- Trigeminal ganglion
Name = Trigeminal ganglion (in red)
Latin = ganglion trigeminale, ganglion semilunare (Gasseri)
GraySubject = 200
GrayPage = 886
Caption = Nerves of the orbit. Seen from above. (Semilunar ganglion visible near bottom.)
Caption2 = Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the
submaxillary ganglion. (Semilunar ganglion visible in upper left.)
MeshName = Semilunar+Ganglion
MeshNumber = A08.340.390.850
DorlandsPre = g_02
DorlandsSuf = 12385087
The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory
ganglionof the trigeminal nerve(CN V) which occupies a cavity ( Meckel's cave) in the dura matercovering the trigeminalimpression near the apex of the petrous partof the temporal bone.
It is somewhat crescentic in shape, with its convexity directed forward: medially, it is in relation with the
internal carotid arteryand the posterior part of the cavernous sinus.
motor rootruns in front of and medial to the sensory root, and passes beneath the ganglion; it leaves the skull through the foramen ovale, and, immediately below this foramen, joins the mandibular nerve.
greater superficial petrosal nervelies also underneath the ganglion.
The ganglion receives, on its medial side, filaments from the
carotid plexusof the sympathetic.
It give off minute branches to the
tentorium cerebelli, and to the dura mater in the middle fossa of the cranium.
From its convex border, which is directed forward and lateralward, three large nerves proceed, viz., the
ophthalmic(V1), maxillary(V2), and mandibular (V3).
The ophthalmic and maxillary consist exclusively of sensory fibers; the mandibular is joined outside the cranium by the motor root.
After recovery from a primary
herpesinfection, the virusis not cleared from the body, but rather lies dormant in a non-replicating state within the trigeminal ganglion.cite journal |author=Verjans GM, Hintzen RQ, van Dun JM, "et al" |title=Selective retention of herpes simplex virus-specific T cells in latently infected human trigeminal ganglia |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=104 |issue=9 |pages=3496–501 |year=2007 |pmid=17360672 |doi=10.1073/pnas.0610847104] Thus, herpes zostermay follow from chickenpox.
In rodent, the trigeminal ganglion is important as it is the first part of the pathway from the
whiskersto the brain. Cell bodies of the whisker primary afferentsare found here. These afferents are mechanoreceptor cells which fire in response to whisker deflection.
There are around 26,000-43,000 cell bodies in rodent Trigeminal ganglion. Is is possible that there are two distinct (or perhaps continuous) populations of cells having slowly and rapidly adapting responses to stimuli.
It is found at the base of the skull and projects to trigeminal
brain stemareas including principalis, spinal trigeminal nucleus, interpolarisand caudalis.
* [http://www.umanitoba.ca/cranial_nerves/trigeminal_neuralgia/manuscript/rhizotomies.html Diagram] at
University of Manitoba
* [http://www.frca.co.uk/images/trigeminal_nerve.jpgDiagram (as "Gasserian Ganglion")] at frca.co.uk
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