallery]
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