- Sei Whale
name = Sei Whale MSW3 Cetacea|id=14300014]
image_caption = A Sei Whale feeding near the surface.
image2_caption = Size comparison against an average human
status = EN
status_system = iucn3.1
status_ref =IUCN2008|assessors=Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbán, J. & Zerbini, A.N.|year=2008|id=2475|title=Balaenoptera borealis|downloaded=7 October 2008]
genus = "
species = "B. borealis"
binomial = "Balaenoptera borealis"
binomial_authority = Lesson, 1828
range_map_caption = Sei Whale rangeThe Sei Whale (pron-en|ˈseɪ or IPAlink-en|ˈsaɪ), "Balaenoptera borealis," is a
baleen whale, the third largest rorqualafter the Blue Whaleand the Fin Whale.cite journal | author= S.L. Perry | coauthors = D.P. DeMaster, and G.K. Silber | year = 1999 | title = Special Issue: The Great Whales: History and Status of Six Species Listed as Endangered Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 | journal = Marine Fisheries Review | volume = 61 | issue = 1 | url = http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/mfr611/mfr611.htm | pages = 52–58] It can be found worldwide in all oceans and adjoining seas, and prefers deep off-shore waters.cite book | author = Gambell, R. | year = 1985 | chapter = Sei Whale 'Balaenoptera borealis" Lesson, 1828 | pages 155–170 | title = Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 3 | editors = S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds) | publisher = Academic Press | location = London ] It tends to avoid polar and tropicalwaters and semi-enclosed bodies of water. The Sei Whale migrates annually from cool and subpolar waters in summer to temperateand subtropicalwaters for winter, although in most areas the exact migration routes are not well known.
The whales reach lengths of up to 20
metres (66 ft) long and weigh up to 45 tonnes (50 tons).cite book | author = Reeves, R. | coauthors = G. Silber and M. Payne | title = Draft Recovery Plan for the Fin Whale "Balaenoptera physalus" and Sei Whale "Balaenoptera borealis" | publisher = National Marine Fisheries Service| year = 1998 | month = July | location = Silver Spring, Maryland | url = http://www.cresli.org/cresli/pdf%20documents/finwhale.pdf | format = PDF] It consumes an average of 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) of food each day, primarily copepodsand krill, and other zooplankton.cite web | author = Shefferly, N. | year = 1999 | title = Balaenoptera borealis | publisher = Animal Diversity Web | url = http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Balaenoptera_borealis.html | accessdate = 2006-11-04] It is among the fastest of all cetaceans, and can reach speeds of up to 50 kilometres per hour(31 mi/hr, 27 knots) over short distances. The whale's name comes from the Norwegian word for pollock, a fish that appears off the coast of Norwayat the same time of the year as the Sei Whale.cite web | url = http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/SeiBrydesWhales.htm | title = Sei Whale & Bryde's Whale "Balaenoptera borealis" & "Balaenoptera edeni" | publisher = American Cetacean Society | year = 2004 | month = March | accessdate = 2006-11-08 ]
Following large-scale commercial hunting of the species between the late-nineteenth and late-twentieth centuries when over 238,000 individuals were taken,cite book | author = Horwood, J. | year = 1987 | title = The sei whale: population biology, ecology, and management | publisher = Croom Helm Ltd. | location = Kent, England |id=ISBN 0-7099-4786-0] the Sei Whale is now an internationally protected species, although limited hunting still occurs under controversial research programmes conducted by
Icelandand Japan.cite press release | publisher = WWF-International | title = Japanese Scientific Whaling: Irresponsible Science, Irresponsible Whaling | date = 2005-06-01| url = http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/species/publications/index.cfm?uNewsID=13793 | accessdate = 2006-11-10] [See Whaling in Japanand Whaling in Iceland] As of 2006, the worldwide population of the Sei Whale was about 54,000, about a fifth of its pre-whaling population.
