Infobox Ethnic group
group = Rajus

caption = Notable Rajus: Col. Dr. DS RajuAlluri Sita Rama Raju
PS Kumaraswamy RajaPAC Ramasamy Raja
Ramalinga RajuAshok Gajapati Raju
BV RajuDVS RajuKVK Raju
AVS RajuJVK Narayana Raju
Ram Gopal VarmaPrabhasRavi Teja
popplace = Andhra PradeshKarnatakaTamil NaduOrissa
religions = Hinduism
related = Kshatriya, Rajput

"Raju" is a Telugu variation of the Sanskrit word "Raj" and "Raja", [Baby Names World [http://www.babynamesworld.com/meaning_of_Raj.html] ] meaning King, Prince, Lord or of a Regal, Military nature. [Geneology Family Ecducation [http://genealogy.familyeducation.com/surname-origin/raju] ] In modern times it is a commonly used given name and surname. Rajus (Rajulu in Telugu) is used to refer to a prominent and influential Telugu Kshatriya Caste in Andhra Pradesh. [Parties, Election and Mobilisation: K. Rama Chandra Murty [http://books.google.com/books?id=x7pD5oTDw0IC&pg=PA158&dq=rajus+kshatriya&lr=&sig=jwjJrkgk2vNbUM5-RO2fIhe0wGQ#PPA18,M1] ] [Farmers of India [http://books.google.com/books?id=4P1IAAAAMAAJ&q=rajus+social&dq=rajus+social&lr=&pgis=1] ] [Teaching Politics: Delhi University Political Science Association [http://books.google.com/books?id=_Tk5AAAAIAAJ&q=reddy+kshatriya&dq=reddy+kshatriya&lr=&pgis=1] ]

During the British Raj they were known as "Ratsas" [Telug-English Dictionary: Peter Percival [http://books.google.com/books?id=fXEIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA445&dq=ratsawars=&as_brr=1#PPA407,M1] ] and "Rajavars", which means of or belonging to the caste of "Ratsawars" [Standing Information Regarding the Official Administration of the Madras Presidency in Each Department.:C.D. Maclean [http://books.google.com/books?id=23gdAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA341&dq=velama&lr=&as_brr=1] ] (Raja Caste), [Sri Rebala Lakshmi Narasa ReddyEndowment Lectures, 1976: Satish Chandra, Sri Venkatesvara University [http://books.google.com/books?id=PkAtAAAAIAAJ&q=reddy+kshatriya&dq=reddy+kshatriya&lr=&pgis=1] ] using the title of "Raju". Some sections have centuries old history [The Epic of Palnadu: A Story and Translation of Palnati Virula Kahtah: Gene H. Roghair. [http://books.google.com/books?id=4YoOAAAAYAAJ&q=rajus+sudras&dq=rajus+sudras&lr=&as_brr=0&pgis=1] ] of being nobility [Adaptation: Roberto de’ Nobili [http://books.google.com/books?id=2rYWAAAAIAAJ&q=rajus+race&dq=rajus+race&lr=&pgis=1] ] while the bulk of the community has a history of being large landholding agriculturalist-warriors. [The Background of Maratha Renaissance in the 17th Century: Historical Survey: Narayan Keshav Behere [http://books.google.com/books?id=l-Q9AAAAIAAJ&q=rajus+kshatriya&dq=rajus+kshatriya&lr=&pgis=1] ] Many were hereditary Barons known as Mandaleshwars in the pre-Islamic era and as Zamindars or Jagirdars during the Nizams and British era, the most prominent being the Gajapathi Kings of Vizianagaram, [Vizianagaram (Zamindari) 13 Gun Salute [http://uqconnect.net/~zzhsoszy/ips/v/vizianagram.html] ] Karvetinagar, [Nityasumangali: Devadasi Tradition in South India: Saskia C. Kersenboom-Story [http://books.google.com/books?id=lFR06tVELyIC&pg=PA84&dq=karvetinagar&sig=aJF4TG2qwGPyxuwudTCEFs7EnfA#PPA84,M1] ] [Shanmukha: Sri Shanmukh Ananda fine Arts & Sangeetha Sabha [http://books.google.com/books?id=bVM5AAAAIAAJ&q=karvetinagar&dq=karvetinagar&pgis=1] ] Peddapuram and Anegundi, [Anegundi (Zamindar) [http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/a/anegundi.html] ] the direct descendents of the Vijayanagar Aravidu Dynasty [Newsind Press [http://www.newindpress.com/NewsItems.asp?ID=IEK20061223012833&Page=K&Title=Southern+News+-+Karnataka&Topic=0&] ] .

