Royal Canadian Mint

Royal Canadian Mint

Infobox Government agency
agency_name = Royal Canadian Mint

logo_width = 250px
logo_caption =
seal_caption =
formed = January 2, 1908
jurisdiction = Federal government of Canada
headquarters = Ottawa, Ontario
employees = Approx. 700 (2006) [ [ Case Study: Royal Canadian Mint] ]
minister1_name = Lawrence Cannon
minister1_pfo = Minister of Transportation, Infrastructure, and Communities
chief1_name = Ian Bennett
chief1_position = President and CEO
chief2_name = Beverly Lepine
chief2_position = COO
parent_agency = Canadian Crown
website =
footnotes =

The Royal Canadian Mint (RCM, French: "Monnaie royale canadienne") produces all of Canada's circulation coins, and manufactures circulation coins on behalf of other nations. The mint also designs and manufactures: collector coins; gold, silver, palladium, and platinum (1989–1999) bullion coins; customized medals, tokens, trade dollar watches, and, for a brief time, high end jewellery featuring coin designs. It further offers gold and silver refinery and assay services.

The RCM is a Crown corporation that operates under the legislative basis of the Royal Canadian Mint Act. All monies in Canada are technically issued with the authority of the Canadian monarch; however, all operations are overseen by the President and CEO, or Master of the Mint, who is the senior executive officer of the organization, reporting to a Board of Directors appointed by the Minister of Public Works and Government Services.

The mint has been at the forefront of currency innovation. Among the mint's technical innovations have included its plating process, which consists of a multi-ply technology that allows electromagnetic signatures to be embedded in the coins, assuring readability in the coin-processing industries. [Royal Canadian Mint 2006 Annual Report, page 14] Another innovation was the world's first coloured circulation coin, the 2004 Remembrance Day 25¢ piece, with a red poppy on the reverse. Further innovation was achieved with the adaptation of the physical vapour deposition (PVD) technology to coat its dies, extending the life of the die beyond that of past chrome-coated dies. [Royal Canadian Mint 2006 Annual Report, page 13]

In 2007, the Royal Canadian Mint was named one of Canada's Top 100 Employers, as published in "Maclean's" magazine, one of only a handful of Crown corporations to receive this honour. [cite web |url= |title=Royal Canadian Mint |publisher=eluta]

Ottawa facility

For the first fifty years of Canadian coinage (cents meant to circulate in the Province of Canada were first struck in 1858), the coins were not struck in Canada. For the most part, they were struck at the Royal Mint in London, though some were struck at the private Heaton mint in Birmingham, England. With greater coinage needs, as well as Canada's emerging status as a nation in its own right, a need was seen for coinage to be struck within Canada. A branch of the Royal Mint was authorized to be built in Ottawa.

Established as the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint, Governor General Lord Grey and Lady Grey activated the presses for the Canadian Mint on January 2, 1908. When the facility first opened, it had 61 employees.The CN Journal, The Official Publication of the Canadian Numismatic Association, Markham, Ontario, Vol. 53, No. 1, January-February 2008, p.29] Three years later, the refinery opened, and in 1915 the mint chlorine method of gold refining was introduced. In its first years, both Canadian gold coins and British sovereigns were struck, but the disuse of gold as a coinage metal meant it was not until 1967 that gold coins were again struck.

The Ottawa facility on Sussex Drive passed from British into Canadian control in 1931, reporting to the Department of Finance. The mint struck medals for military and volunteer war service between 1945 and 1947 and began producing commemorative and collector coins during Canada's centennial in 1967.

In 1969 the Government of Canada reorganized the Royal Canadian Mint as a Crown corporation. In 2006, the Royal Canadian Mint's new silver refinery was commissioned. [ Royal Canadian Mint 2006 Annual Report, page 7 ] Customers bringing their gold to Ottawa for refining now have the opportunity to have the silver refined too.

The last surviving member of the RCM’s original staff was Owen Toller. He started in the RCM as a Junior Clerk and retired as an Administrative Officer. He retired after 45 years of service on January 6, 1953. At the age of 102 years, Mr. Toller died in November 1987.

