- River Dee, Wales
name = River Dee (Wales)
native_name = Afon Dyfrdwy
image_size = 312
image_caption = The River Dee at
country = Wales
country1 = England
city = Llangollen
city1 = Chester
length = 110
watershed = 1800
discharge_location = Chester Weir
discharge_average = 29.71
discharge1_location = Manley Hall
discharge1_average = 31.03
source_location = slopes of
Ddualltabove Llanuwchllynin the mountains of Snowdonia
tributary_left = Tryweryn
tributary_left1 = Alwen
tributary_left3 = Alyn
tributary_right = Ceiriog
The River Dee (Welsh: "Afon Dyfrdwy") is a 70-mile-long (110 km)
river. It travels through Walesand Englandand also forms part of the border between them.
The river rises in
Snowdonia, Wales, flows north via Chester, England, and discharges to the sea into an estuary between Wales and The Wirral Peninsula(England).
The total catchment area of the River Dee up to
Chester Weiris 1818 km². [National Water Archive [http://www.nwl.ac.uk/ih/nrfa/station_summaries/067/020.html] ] The average rainfall over the catchment is estimated to be 640 mm yielding an average flow of 37 m³/s.The larger reservoirs in the catchment are:
*Bala Lake ("Llyn Tegid") - 400
acres (1.6 km²)
Llyn Brenig- 370 acres (1.5 km²)
Llyn Celyn- 325 acres (1.3 km²)
The River Dee has its source on the slopes of
Ddualltabove Llanuwchllynin the mountains of Snowdoniain Merioneth, Gwynedd, Wales, and then passes through Bala Lake. The path of the river trends generally east-south-east as it descends off the Ordovician Denbigh moors, over the man-made Horseshoe Falls and through Llangollen, generally skirting the outcropping Karstic limestoneexposures north of Llangollen. East of Llangollen, Thomas Telford's Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, of 1805, carries the Shropshire Union Canal120 feet (37 m) overhead.
One of the major tributaries of the Dee, the Afon Alyn crosses the
carboniferouslimestone from Halkyn Mountainand down through the Loggerheads area before making its confluence near Mold. Throughout the length of the Alyn there are numerous sinkholes and caverns and during the summer months long stretches of the river bed run dry. These caves include Ogof Hesp Alynand Ogof Hen Ffynhonau. A significant part of this lost flow re-emerges in the Milwr Tunnel, a man-made tunnel, entering the west bank of the Dee estuary carrying some 12 million imperial gallons per day (600 L/s). This tunnel was originally constructed to drain metal mines in Halkyn Mountain. Once the main river Dee approaches the Cheshireborder and the carboniferous coal measures, it turns sharply northwards before meandering up to Chester. This long stretch of the river drops in height by only a few feet and can be regarded as a highly linear lake. The rich adjoining farmland has many remnants of abandoned coal workings and deep clay-pits used to make bricksand tiles. A number of these pits are now being used as landfillsites for domestic and commercial waste.
At Holt and Farndon, the river crosses into
Englandunder a medieval bridge and then passes under the A55 and northwards to Chester. At Chester the river passes and around the Earl's Eye(s) meadow. In the Chester region the river side is used as a recreation area with a bandstand, benches and boat cruises, by two bridges. The first is the Queen's Park Suspension Bridge, which forms the only exclusively pedestrian footway across the river in Chester. The second is the Old Dee Bridge, a road bridge and by far the oldest bridge in Chester, being built in about 1387 on the site of a series of wooden predecessors which dated originally from the Roman period.Above the Old Dee Bridge, the river has a weir, which was built by Hugh Lupusto supply power to his corn mills. Throughout the centuries the weir has been used to power corn, fulling, needle, snuff and flint mills. The same weir was used as part of a hydro-electric scheme in 1911 with the help of a small generator building which is still visible today, used as a pumping station for water since 1951. However the first water pumping station here was set up in 1600 by John Tyrer who pumped water to a square tower built on the city's Bridgegate. It was destroyed in the Civil War but an octagonal tower built in 1690 for the same purpose lasted until the gate was replaced with an arch in the mid-18th century.
On this weir is a
fish passand fish counting station to monitor the numbers of salmonascending the river. A little further downstream stands the Grosvenor Bridge (designed by architect Thomas Harrison of Chester), which was opened in 1833 to ease congestion on the Old Dee Bridge. This bridge was opened by Princess Victoria five years before she became Queen.
The other side of the Grosvenor Bridge is the
Roodee, Chester's race course and the oldest course in the country. This used to be the site of Chester's Roman harbour until, aided by the building of the weir, the River Dee silted up to become the size it is today. The only curiously remaining reminder of this site's maritime past is a stone cross which stands in the middle of the Roodee which exhibits the marks of water ripples. To the end of the Roodee the river is crossed again by a second bridge, now carrying the Chester–Holyhead railway line, before leaving Chester. It was the scene of one of the first serious railway accidents in the country, the Dee bridgedisaster.
North of Chester, the river flows along an artificial channel excavated between 1732-36. The work was planned and undertaken by engineers from the
Netherlandsand paid for by local merchants and Chester Corporation. It was an attempt to improve navigation for shipping and reduce silting. Chester's trade had declined steadily since the end of the 17th century as sediment had prevented larger craft reaching the city.
After four year's work, the river was diverted from its meandering natural course which passed
Blacon, Saughall, Shotwick Castle, Burton and Parkgate and up the west shore of Wirral. Instead the new canalised section followed the coast along North East Wales. During this time, Sealand and Shotton were reclaimed from the estuary. Land reclamation in this area continued until 1916. The river's natural course can be still be determined by following the bank and low bluffs that mark the western edge of the Wirral Peninsula.