Taxonomy and naming
The species was first described by
René-Primevère Lessonin 1828, but a further description was given by Karl Asmund Rudolphiand the species is occasionally referred to as Rudolphi's Rorqual, Pollack Whale, Coalfish Whale, Sardine Whale, or Japan Finner.cite web | url=http://www.whales.org.au/discover/sei/seig.html | title=Sei Whales ("Balaenoptera borealis") | publisher = Whales on the net | accessdate=2006-11-29 ]
The word Sei comes from the Norwegian word "sei" for
pollock, also referred to as coalfish, a close relative of codfish. Sei Whales appeared off the coast of Norwayat the same time as the pollock, both coming to feed on the abundant plankton. The specific name is the Latin word "borealis", meaning northern. In the Pacific, the whale has been called the Japan Finner; "finner" was a common term used to refer to rorquals. In Japanese the whale was called "iwashi kujira", or Sardine Whale, named for a fish that the whale has been observed to eat in the Pacific.cite journal | url = http://web.archive.org/web/www.edwardtbabinski.us/whales/shore_whaling_industry.html | journal = National Geographic Magazine | month = May | year = 1911 | title = Shore Whaling: A World Industry | author = Andrews, R.C. ]
Sei Whales are
rorquals(family Balaenopteridae), a family of the baleen whales that includes the Humpback Whale, the Blue Whale, Bryde's Whale, the Fin Whaleand the Minke Whale. Rorquals take their name from the Norwegian word "røyrkval", meaning "furrow whale", [cite web|url=http://www.iberianature.com/trivia/etymology_mammals.htm | title = Etymology of mammal names | publisher = IberiaNature - Natural history facts and trivia | accessdate = 2006-12-07] because members of the family have a series of longitudinal pleats or grooves located below the mouth and continuing along the underside of the body. The family Balaenopteridaeis believed to have diverged from the other families of the suborder Mysticeti, also called the Whalebone Whales or Great Whales, as long ago as the middle Miocene.cite book | url = http://www-personal.umich.edu/~gingeric/PDFfiles/PDG413_Whaleevol.pdf | format = PDF | title = McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology | year = 2004 | publisher = The McGraw Hill Companies | chapter = Whale Evolution | author = Gingerich, P.] However, little is known about when members of the various families in the Mysticeti, including the Balaenopteridae, diverged from each other.
subspecieshave been identified—the Northern Sei Whale ("Balaenoptera borealis borealis") and Southern Sei Whale ("Balaenoptera borealis schleglii").ITIS | ID = 180526 | taxon = Balaenoptera borealis | year = 2006 | date = 10 November] The two subspecies are geographically isolated from each other and their ranges do not overlap.
Description and behaviour
The Sei Whale is the third largest member of the
Balaenopteridaefamily, after the Blue Whale(up to 180 tonnes, 200 tons) and the Fin Whale(up to 70 tonnes, 77 tons). Mature adults typically measure between 12 and 15 metres (40–50 ft) and weigh 20–30 tonnes (22–33 tons). The Southern Sei Whale is larger than the Northern Sei Whale, and females are considerably larger than males. The largest known Sei Whale measured 20 metres (66 ft), and weighed between 40 and 45 tonnes (44–50 tons). The largest specimens taken off Icelandwere slightly longer than 16 metres (52 ft).cite journal | author = Martin, A.R. | year = 1983 | title = The sei whale off western Iceland. I. Size, distribution and abundance | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = 33 | pages = 457–463 ] At birth, a calf typically measures 4–5 metres (13–16 ft) in length.
The whale's body is typically a dark steel grey with irregular light grey to white markings on the ventral surface, or towards the front of the lower body. The whale has a series of 32–60
pleats or grooves along the bottom of the body that allow the throat area to expand greatly during feeding. The snout is pointed and the pectoral fins are relatively short compared to other whales, with a length of only 9%–10% of the total body length, and pointed at the tips. It has single ridge extending from the tip of the snout to the paired blowholes that are a distinctive characteristic of baleen whales.
The whale's skin is often marked by pits or wounds, which after healing become white scars. These are believed to be caused by ectoparisitic
copepods ("Penella" spp.),cite journal | author = Ivashin, M.V. | coauthors = Yu.P. Golubovsky | year = 1978 | title = On the cause of appearance of white scars on the body of whales | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = 28 | pages = 199] lampreys (family Petromyzontidae),cite journal | author = Rice, D.W. | year = 1977 | title = Synopsis of biological data on the sei whale and Bryde's whale in the eastern North Pacific | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = Spec. Iss. 1 | pages = 92–97] or possibly "cookie-cutter" sharks ("Isistius brasiliensis").cite journal | author = Shevchenko, V.I. | year = 1977 | title = Application of white scars to the study of the location and migrations of sei whale populations in Area III of the Antarctic | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = Spec. Iss. 1 | pages = 130–134] It has a tall, sickle-shaped dorsal finthat ranges in height from 25–61 centimetres (10–24 in), and is set about two-thirds of the way back from the tip of the snout. Dorsal fin shape, pigmentationpattern, and scarring have been used to a limited extent in photo-identification studies of Sei Whales.cite journal | author = Schilling, M.R. | coauthors = I. Seipt, M.T. Weinrich, S.E. Frohock, A.E. Kuhlberg, and P.J. Clapham | year = 1992 | title = Behavior of individually identified sei whales "Balaenoptera borealis" during an episodic influx into the southern Gulf of Maine in 1986 | journal = Fish. Bull. | volume = 90 | pages = 749–755 |url= http://www.whalecenter.org/abstract.htm] The tail is thick and the fluke, or lobe, is relatively small in relation to the size of the whale's body.