Winnipeg facility

In November 1960 the Master of the Mint, N.A. Parker, advised the Minister of Finance that there was a need for a new facility. It was recognized that there was a need to have an additional facility to produce coins. The Philadelphia Mint produced some 10¢ coins, and all numismatic coins were produced in Hull, Quebec. The facility in Ottawa served as a refinery.

In 1963 and subsequently, in 1964, the government discussed the possibility of producing a new facility, which would be functional within 2 years. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson suggested building the facility in Elliot Lake, Ontario.cite book |title=Striking Impressions |first=James A. |last=Haxby |year=1983 |isbn=0-660-91234-1]

Despite these discussions, nothing had yet occurred. A 1968 study indicated that the Ottawa Mint facility was truly antiquated. When the Royal Canadian Mint became a Crown Corporation in 1969, the belief was that a decision would be reached. Ironically, there was no need for a new facility because most of the workload was a carryover from the high demand of 1968.

Funds had been allocated to a new facility, but no real planning had begun. Once more, the emphasis was to search for a facility in Ottawa. Initially, the first consideration was to replace the existing facility altogether. In May 1969, the idea flickered out. It was decided that the Royal Canadian Mint would keep the historic building but have a new facility for the manufacturing of circulation coins.

The federal government of the time, led by Pierre Trudeau, decided to decentralize many public services. The result was a claim for restitution from the province of Manitoba, complaining about its loss of many military bases. In February 1970, Supply and Services Minister James Richardson, the Minister responsible for the RCM, proposed the possibility of a new facility in Winnipeg.

This proposal was cause for debate because it was legally stipulated that the RCM was unlike any other government operation and that money should be produced in Canada’s capital region. Another point of tension was that the Cabinet Minister was from Winnipeg. The belief was based on logistical philosophies. Plants that are over 1,000 miles apart would endure communication and distribution difficulties. A study had shown that the division had merit because raw materials could be purchased from a supplier in Alberta, rather than a competitor outside of Canada. Eventually, it was agreed upon in December 1971 that the RCM would build a facility in Winnipeg. The land was purchased in 1972 and construction began at the end of the year.

Upon completion, it was very clear that this new facility was completely different from the facility in Ottawa. Architect Etienne Gaboury designed a striking sight with its triangular form soaring above the flat prairie. (Note: E. Gaboury was Design Architect; Number Ten Architectural Group was Project Architect.) The RCM facility in Winnipeg started to manufacture coins, and the facility was officially opened in 1976. The Winnipeg branch of the Royal Canadian Mint allowed Ottawa to concentrate solely on collector coins while the Winnipeg mint would produce the entire supply of circulation coins.

The Winnipeg facility is open to the public for guided tours each weekday from 9AM to 5PM. During the summer (Victoria Day to Labour Day) they are also open on weekends. Reservations are recommended, especially for large groups. Tour prices range depending on age, group and day of week (weekends are cheaper because coins are not struck then). A number of the mint's products are also available for sale.

Foreign coins

Many foreign countries have had coinage struck at the Royal Canadian Mint, including circulation coins, numismatic coins, and ready-to-strike blanks. The customers have included governments, central banks, and treasuries. In 2005 alone, the RCM manufactured 1.062 billion coins and blanks for 14 countries. [Royal Canadian Mint 2006 Annual Report, page 25] From 1980 to 2005, the RCM has manufactured approximately 52 billion coins for 62 countries. [Royal Canadian Mint 2006 Annual Report, page 27] These coins are manufactured at the Royal Canadian Mint's facility in Winnipeg.

Part of the Winnipeg Mint’s legacy is its role in producing the circulation currency of other nations. 50 million units of the 20¢ Australian coin featuring a platypus were minted in 1981. [ [ The Royal Canadian Mint has produced coins for more than 74 countries ] ]

The Royal Canadian Mint has produced coinage for over 74 countries: centavos for Cuba, fils for Yemen, pesos for Colombia, kroner for Iceland, rupiah for Indonesia, baht for Thailand, and a thousand-dollar coin for Hong Kong. Other client nations include Barbados and Uganda.

