- Friedrich Paneth
name = Friedrich Adolf Paneth
birth_date = birth date|1887|8|31
death_date = death date and age|1958|9|17|1887|8|31
University of Hamburg,
University of Durham
University of Vienna
Zdenko Hans Skraup
Friedrich Adolf Paneth (
August 31, 1887, Vienna- September 17, 1958) was an Austrian-born British chemist. Fleeing the Nazis, he escaped to Britain and became a British citizen in 1939 but returned as director of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryin 1953.
Life and Education
Friedrich Adolf Paneth was born as son of the physiologist
Joseph Paneth. He and his three bothers were brought up in protestant faith although both parents were of Jewish descent. He was educated in the Schotten gymnasium a renowned school in Vienna. He studied chemistry at the University of Viennaand after working with Adolf von Baeyerat the University of Munichhe received his PhD with Zdenko Hans Skraupat the organic chemistry department of the University of Vienna in 1910.
He abandoned organic chemistry and joined the
radiochemistrygroup of Stefan Meyer. In 1913 he visited Frederick Soddyat the University of Glasgowand Ernest Rutherfordat the [University of Manchester] .In this year he married Else Hartmann, they had a son and daughter. After his habilitation in 1913 he became assistant of Otto Hönigschmidat the University of Prague. From 1919 till 1933 he was professor in various German universities. ( University of Hamburg1919, Berlin University1922, Königsberg University1929). In 1927 he published his results on the transformation of hydrogento helium, now known as Cold fusion. [cite journal
title = Über die Verwandlung von Wasserstoff in Helium
author = Fritz Paneth and Kurt Peters
journal = Naturwissenschaften
volume = 14
issue = 43
pages = 956-962
year = 1926
doi = 10.1007/BF01579126 ]
Hitlers Machtergreifungin 1933 he was on a lecture tour in England and did not return to Germany. In 1939 he became professor at the University of Durham where he staid until his retirement in 1953.
A call to become director of the
Max Planck Institute for Chemistryin Mainzmade him return to Germany. He worked in the Institute until his death in 1958.
He was elected a Fellow of the
Royal Societyin 1947. The mineral Panethiteis named after him.
* Assistant in Radium Research Institute attached to Vienna Academy of Science, 1912
* Assistant professor,
University of Hamburg, 1919
* Head of inorganic department of chemical institute,
Berlin University, 1922
* Head of chemical institute,
Königsberg University, 1929
* Reader in atomic chemistry,
Imperial College London, 1938; among his assistants was Eugen Glueckauf
* Professor of chemistry, University of Durham, 1939
* Head of chemistry division of joint British-Canadian atomic energy team in
* Returned to Durham and established Londonderry Laboratory for radio-chemistry, heading it until retirement, 1953
He was considered the greatest authority of his time on volatile
hydrides, and also made important contributions to the study of the stratosphere.
* [http://www.hyle.org/journal/issues/3/ruthenb.htm Biography]
title = Friedrich Adolf Paneth. 1887-1958
author = H. J. Emeléus
journal = Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society
volume = 6
pages = 226–246
year = 1960
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0080-4606%28196011%296%3C226%3AFAP1%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
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