This rorqual is a
filter feeder, using its baleen plates to obtain its food from the water by opening its mouth, engulfing large amounts of the water containing the food, then straining the water out through the baleen, trapping any food items inside its mouth. An adult has 300–380 ashy-black baleen plates on each side of the mouth, each about 48 centimetres (19 in) long. Each plate is made of fingernail-like keratinthat frays out into whitish fine hairs on the ends inside the mouth near the tongue. The very fine bristles of the Sei Whale's baleen (about 0.1 mm, 0.004 in) are cited as the most reliable feature distinguishing it from all other baleen whales.cite journal | author = Mead, J.G. | year = 1977 | title = Records of sei and Bryde's whales from the Atlantic coast of the United States, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = Spec. Iss. 1 | pages = 113–116]
The Sei Whale looks similar to other large baleen whales. The best way to distinguish between it and the
Bryde's Whale, apart from differences in each whale's baleen, is by the presence of lateral ridges on the dorsal surface of the Bryde's Whale's head. Large Sei Whales can be confused with Fin Whales unless the Fin Whale's asymmetrical head colouration is clearly seen; the right side of the lower jaw of the Fin Whale is white, and the left side is grey. When viewed from the side, the upper edge of the Sei Whale's head has a small arch between the tip of the snout and the eye, whereas the Fin Whale's profile is relatively flat.
Sei Whales usually travel alonecite journal | author = Edds, P.L. | coauthors = T.J. MacIntyre, and R. Naveen | year = 1984 | title = Notes on a sei whale ("Balaenoptera borealis" Lesson) sighted off Maryland | journal = Cetus | volume = 5 | number = 2 | pages = 4–5 ] or in small groups of up to six individuals. Larger groups have been seen at particularly abundant feeding grounds. Very little is known about their
social structure. Males and females may form a bond, but there is insufficient research to know this for certain.cite web | url = http://www.dolphinsrus.com/factsheets/sei.pdf | format = PDF | title = The Sei Whale ("Balaenoptera borealis") | publisher = The Institute for Marine Mammal Studies | accessdate = 2006-12-07 ]
The Sei Whale is among the fastest of all
cetaceans. It can reach speeds of up to 50 kilometres per hour (31 mi/hr, 27 knots) over short distances. However, it is not a remarkable diver, diving only to relatively shallow depths for between five to fifteen minutes. Between these dives, the whale swims near the surface for a few minutes, remaining visible in clear, calm waters, with blows occurring at intervals of about 40–60 seconds. Unlike the Fin Whale, the Sei Whale tends not to rise high out of the water as it dives. The blowholes and dorsal fin are often exposed above the water surface simultaneously. The whale almost never extends its flukes above the surface, and it rarely breaches, or leaps high out of the water.
The Sei Whale feeds near the surface of the ocean, swimming on its side through swarms of
preyto obtain its average of about 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) of food each day. For an animal of its size, it is notable because for the most part, its preferred foods lie relatively low in the food chain, including zooplanktonand small fish. The whale's preference for zooplankton has been determined from stomach analyses and direct observations of feeding behaviour.cite journal | author = Watkins, W.A.|coauthors = W.E. Schevill |year = 1979 |title= Aerial observations of feeding behavior in four baleen whales: "Eubalaena glacialis", "Balaenoptera borealis", "Megaptera novaeangliae", and "Balaenoptera physalus" |journal= J. Mamm.|volume= 60 |pages=155–163|url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2372%28197902%2960%3A1%3C155%3AAOOFBI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z | doi = 10.2307/1379766 |issue= 1] cite journal | author = Weinrich, M.T.|coauthors = C.R. Belt, M.R. Schilling, and M. Marcy| year = 1986 |title= Behavior of sei whales in the southern Gulf of Maine, summer 1986 |journal = Whalewatcher |volume = 20|issue = 4|pages = 4–7 ] It has also been determined from the analysis of fecal matter collected near Sei Whales, which appears as a thin brown cloud in the water. The feces is collected in nets and DNA material in the wastes is separated out and individually identified, to be matched with known species.cite web|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0206_020206_wirewhales.html | title = New Research Method May Ease Whale Killing | publisher = National Geographic News | accessdate = 2006-12-19 | date = February 6, 2002 | author = Darby, A.] The whale competes for food with a variety of other species, including clupeidfishes (herring and its relatives), basking sharks, and Right Whales.