Notable foreign coins

* In 1997, the Royal Canadian Mint produced a commemorative gold coin, issued by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority to mark the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on 1 July 1997. The gold coin bore the standard Bauhinia design on the obverse side, with a special commemorative design of the Hong Kong skyline on the reverse side. The gold coin is legal tender with HK$1,000 face value. [cite web |url= |title=Issuance of the 1997 Commemorative Gold Coin |publisher=Hong Kong Monetary Authority |date=May 7 1997] The Royal Canadian Mint item number was 621307 and sold to Royal Canadian Mint customers for C$738.

* Two years later, the Monetary and Foreign Exchange Authority of Macau commissioned the Royal Canadian Mint to create a commemorative coin to recognize the transfer of the Macau region to the People’s Republic of China. The coin is sterling silver and featured a gold cameo. The face value is 100 patacas and had a diameter of 31.103 mm and a weight of 38 grams. The Royal Canadian Mint item number is 644309 and the issue price is $102. The coin features a Portuguese ship and a Chinese barque sharing coastal waters. The historic Ma Gao Temple (Pagoda de Barra) appears in the cameo.

Master of the Mint

Traditionally, the President of the Royal Canadian Mint is known as the Master of the Mint. The current president is Ian Bennett (appointed in 2006), and the Chairman of the Board is Max C. Lewis (also appointed in 2006). The Chief Engraver is Cosme Saffioti, who follows Ago Aarand, Walter Ott, Patrick Brindley, Myron Cook, and Thomas Shingles.

The government department responsible for the Royal Canadian Mint is the Department of Transport, Infrastructure, and Communities, led by the Honourable Lawrence Cannon. There are 10 members that comprise the Board of Directors, and 13 members that comprise the Executive Team. [ Royal Canadian Mint 2005 Annual Report, page 16 ] The Royal Canadian Mint's business lines are structured into four divisions: Bullion products and refinery, Canadian Circulation Coins, Foreign Circulation, and Numismatics. [ Royal Canadian Mint 2005 Annual Report, page 10 ]

A listing of all the Masters of the Mint is as follows:

In 2006, the RCM generated revenue of $493.9 million and earned net income of $11.2 million. It had also delivered $93.1 million in seignorage to its shareholder – the Crown in right of Canada. [ Royal Canadian Mint Annual Report, page 4 ]

Notable coins and coinage innovations

V nickel

World War II saw low mintages of most coins, as the metals (especially copper and nickel) were needed for the war effort. The composition of the 5¢ coin was changed to tombac in 1942; and the design was changed to a V for Victory in 1943. The composition was changed again to nickel-chromium-plated steel in 1944.

The concept for the V design came from Winston Churchill's famous V sign, and the V denomination mark on the US 5¢ pieces of 1883–1912.Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins 2006, p.89] A novel feature was an inscription of Morse code on the coin. This International Code message meant "We Win When We Work Willingly" and was placed along the rim on the reverse instead of denticles. The regular reverse and composition were resumed in 1946. Chromium-plated steel was again used for the 5¢ coin from 1951 to 1953 during the Korean War, but the reverse was unchanged.


In 1967, the mint introduced a series of commemorative coins in honour of the Canadian centennial. Designed by Alex Colville, every coin produced that year featured a creature that is native to Canada: a rock dove on the 1¢ coin, a rabbit on the 5¢ coin, a mackerel on the 10¢ coin, a lynx on the 25¢ coin, a howling wolf on the 50¢ coin, and a Canada goose on the dollar. A commemorative gold $20 coin was also struck for collectors' sets, with a coat of arms on the reverse. It is worth noting that the Royal Canadian Mint actually wanted to commemorate Canada's 60th anniversary in 1927 with variant coin designs.


For 1973, the usual 25¢ coin reverse depicting a caribou was replaced with a Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer astride a horse, to celebrate the centennial of the founding of the North-West Mounted Police (now the RCMP).

"Loonie" and "toonie"

The major change to Canadian coinage in the 1980s was the introduction of a circulating $1 coin, widely known as the loonie because of the common loon gracing its reverse. A voyageur canoe had been planned initially, but the master reverse die was lost in shipment between Ottawa and Winnipeg, so a new design was necessary. This coin was introduced in 1987, replacing the $1 banknote completely beginning in February 1989. In 1996, a $2 circulating coin (known widely as the toonie) was introduced, featuring a polar bear on the reverse, and the $2 banknote withdrawn. The $2 coin was also a first for the mint in that it used a bi-metallic structure – the centre of the coin is bronze-coloured and the circumference is nickel-coloured.