The [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/382086 man-made channel] , which runs in a straight line for five miles (8 km), passes beneath three road bridges. The first two are adjacent to each other at Queensferry. They are [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/409780 a 1960s fixed-arch bridge] carrying the North Wales–England trunk road and its predecessor the [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/27059 New Jubilee Bridge] , which is a rolling
Bascule bridgecompleted in 1926. The third crossing, and the most recent, is at Connah's Quay. The [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/411436 Flintshire Bridge] is a fixed cable-stayed bridge. It opened in 1999.
Between the second and third road bridges is Hawarden railway bridge, originally constructed as a
swing bridgebut now never opened. It carries the Birkenhead– Wrexham Borderlands Lineline over the river.
A footbridge replaced the passenger ferry at
Saltneyin the 1970s.
The river then opens out into the
Dee Estuary, forming the north eastern tip of the North Wales coast and the western coast of the Wirral. Towns along the coast include Flint, Holywelland Mostynon the Welsh side and Neston, Parkgate, West Kirbyand Hoylakeon the Wirral side.
Large parts of the catchment are devoted to agriculture and there a number of abstractions made from the river for summer irrigation. The volumes involved are not however significant.
From Chirk downstream, the river valley has supported a wide range of industries that were initially drawn to the area by the presence of coal mines and later by the deep deposits of
carboniferous clays used to make bricks and tiles.
The coal industry in particular gave rise to a number of chemical industries some of which survive to this day and which both take water from the river and discharge their cleaned up effluent back into the river. Industries in the valley include commercial chemicals manufacturer, wood chip and MDF fabrication,
cocoamilling, fibreglassmanufacture, waste disposal (in old clay pits) and a great variety of smaller industries concentrated around Wrexham. The main impact on the river of these industries is their thirst for a dependable good quality water supply.
Currently the wings for the
Airbus A380, which are made at Airbus' manufacturing factory in Broughton, are taken downriver by barge to the Port of Mostyn because they are too large to be shipped in an Airbus Beluga. [cite web|url=http://188.8.131.52/commondata/acrobat/deeconsafety_1169122.pdf|title=marine safety in the Dee Conservancy | publisher=Environment Agency Wales] However, the dredging of the river for the barge may be responsible for a weakening of the tidal bore.Fact|date=April 2008
There are a number of direct water abstractions upstream of Chester by three water companies and by the canal. The size of the abstraction is very large compared to the summer flow and the flow in the river is very highly regulated through the use of reservoirs to store water in the winter and release it in the summer. The whole system is managed as the
River Dee regulation system.Below Chester water is also abstracted as cooling water by the gas-fired power station at Connah's Quay. Process and cooling water is also abstracted for the paper milland power station at Shotton.
The Dee used to be a popular
whitewater kayakingand touring river (particular the grade III/IV whitewatersection upstream of Llangollen). It stays high after rain for longer than most British rivers and is paddleable year-round (thanks to the River Dee Regulation System). Canoeing used to be allowed on about twelve weekends per year, and tens of thousands of canoeists descended on Llangollen for recreational paddling (several Dee tours were held every winter), slalomcompetitions, and wild water races.
Public access to the river is arranged by the
Welsh Canoe Association. In 2003, negotiations with the anglingassociations owning fishing rights on the Dee broke down. The anglers wanted to restrict the numbers of paddlers on the river when paddling was allowed but the Welsh Canoe Association wanted to renew the previous agreement. As a result, all canoeing on the river was banned. In November 2004, a protest about the lack of access on the Dee, and to rivers across England and Wales, was held in Llangollen. More protests are likely in the future. Following the failure of the access agreement, many canoeists use the river at will from the numerous access points along its banks.
Canoeing is permitted on one 100 m long rapid 1 km upstream of Llangollen, and on some flat sections far downstream in England.
Each July the
Chester Raft Raceis held on the River Dee in aid of charity.
The river has been famed as a mixed fishery with
Salmonand trout fishing, mostly in the upper waters and a good coarse fishery in the lower reaches. A major pollution in the middle reaches in the late 1990s did extensive damage to the fishery from which it is now largely recovered.
*G.W. Place, "The Rise and Fall of Parkgate, Passenger Port for Ireland" (1994).
*Gordon Emery, "Curious Chester" (1999) ISBN 1-872265-94-4
*Gordon Emery, "Chester Inside Out" (1998) ISBN 1-872265-92-8
*Gordon Emery, "The Chester Guide"(2003) ISBN 1-872265-89-8
*ed Gordon Emery, "The Old Chester Canal" ISBN 1-872265-88-X
*Gordon Emery, "Chester Electric Lighting Station" (2002) ISBN 1-872265-48-0
*Roy Wilding, "Miller of Dee" (1997) ISBN 1-872265-95-2
*Roy Wilding "Death in Chester" (2003) ISBN 1-872265-44-8
*PR Lewis, "Disaster on the Dee: Robert Stephenson's Nemesis of 1847", Tempus Publishing (2007) ISBN 978 0 7524 4266 2
Rivers of the United Kingdom
Dee bridge- The Dee bridge disaster
Dee 106.3- radiostation based in Chester
Miller of Dee- traditional folk song
* [http://www.bwpics.co.uk/river2.html River Dee guide]
* [http://www.deeestuary.co.uk/ Dee Estuary bird life]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/northeast/sites/nature/dee.shtml Dee Estuary photos]
* [http://s176.photobucket.com/albums/w175/Lewis-01/Wles%202007-10-21/?action=view¤t=CorwenCarwash.flv Videoclip of L400 Delica's crossing
River Dee, Wales]
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