North Atlantic, the Sei Whale feeds primarily on calanoid copepods, specifically "Calanus finmarchicus", with a secondary preference for euphausiids (krill), in particular "Meganyctiphanes norvegica" and "Thysanoessa inermis".cite journal | author = Mizroch, S.A. | coauthors = D.W. Rice and J.M. Breiwick | year = 1984 | title = The Sei Whale, "Balaenoptera borealis" | journal = Mar. Fish. Rev. | volume = 46 | number = 4 | pages = 25–29 ] cite journal |author = Christensen, I. |coauthors = T. Haug, and N. Øien |year= 1992 |title= A review of feeding and reproduction in large baleen whales (Mysticeti) and sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus in Norwegian andadjacent waters| journal= Fauna norvegica Series A |volume = 13 | pages=39–48] In the North Pacific, the Sei Whale feeds on similar zooplankton, including the copepod species "Calanus cristatus", "Calanus plumchrus", and "Calanus pacificus", and euphausid species "Euphausia pacifica", "Thysanoessa inermis", "Thysanoessa longipes", and "Thysanoessa spinifera". In addition, it is known to eat larger organisms, such as the Japanese flying squid, "Todarodes pacificus pacificus",cite paper | author = Tamura, T. | title = Competition for food in the Ocean: Man and other apical predators | publisher = Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1–4 October 2001 | date = October, 2001 | url = http://www.fisherieswatch.org/docs/245.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = 2006-12-09] and small fish, including members of the " Engraulis" (anchovies), " Cololabis" (sauries), " Sardinops" (pilchards), and " Trachurus" (jack mackerels) genera.cite journal | author = Nemoto, T. | coauthors = and A. Kawamura |year = 1977 |title = Characteristics of food habits and distribution of baleen whales with special reference to the abundance of North Pacific sei and Bryde's whales | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn |volume = Spec. Iss. 1 |pages =80–87] Some of these fish in its diet are commercially important. Off central California, the whale has been observed feeding on anchovies between June and August, and on krill("Euphausia pacifica") during September and October. In the Southern Hemisphere, prey species include the copepods "Calanus tonsus", "Calanus simillimus", and "Drepanopus pectinatus" as well as the euphausids "Euphausia superba" and "Euphausia vallentini".
Matingoccurs in temperate, subtropical seas during the winter, and the gestation periodis estimated to be 10 3/4 months,cite journal | author = Lockyer, C. |coauthors = and A.R. Martin | year = 1983 | title= The sei whale off western Iceland. II. Age, growth and reproduction | journal= Rep. Int. Whal. Commn |volume = 33 | pages= 465–476] 11 1/4 months,cite journal | author = Lockyer, C. | year = 1977 |title= Some estimates of growth in the sei whale, "Balaenoptera borealis" | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn |volume = Spec. Iss. 1 | pages = 58–62] or one year,cite journal | author = Risting, S | year = 1928 |title = Whales and whale foetuses | journal = Rapp. Cons. Explor. Mer | volume = 50| pages = 1–122] depending on what model of foetal growth is used. The differences in gestation period are the result of not being able to observe a whale's entire pregnancy; most of the reproductive data for baleen whales were obtained from animals killed by commercial whalers, which offers only a single view of the foetus's growth. Researchers then attempt to extrapolate conception dates based upon the measurements and physical characteristics of the foetuses and how they compare with newborn whales.
weans from its mother at 6–9 months of age when it is 11–12 metres (36–39 ft) in length, so weaning takes place on the feeding grounds in summer or autumn. Females reproduce every 2–3 years, with as many as 6 foetuses being reported, but single births are far more common. The average age of sexual maturityof both sexes is 8–10 years, at a length of around 12 metres (40 ft) for males and 13 metres (50 ft) for females. The whales can reach ages of up to 65 years.cite web | url = http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/europe/what_we_do/arctic/what_we_do/species/whales/species/baleen/sei_whale/index.cfm | date = 2007-06-18 | title = Sei whale | author = WWF | publisher = WWF Global Species Programme ]
Like other whales, the Sei Whale is known to make long, loud, low-frequency sounds. Relatively little is known about the specific calls made by this whale, but in 2003, observers noted Sei Whale calls in addition to broadband sounds that could be described as "growls" or "whooshes" off the coast of the
Antarctic Peninsula.cite journal | author = McDonald, M. | coauthors=Hildebrand, J., Wiggins, S., Thiele, D., Glasgow, D., and Moore, S. | title = Sei whale sounds recorded in the Antarctic | journal = The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | month = December | year = 2005 | volume = 118 | issue = 6 | pages = 3941–3945 | url = http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=JASMAN000118000006003941000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes | doi = 10.1121/1.2130944] Many of the calls consisted of multiple parts with a change in frequency between the parts. This combination is viewed as a key feature that can be used to distinguish the Sei Whale's call from the calls of other whales. Most calls lasted about a half second, and occurred in the 240–625 hertzfrequency, well within the normal range of sounds that most humans can hear. The maximum source level of the vocal sequences is reported as 156 decibels relative to 1 micropascal (μPa) for a reference distance of one metre.