They make up around 2 percent of the Andhra Pradesh state population, [Democratic Process and Electoral Politics in Andhra Pradesh, India pg 18 [http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/working_papers/wp180.pdf] ] concentrated mainly in the Coastal Andhra region with pockets in the Rayalaseema and Telangana as well as the North Arcot and Rajapalayam of Tamil Nadu, Bellary of Karnataka and Ganjam of Orissa. Despite their small population they do have some political influence [Encyclopaedia of Political Parties: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh: O.P. Ralhan [http://books.google.com/books?id=P4lCjG1DUV4C&pg=PA261&dq=rajus+sudras&lr=&as_brr=0&sig=0LE-HPTSgndhl5qcSxermZSR07s] ] due to the wealth they obtained from taking advantage of the advances in agricultural techniques during the green revolution [Farmer, Rituals and Modernization: A Sociological Study: Swapan kumar Bhattacharyya [http://books.google.com/books?id=zw81AAAAMAAJ&q=rajus+social&dq=rajus+social&lr=&pgis=1] ] [India’s Social Problems in Twenty First Century: M.U. Qureshi [http://books.google.com/books?id=Du_FNr9R2XcC&pg=PA298&dq=rajus+green+revolution&sig=eau4-HDrf9qiWU2g5eTPvDXgnDY] ] and the importance placed on educational after the land ceiling act. [Politics for Power: The Role of Caste and Factions in Andhra Pradesh, 1880-192-: N. Innaiah [http://books.google.com/books?id=WMtAAAAAMAAJ&q=rajus+land+ceiling&dq=rajus+land+ceiling&pgis=1] ]

Rajus use "Raju" or "Varma" in the Andhra regions and "Deo" in the Orissa regions as an agnomen for their last name. Varma in Sanskrit means "Armor", "Protection" [Ancestory.com [http://www.ancestry.com/facts/Varma-family-history.ashx] ] [Sahitya Patrika: University of Dacca Dept. of Bengali [http://books.google.com/books?id=JtMgAAAAMAAJ&q=varma+title+kshatriya&dq=varma+title+kshatriya&lr=&pgis=1] ] and Deo in Sanskrit means "God" or "Lord". In Telugu tradition the family name is written first followed by the given name and then the caste title. For example name of Alluri Sita Rama Raju, a prominent freedom fighter in the mid 19th century, is interpreted as Sita Ram of the Alluri family and Raju for Kshatriya Raju caste. Similarly name of Penmatsa Ram Gopal Varma, a prominent Bollywood and Tollywood movie director-producer, is interpreted as Ram Gopal of the Penmatsa family and Varma for Kshatriya Raju caste.

=History=There have been varying accounts about the origins of the Raju community. Some include them among the military tribes of Rajput descent.

Regarding this community Edgar Thurston in his seven volume "Castes and Tribes of Southern India" writes..."The Maharajas of Vizianagaram claim to be Kshatriyas from the Rajputana and the leaders of the people of gotrams said to have come to the Northern Circars centuries ago. It is noted in connection with the battle of Padmanabham in the Visakhapatnam district (1794 AD) that Rajputs formed a rampart round the corpse of Vijay Rama Raju. Padmanabham will long be remembered as the Flodden of the Rajputs of Vizianagaram..." [Edgar Thurston: Castes and Tribes of South India Vol. 6 Pg. 236, 240-241 [http://www.openlibrary.org/details/castestribesofso06thuriala] ] "as a class they are the handsomest and best developed men in the country and differ so much in feature and build from other Hindus that they may usually be distinguished at a glance...they are mostly Vaishnavites, and their priests are Brahmans...Rajus of course assume the sacred thread, and are very proud and particular in their conduct, though meat eating is allowed...In all the more well-to-do families the females are kept in strict seclusion...Brahmanical rites of Punya Havachanam (Purification), Jata Karma (Birth ceremony), Nama Karanam (Naming ceremony), Chaulam (Tonsure), and Upanayanam (Thread ceremony) are performed...at weddings the Kasi Yatra (Mock flight to Benares) or Snatha Kavritham is performed...the custom of sending a sword to represent an unavoidably absent bridegroom at a wedding is not uncommon...at their wedding they worship a sword, which is a ceremony usually denoting a soldier caste...they use a wrist string made of cotton and wool, the combination peculiar to Kshatriyas, to tie the wrists of the happy couple..." [Ethnographic Notes in Southern India By Edgar Thurston pg 41 [http://books.google.com/books?id=JR0kAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA579&dq=reddi+kapu&lr=&as_brr=1#PPA41,M1] ] "in some villages, Rajus seem to object to the construction of a pial, or raised platform, in front of their houses. The pial is the lounging place where visitors are received by day. The Rajus claim to be Kshatriyas so other castes should not sit in their presence..." [Edgar Thurston: Castes and Tribes of Southern India Vol 6 pg. 247-256. [http://www.openlibrary.org/details/castestribesofso06thuriala] ]

Historically South Indian royal families of Kshatriyas (Rajus) had marital relationship with Central and North Indian royal families, like Rajas of Vizianagaram, Salur and Kurupam had marital relationships with Rajputana royal families. [ Lineage of Vizianagaram Kings [http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/v/vizianagram.html] ]


The history of South India and the Puranas like reveal that the Andhra Kshatriyas or Kshatriyas of Andhra Pradesh descended from the Aryavarta(North India) to the South due to internal conflicts, foreign invasions, famine etc. Vayu Purana, Buddhist and Jain literatures mention about migration of Ikshvakus/ Kshatriyas to South India.