In 1999 the mint developed a new multi-ply plating process, and began producing circulation coins using the new process in 2001. As of 2001, all circulation coins (excluding the 1¢ piece) have a mint mark with a P on the obverse of the coin. The plating process is acid based and electroplates a thin coating of nickel, then copper, then nickel again on to a steel core. [Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins, 60th Edition, 2006]


In the late 1990s the mint held a contest, soliciting designs for a set of commemorative 25¢ pieces. Twenty-four winners were selected. Twelve coins were issued in 1999 and again twelve in 2000. All winners had their initials appear somewhere on the coin. [, Path: The Passion, The Museum, Special Edition Coins, Millennium]

The coins for 1999 represented Canadian achievements and milestones, while the coins released in 2000 featured Canadians' vision of their culture and their hopes for the future. Demand for issues was high.Fact|date=February 2008

Commemoratives in the 2000s

The mint issued more commemorative circulating coins since 2000, including a commemorative 10¢ coin in 2001 and a commemorative 60th anniversary Victory nickel in 2005.

In 2004, the Royal Canadian Mint made numismatic history by issuing the world's first coloured circulation coin. The coins were produced at the Royal Canadian Mint's Winnipeg plant. The technology involved the utilization of a high-speed, computer-controlled and precision inkjet process. Approximately 30,000,000 coins went into circulation in October 2004, with Tim Hortons doughnut chain assisting with the distribution.

On October 19, 2007, the Royal Canadian Mint issued ten new collector coins, including a 25¢ coin minted to commemorate the 60th wedding anniversary of Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh; and a $15 sterling silver coin bearing the effigy of Victoria, the first from the series of five coins illustrating the effigies of the previous Canadian monarchs. [ [ The Royal Canadian Mint Issues a 2007 Line of Collector Coins] ]

Vancouver Olympics

In 2006, a partnership was reached with the Vancouver Olympic Committee, in which the RCM will produce commemoratives for the event. The non-circulating, legal-tender commemorative coins will have a face value of $25, a Canadian first. [“Olympic commems to sport $25 face”, Canadian Coin News, p.1, Bret Evans, January 9 to 22, 2007]

Regarding the circulation coins, one of the novelties is that "D.G. Regina" ("dei gratia regina", or "by the grace of God queen") will be removed from the Queen's effigy, making the 25¢ coins the first "godless circulating coins" since the 2001 International Year of the Volunteer 10¢ piece. On the 1911 issue of King George V, the inscription was accidentally left off. “14 circulating coins included in 2010 Olympic program”, Bret Evans, Canadian Coin News, January 23 to February 5, 2007 issue of Canadian Coin News ] The first circulating $1 coin will be dated 2008 but the obverse will be the standard effigy of Queen Elizabeth II by Susanna Blunt with the wording "ELIZABETH II" and "D.G. REGINA" with the Circle M privy mark.

In conjunction with Petro-Canada and the Royal Bank of Canada, commemorative Olympic 25¢ coins will be distributed from 2007 to 2009. The first and second coins for general circulation featured a curling and ice hockey motif. The third coin was made to commemorate the 2010 Winter Paralympics. The reverse featured wheelchair curling.

Award-winning coins

*1985 Coin of the Year, Presented by World Coin News, Coin: 1988 Olympic $20 coin, Downhill Skier (Note: Olympic coins in Canada are usually produced three years prior to the event)

*1986 Coin of the Year, Presented by World Coin News, Best Gold Coin, Theme: 450th Anniversary, Jacques Cartier Voyage of Discovery

*1988 Coin of the Year, Presented by World Coin News, Best Silver Coin, Theme: 400th Anniversary, Davis Passage

*1989 Coin of the Year, Presented by World Coin News, Best Silver Coin, Theme: Bicentennial Voyage of Mackenzie River

*1993 Coin of the Year, Presented by World Coin News, Best Gold Coin, Theme: Antique Autos

*1994 Coin of the Year, Presented by Munchen Magazin, Best Coin, Theme: Anne of Green Gables

*1996 Coin of the Year, Presented by Munchen Magazin, Best Coin, Theme: 100th Anniversary of Gold found in Klondike