Habitat and migration
Sei Whales are found worldwide, although they are only rarely found in
polaror tropicalwaters. The difficulty of distinguishing Sei Whales at seas from their close relatives, Bryde's Whales and in some cases from Fin Whales, has created confusion about their distributional limits and frequency of occurrence, especially in warmer waters where Bryde's Whales are most common.
North Atlantic, the range of the Sei Whale extends from southern Europeor northwestern Africa to Norwayin the eastern North Atlantic, and from the southern United Statesto Greenlandin the western. The southernmost confirmed records are strandings along the northern Gulf of Mexicoand in the Greater Antilles. Throughout its range, the whale tends to avoid semi-enclosed bodies of water such as the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Hudson Bay, the North Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. It occurs predominantly in deep water, occurring most commonly over the continental slope,cite paper | author = CETAP | year = 1982 | title = Final Report of the Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program, University of Rhode Island, to Bureau of Land Management | publisher = U.S. Department of the Interior. Ref. No. AA551-CT8–48] in basins situated between banks,cite book | author = Sutcliffe, W.H., Jr. | coauthors = P.F. Brodie | year = 1977 | chapter = Whale distributions in Nova Scotia waters | title = Fisheries & Marine Service Technical Report No. 722 ] or submarine canyonareas.cite journal | author = Kenney, R.D. | coauthors = H.E. Winn | year = 1987 | title = Cetacean biomass densities near submarine canyons compared to adjacent shelf/slope areas | journal = Cont. Shelf Res. | volume = 7 | pages = 107–114 | doi = 10.1016/0278-4343(87)90073-2]
In the North Pacific, the Sei Whale is found from 20°N–23°N
latitudein the winter, and from 35°N–50°N latitude in the summer.cite journal | author = Masaki, Y. | year = 1976 | title = Biological studies on the North Pacific sei whale | journal = Bull. Far Seas Fish. Res. Lab. | volume = 14 | pages = 1–104 ] Approximately 75% of the total population of Sei Whales in the North Pacific is found east of the International Date Line, but there is a significant lack of information regarding the overall distribution of the whales in the North Pacific. Two whales tagged in deep waters off Californiawere later recaptured off Washingtonand British Columbia, revealing a possible link between these areas,cite book | author = Rice, D.W. | year = 1974 | chapter = Whales and whale research in the North Pacific | editor = Schervill, W.E. (ed.) | title = The Whale Problem: a status report | pages = 170–195 | publisher = Harvard University Press | location = Cambridge, MA | id= ISBN 0-674-95075-5] but the lack of other tag recovery data makes these two cases inconclusive. In the Southern Hemisphere, summer distribution based upon historic catch data is between 40°S–50°S latitude, while winter distribution is unknown.
In general, the Sei Whale migrates annually from cool and subpolar waters in summer to temperate and subtropical waters for winter, where food is more abundant. In the northwest Atlantic, sightings and catch records suggest that the whale moves north along the shelf edge to arrive in the areas of
Georges Bank, Northeast Channel, and Browns Bank by mid to late June. They are present off the south coast of Newfoundland in August and September, and a southbound migration begins moving west and south along the Nova Scotian shelf from mid-September to mid-November. Whales in the Labrador Seaas early as the first week of June may move farther northward to waters southwest of Greenlandlater in the summer.cite journal | author = Mitchell, E. | coauthors = D.G. Chapman | year = 1977 | title = Preliminary assessment of stocks of northwest Atlantic sei whales ("Balaenoptera borealis") | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = Spec. Iss. 1 | pages = 117–120 ] In the northeast Atlantic, the Sei Whale winters as far south as West Africaand follows the continental slopenorthward in spring. Large females lead the northward migration and reach the Denmark Straitearlier and more reliably than other sexes and classes, arriving in mid-July and remaining through mid-September. In some years, males and younger females remain at lower latitudes during the summer months.
Despite knowing some general trends in the migration patterns of the Sei Whale, exact migration routes are not known and scientists cannot readily predict exactly where groups will appear from one year to the next. A particular location may one year see an influx of many whales and none for several years afterwards.cite journal | author = Jonsgård, Å. | coauthors = K. Darling | year = 1977 | title = On the biology of the eastern North Atlantic sei whale, "Balaenoptera borealis" Lesson | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = Spec. Iss. 1 | pages = 124–129 ] F.O. Kapel noted a correlation between the occasional appearance of the Sei Whale west of Greenland and the occasional incursion of relatively warm waters from the Irminger Current into that area.cite journal | author = Kapel, F.O. | year =1985 | title = On the occurrence of sei whales ("Balenoptera borealis") in West Greenland waters | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = 35 | pages = 349–352] Some evidence from tagging data indicates that individual Sei Whales return off the coast of
Icelandon an annual basis.cite journal | author = Sigurjónsson, J. | year = 1983 | title = The cruise of the "Ljósfari" in the Denmark Strait (June-July 1981) and recent marking and sightings off Iceland | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = 33 | pages =667–682]
The development of explosive
harpoons and steam-powered catcher boats in the late nineteenth century allowed the exploitation of previously unobtainable large whales by commercial whalers. Because of their quick speed and elusiveness,cite journal | author = Sigurjónsson, J.|year = 1988 |title= Operational factors of the Icelandic large whale fishery | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn |volume = 38 |pages = 327–333] and later because of their comparatively small yield of oil and meat compared with other large whales, the Sei Whale was initially not methodically hunted. When stocks of the more commercially attractive Right Whales, Blue Whales, Fin Whales, and Humpback Whales became depleted, Sei Whales were hunted in earnest, particularly in the 1950s through the 1970s.
14,295 Sei Whales were captured in the North Atlantic Ocean between 1885 and 1984. They were hunted in large numbers off the coast of
Norwayand Scotlandbeginning in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and in 1885 alone, more than 700 Sei Whales were killed off Finnmark, Norway.cite journal | author = Andrews, R.C.| year= 1916 | title= The sei whale ("Balaenoptera borealis" Lesson)| journal = Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. New Ser. | volume = 1 | number = 6 | pages = 291–388] Sei Whale meat was a popular food in Norway, and it was the value of the meat that made the hunting of this difficult-to-catch species economically feasible in the early twentieth century. [cite book | author = Ingebrigtsen, A.| year = 1929 | chapter = Whales caught in the North Atlantic and other seas | title = Rapports et Procès-verbaux des réunions, Cons. Perm. Int. L’Explor. Mer, Vol. LVI.| publisher = Høst & Fils | location = Copenhagen ]
In Iceland, a total of 2,574 whales were taken from the
Hvalfjörðurwhaling station between 1948 and 1985. Since the late 1960s or early 1970s, the Sei Whale has been second only to the Fin Whaleas a preferred target of Icelandic whalers, with the demand for high-quality meat taking precedence over that for whale oil, which was once the main target of whalers.
Small numbers of Sei Whales were taken off the
Iberian Peninsulabeginning in the 1920s by Spanish whalers,cite journal | author = Aguilar, A. | coauthors = and S. Lens | year = 1981 | title = Preliminary report on Spanish whaling operations | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn |volume = 31 | pages = 639–643] off the Nova Scotian shelf in the late 1960s and early 1970s by Canadian whalers, and off the coast of West Greenland from the 1920s to the 1950s by Norwegian and Danish whalers.
North Pacific, the total reported kill of Sei Whales by commercial whalers was 72,215 between 1910 and 1975; the majority were taken after 1947.cite paper | author = Barlow, J., K. A. Forney, P.S. Hill, R.L. Brownell, Jr., J.V. Carretta, D.P. DeMaster, F. Julian, M.S. Lowry, T. Ragen, and R.R. Reeves | year = 1997 | title = U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 1996 | publisher = NOAA Tech. Mem. NMFS-SWFSC-248 | url=http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-248.PDF |format = PDF] Shore stations in Japanand Korea, processed 300–600 Sei Whales each year between 1911 and 1955. In 1959, the Japanese catch peaked when 1,340 whales were taken. Heavy exploitation by pelagicwhalers in the North Pacific began in the early 1960s, with total catches averaging 3,643 per year from 1963 to 1974 (total 43,719; annual range 1,280–6,053).cite journal | author = Tillman, M.F.| year = 1977 | title = Estimates of population size for the North Pacific sei whale | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = Spec. Iss. 1 | pages = 98–106] In 1971, after a decade of high Sei Whale catch numbers, the species became scarce in Japanese waters, and commercial whaling for the whales ended in the western North Pacific in 1975.cite book | author = Committee for Whaling Statistics | year = 1942 | title =International whaling statistics | publisher = Committee for Whaling Statistics | location = Oslo]
Off the coast of
North America, Sei Whales were hunted in waters off British Columbiafrom the late 1950s to the mid 1960s, when the number of whales captured dropped to around 14 per year. More than 2,000 were killed in British Columbia waters between 1962 and 1967.cite journal | author = Pike, G.C| coauthors = and I.B. MacAskie | year = 1969| title = Marine mammals of British Columbia| journal = Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Bull. | volume = 171] Between 1957 and 1971, Californiashore stations processed 386 whales. Commercial whaling for Sei Whales ended in the eastern North Pacific in 1971.