*1997 Coin of the Singapore International Coin Show, Best Coin, Theme: Haida Contemporative Art

*1998 Coin of the Year, Presented by World Coin News, Best Gold Coin, Theme: Alexander Graham Bell

*1998 Most Popular Coin, Presented by World Coin News, Most Popular, Theme: Two-dollar coin with Polar Bear Design

*1999 International Hologram Manufacturers Association and Holography, Category: Excellence in Holographic Production, Theme: 20th Anniversary Gold Bullion Maple Leaf coin

*2000 Most Popular Coin, Presented by World Coin News, Most Popular, Theme: 125th Anniversary of RCMP

*2000 Most Technologically Advanced Coin, World Mint Directors Conference 2000, Theme: $20 coin featuring Hologram cameo on the Transportation Series

*2000 Coin of the Year, Presented by World Coin News, Best Gold, Theme: Mother and Child

*2002 Coin of the Year, Asia Money Fair, Theme: Asian Symbols Five Blessings Commemorative, Path on site: The Passion, The Museum, Award Winning Coins]

*2006 Most Innovative Coin of the Year, World Mint Directors Conference 2006, Theme: Coloured 25¢ Poppy Coin [Canadian Coin News,]

*2007 Best New Coin Award, Awards for Excellence in Currency: Presented by the International Association of Currency Affairs
**Category: Best Coin 25-cent coloured circulation coin
**Theme: Creating a Future Without Breast Cancer

*2007 2007 Coin of the Year Award and 2007 Most Innovative Coin Award, Presented at the 2008 World Money Fair, presented by Krause Publications
**Category:Coin of the Year and Most Innovative Coin Coin: Big and Little Bear Constellations coins
**Theme: Constellation

*2007 2007 Most Inspirational Coin Award, Presented at the 2008 World Money Fair, presented by Krause Publications
**Category: Most Inspirational Coin
**Coin: Pink Ribbon coin Theme: Ribbon of Hope

Coin markings, including mint marks and privy marks

*A – Used on 2005 palladium test coin to signify the coins were struck from Lot A.

*B – Used on 2005 palladium test coin to signify the coins were struck from Lot B.

*C – Placed on sovereigns produced at the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint, between 1908 and 1919.

*Dot – In December 1936, King Edward VIII abdicated the throne in favour of his brother, who became King George VI. The problem was that the Royal Mint had been designing the effigy of King Edward VIII, and now a new effigy had to be created. The 1¢, 10¢ and 25¢ pieces in 1937 were struck from dies with a 1936 date on the reverse. To distinguish that these coins were issued in 1937, a Dot Mint Mark was placed on the 1936 dies, beneath the year. These coins fulfilled demand for coins until new coinage tools with the effigy of King George VI were ready. While the 10¢ and 25¢ coins are more common, the 1¢ coins are rare, with about a half-dozen known to exist. The dot after the date on the 1937 5¢ coin is a mint error caused by a chip in the master dies.

*H – Used to identify coins that were struck for Canada by the Birmingham Mint, also known as the Heaton Mint, until 1907.

*Innukshuk – All circulation coins for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics have the Innukshuk Mint Mark on the obverse of the coin.

*International Polar Year – The obverse of the 2007 International Polar Year $20 numismatic coin has the logo for the International Polar Year on the obverse of the coin.

*Maple Leaf – All coins with a Maple Leaf Mint Mark were struck in 1948 due to an emergency with coin toolage. The granting of India’s independence resulted in the removal of IND:IMP (meaning Emperor of India) from King George VI’s effigy. Due to the demand for circulation coins in 1948, coins for 1948 could not be struck until the new tools were received. The new tools would have the IND:IMP removed from them. In the meanwhile, coins were produced in 1948 with a year of 1947 on them. A small Maple Leaf Mint Mark was struck beside 1947 on the reverse of all coins to signify the year of production.

*P – From 2001 to 2006, most 1¢, 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, and 50¢ coins issued for circulation were struck with a P Mint Mark to represent the Royal Canadian Mint’s plating process.

*Paralympic Logo – All circulation coins for the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games have the Paralympic Games logo on the obverse of the coin.