A total of 152,233 Sei Whales were taken in the southern hemisphere between 1910 and 1979. Whaling in the
southern oceans originally targeted Humpback Whales. By 1913, this target species became rare and the catch of Fin and Blue Whales began to increase. As these species likewise became scarce, Sei Whale catches increased rapidly in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The catch peaked in 1964 at over 20,000 Sei Whales, but by 1976, this number had dropped to below 2,000 and commercial whaling for the species ended in 1977.
The Sei Whale did not have meaningful protection at the international level until 1970, when catch quotas for the
North Pacificbegan to be set on a species basis by the International Whaling Commission(IWC). Prior to catch quotas, whalers were limited only by their ability to locate the whales.cite book | author = Allen, K.R. | year = 1980 | title = Conservation and Management of Whales | publisher = Univ. of Washington Press | location = Seattle, WA ] The Sei Whale was given complete protection from commercial whaling in the North Pacific in 1976, and quotas on Sei Whales were introduced in the North Atlantic in 1977. Southern hemisphere stocks were protected from whaling in 1979. Facing mounting evidence that several whale species worldwide were threatened with extinction, the IWC voted to implement a moratorium on commercial whaling beginning in 1986, at which time all legal whaling for Sei Whales stopped.
In the late 1970s, some "pirate" whaling took place in the eastern
North Atlantic.cite journal | author = Best, P.B. | year = 1992 | title = Catches of fin whales in the North Atlantic by the M.V. "Sierra" (and associated vessels) | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = 42 | pages = 697–700 ] There is no direct evidence of illegal whaling in the North Pacific, although the acknowledged misreporting of whaling data by the Soviet Unioncite journal | author = Yablokov, A.V. | year = 1994 | title = Validity of whaling data | doi=10.1038/367108a0 | journal = Nature | volume = 367 | pages = 108 ] means that catch data are not entirely reliable.
The species remained listed on the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Speciesin 2000, categorised as "endangered". Populations in the Northern Hemisphereare listed as CITESAppendix II, indicating that they are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but may become so if they are not listed. Populations in the Southern Hemisphereare listed as CITESAppendix I, indicating that they are threatened with extinction if trade is not halted.
Since the moratorium on commercial whaling, some Sei Whales have been taken by
Icelandic and Japanese whalers under the IWC's scientific research programme. Iceland carried out four years of scientific whaling between 1986 and 1989, catching up to 40 Sei Whales a year.cite press release | publisher = WWF-International | title = WWF condemns Iceland’s announcement to resume whaling | date = 2003-08-07| url = http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/arctic/news/index.cfm?uNewsID=8221 | accessdate = 2006-11-10 ]
Japanese scientists kill approximately 50 Sei Whales each year for this purpose. The research is conducted by the
Institute of Cetacean Research(ICR) in Tokyo, a privately-funded, non-profit institution. The main focus of the research is to examine what Sei Whales eat and to determine the level of competition between whales and fisheries. Dr. Seiji Ohsumi, Director General of the ICR, said "It is estimated that whales consume 3 to 5 times the amount of marine resources as are caught for human consumption, so our whale research is providing valuable information required for improving the management of all our marine resources."cite press release | publisher = The Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo, Japan | title = Japan not catching endangered whales | date = 2002-03-01| url = http://www.icrwhale.org/eng/SEI.pdf | accessdate = 2006-11-10] He later added that "...Sei Whales are the second most abundant species of whale in the western North Pacific, with an estimated population of over 28,000 animals. [It is] clearly not endangered."cite press release | publisher = The Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo, Japan | title = Japan's senior whale scientist responds to New York Times advertisement | date = 2002-05-20| accessdate = 2006-11-10 | url=http://www.icrwhale.org/eng/NYTimes.pdf ]
Conservation groups such as the
World Wildlife Funddispute the necessity of the research, saying that it is known that Sei Whales feed primarily on squidand planktonnot hunted by humans, and only rarely on fish. They say that the programme is "nothing more than a plan designed to keep the whaling fleet in business, and the need to use whales as the scapegoat for over-fishing by humans." The scientific quality of the research obtained under the scientific whaling programme has been criticised as being very poor; at the 2001 meeting of the IWC Scientific Committee, 32 scientists submitted a document expressing their belief that the Japanese programme lacked scientific rigour and would not meet minimum standards of academic reviewthat are widely used in science world-wide.cite journal | author = Clapham, P. et al. | year = 2002 | title = Relevance of JARPN II to management, and a note on scientific standards. Report of the IWC Scientific Committee, Annex Q1 | journal = Journal of Cetacean Research and Management | issue = supplement | pages = 395–396 | volume = 4]
The current global population of the Sei Whale is estimated at only 54,000, about one fifth of the population before the era of commercial
whaling. A 1991 study in the North Atlanticproduced a total population in that area of only 4,000.cite paper | author = Braham, H. | year = 1992 | title = Endangered whales: Status update | publisher = Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA] This study used a common method of measurement called "catch per unit effort" (CPUE), which attempts to draw conclusions about abundance based upon the amount of time and effort that is required to locate the species in question. This method is criticised in the scientific community and is not considered a true scientific index of abundance.cite paper | author = Blaylock, R.A., J.W. Haim, L.J. Hansen, D.L. Palka, and G.T. Waring | year = 1995 | title = U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stock assessments | publisher = U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo NMFS-SEFSC-363] Sei Whales were said to have been scarce in the 1960s and early 1970s off northern Norway, where plentiful numbers were taken at the end of the nineteenth century through the Second World War.cite book| author= Jonsgård, Å. |year = 1974 |chapter = On whale exploitation in the eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean | pages = 97–107 | editors = W.E. Schevill (ed.)|title= The whale problem |publisher = Harvard University Press | location= Cambridge, MA] One possible explanation for this disappearance is that the whales were overexploited, while an alternative explanation is that a drastic reduction in copepodstocks in the northeastern Atlantic during the late 1960s caused a change in Sei Whale distribution.cite journal | author = Cattanach, K.L. |coauthors = J. Sigurjonsson, S.T. Buckland, and Th. Gunnlaugsson | year = 1993 | title = Sei whale abundance in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = 43 | pages = 315–321 ] Surveys in the Denmark Straitfound 1,290 whales in 1987, and 1,590 whales in 1989. Population levels off Nova Scotiaare estimated to be between 1,393 and 2,248, with a minimum estimate of 870.
A study in 1977 produced a population estimate for the
Pacific Oceanof 9,110, based upon the catch and CPUE data. This figure is disputed as outdated by Japanese whalinginterests, which in 2002 claimed that the population of Sei Whales in the western North Pacific was over 28,000 whales, a figure not accepted by the scientific community. In Californiawaters, there was only one confirmed and five possible sightings from 1991 to 1993 aerial and ship surveys,cite paper | author = Hill, P.S. and J. Barlow | year = 1992 | title = Report of a marine mammal survey of the California coast aboard the research vessel "MacArthur" July 28 - November 5, 1991. | publisher = U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-SWFSC-169 |url=http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-169.PDF | format=PDF] cite paper | author = Carretta, J.V. and K.A. Forney | year = 1993 | title = Report of two aerial surveys for marine mammals in California coastal waters utilizing a NOAA DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft: March 9 - April 7, 1991 and February 8 - April 6, 1992 | publisher = U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-SWFSC-185 | url=http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-185.PDF | format = PDF] cite paper | author = Mangels, K.F. and T. Gerrodette | year = 1994 | title = Report of cetacean sightings during a marine mammal survey in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California aboard the NOAA ships "MacArthur" and "David Starr Jordan" July 28 - November 6, 1993 | publisher = U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-SWFSC-211 | url= http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-211.PDF | format = PDF] and there were no confirmed sightings off Oregonand Washington. Prior to commercial whaling activities, there were an estimated 42,000 Sei Whales in the North Pacific. By the end of the period of exploitation (1974), the numbers of Sei Whales in the North Pacific had been reduced to between 7,260 and 12,620 whales.
Southern Hemisphere, Sei Whale abundance estimates range between 9,800 and 12,000 whales, based upon the history of catches and CPUE in the southern oceans. The IWC reported an estimate of 9,718 whales based upon survey data between 1978 and 1988.cite journal | author = IWC | year = 1996 | title = Report of the sub-committee on Southern Hemisphere baleen whales, Annex E | journal = Rep. Int. Whal. Commn | volume = 46 | pages = 117–131 ] Prior to commercial whaling, there were an estimated 65,000 Sei Whales living in the Southern Hemisphere.
List of whale species
*"National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World", Reeves, Stewart, Clapham and Powell, 2002, ISBN 0-375-41141-0
*"Whales & Dolphins Guide to the Biology and Behaviour of Cetaceans", Maurizio Wurtz and Nadia Repetto. ISBN 1-84037-043-2
*"Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals", editors Perrin, Wursig and Thewissen, ISBN 0-12-551340-2
*"Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises", Carwardine (1995, reprinted 2000), ISBN 978-0-7513-2781-6
*ARKive - [http://www.arkive.org/species/GES/mammals/Balaenoptera_borealis/ images and movies of the sei whale "(Balaenoptera borealis)"]
* [http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/2475/all IUCN Redlist entry]
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