*RCM Logo – At the CNA Convention in July 2006, the RCM unveiled its new privy mark to be used on all circulation and numismatic coinage. The agenda behind the implementation of this new privy mark was to help increase the RCM’s image as a brand. The aim of the logo is to educate coin users and coin collectors, respectively, that the RCM is minting Canada’s coins. The first circulation coin to have this new mint mark is the 10th anniversary $2 coin. The first numismatic coin to have this new marking is the Snowbirds coin and stamp set. ["Coin World", Vol. 47, Issue 2417, Page 74, August 7, 2006]

*T/É – In an effort to push the standard of quality higher, the RCM started to experiment with a gold bullion coin that would have a purity of 99.999%. The result was a gold maple leaf test bullion coin with the mint mark of T/É (to signify test/épreuve). The date on the obverse of the coin was 2007 and it had a mintage of 500.

*Teddy bear – When the RCM released its Baby Lullabies and CD Set, a sterling silver $1 coin was included in the set. The $1 coin included a privy mark of a teddy bear.

*W – Used occasionally on specimen sets produced in Winnipeg, starting in 1998.

*W/P – Used on the special edition uncirculated set of 2003. The W mint mark indicates that the coin was produced in Winnipeg and the P indicates that the coins are plated.

Notable medallions

* In 1983, the RCM issued a medallion to commemorate Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer. The composition of the medal is 50% pure silver and has a diameter of 36 mm. The coin had a production limit of 100,000 and its issue price was $24.50.

* The RCM created a medallion to honour Elvis Presley. The medal features the word Graceland (above an image of the mansion and its gates) and an actual denomination of $10. The reverse of the medal features an engraving of Elvis, along with the words "The Man/The Music/The Legend". The medallion itself is undated, but as the medal is 10 ounces, one would assume that it was made for the 10th anniversary of the singer's death. Additional information can be found in the certificate of authenticity which states that this Elvis Presley medal was authorized by Legendary Coins and struck by the Royal Canadian Mint. The packaging bears a copyright date of 1987, and states that the "medal is for commemorative purposes only" and is "not legal tender". [ ]

* Medallions honouring hockey legends have been created. To commemorate Mario Lemieux's induction into the Hockey Hall of Fame, a special set honouring all the inductees was issued in 1997. In 1999, a nickel medallion was issued to honour Wayne Gretzky's retirement. The issue price was $9.99 with a mintage of 50,000.

Notable firsts

* 1st colour 1999 20th anniversary GML: 5-coin set [Charlton Standard of Canadian Coins, p.440]

* 1st hologram 1999: GML hologram set – 5-coin set [Charlton Standard of Canadian Coins, p.441]

* 1st irregular shaped coin 2006: square sterling silver beaver

* 1st coloured coin using plasma technology: commemorative $20 plasma coin for the International Polar Year

* 1st million-dollar face-value coin: 100 kg 99.999% pure gold

Million-dollar coin

On May 3, 2007, the Royal Canadian Mint unveiled a Gold Maple Leaf coin by artist Stanley Witten, with a face value of $1 million Canadian dollar. The weight of the coin is 100 kilograms, and measures 50 cm in diameter by 3 cm thick. The coin is mainly a promotional product to give the RCM a higher international profile. The 100-kilogram coin was conceived as a showpiece to promote the RCM's new line of 99.999 per cent pure, one-ounce gold maple leaf bullion coins. The coin is made only to order and so far five have been produced as of September 2007.

It is not 'struck' like a conventional coin, but is instead cast then machined to the right size and shape. The coin drew many comparisons with an oversized coin from Austria, a €100,000 gold coin, worth about C$153,000. The Austrian coin is 37 centimetres across and weighs 31 kilograms. [cite news |url= |title=Royal Canadian Mint introduces world's first 100-kilogram pure gold coin |publisher=CBC |date=May 3 2007 |accessdate=2007-07-14 ]


External links

* [ Royal Canadian Mint's Official Website]
* [ Royal Canadian Mint Act]
* [ Royal Canadian Numismatic Association]
* [ Numismatic Network Canada]
* [ Canadian Coin News]
* Royal Canadian Mint press release FTP site, [] or ftp to username=communications, password=RCM2007, ftp username and password published on the Royal Canadian Mint web site [] on May 42007

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