Rajus traditional accounts claim descent from Ikshvaku, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Paricchedi and Kota Vamsa. [ [http://indculture0.tripod.com/rajus.htm Vepachedu Education] ]

Some historians and traditional accounts link Rajus to ancient Andhra Ikshvakus, which was the first Kshatriya kingdom in Andhra which ruled during 2nd and 3rd Centuries CE and are purportedly linked to ancient Ikshvakus of Kosala, but this Ikshvaku origin of Rajus does not have strong evidences and needs to be further verified.

According to most historians and by the inscriptional and folklore evidences of Paricchedi and Chagi ruling clans, during 4th - 5th century AD few Suryavanshi Kshatriyas of four clans travelled from North India to South, where they initially worked as feudatories of Vakataka before establishing Vishnukundina Kingdom. [A History of Telugu Literature. Pg. 36 [http://books.google.com/books?id=4ZUOAAAAYAAJ&q=&pgis=1] ] While Chandravanshi Kshatriyas of Andhra are said to be descendents of Eastern Chalukyas and few other Kshatriya dynasties. According to legends, the Kshatriya sage Agastya was instrumental in spreading the Aryan culture from North India to the South in Ancient period.

Basing on ancient inscriptions, traditional accounts and the Historians Kshatriya Rajus of Andhra are said to be descendents of the following ancient clans:
#Vishnukundina: A folktale claims Madhav Varma of the Vishnukundina dynasty led the original members of their gotras to Andhra.
#Chalukyas: Chandravanshi Rajus are said to be descendents of Eastern Chalukyas.
#Parichedis: The forefathers of the Pusapatis.
#Kota Vamsa: Dhananjaya gotra Kshatriya kings.
#Chagi: Forefathers of the Sagis and Vatsavais
#Chedi (Haiheya-Kalachuri-Kona Chodas): Chodarajus
#Gajapati and Eastern Ganga: Kurupam and Salur zamindars claim descent from them.
#Matsya of Oddadi (Orissa), which is linked to ancient Matsya Kingdom: The zamindars of Madgole claim descent from them.

*Rajus are divided into Two sects (as per ancient Kshatriya tradition based on Vansh): [ [http://kshatrias.com/common/kshatriya.aspx Kshatriyas:: About Kshatriyas ] ]
#Suryavanshi (Sun Dynasty) include Vishnukundina, Paricheda, Chagi, Chola-Chalukyas (Cholas claimed Suryavanshi and Chalukyas were Chandravanshi, the two families merged) Eastern Ganga and Gajapati.
#Chandravanshi (Lunar Dynasty) includes Eastern Chalukyas, Kota Vamsa, Kalachuris (Chedi-Haihaya), Saluva and Aravidu dyanasties of Vijayanagar and Matsyas of Oddadi.


*Suryavanshis and Chandravanshis are further subdivided into Four Gotras.

A poem called "Sri Krishna-vijayam" dated 1540 A.D. tells of a migration of these four clans to Telingana led by Madhav Varma. [A Manual of the District of Vizagapatam, in the Presidency of Madras By David Freemantle Carmichael [http://books.google.com/books?id=6dBNAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA76&dq=velama&lr=&as_brr=1#PPA277,M1] ] While Rajus of Coastal Andhra and Rajapalayam have above four gotras, the Rajus of Karnataka also have three additional gotras:

#Atreya [Hindu Tribes and Castes By Matthew Atmore Sherring pg 128 [http://books.google.com/books?id=8V4IAAAAQAAJ&dq=] ]

*Each Gotra is again sub-divided into hundreds of endogamous sects based on surnames that are named after villages of origin, a famous member of the clan, personality etc.
*Sage Kaundinya (Kundin) was the son of Vasishtha and nephew of Agastya. [Kshatriya Seva Samiti [http://kshatriyas.org/Aboutus/ReadMore/default.aspx] ]
*Dhananjaya is a branch of Vishwamitra.
*Pasupati is a branch of Kashyapa.

A book entitled Sri Andhra Kshatriyalu Vamsha Ratnakaram elaborates on the traditional accounts and genealogy of the Kshatriya Raju community of Coastal Andhra and was written by Varahala Raju Buddharaju in Telugu. This book gives genealogy details of the 109 surnames of Andhra Kshatriya Rajus and there Four gotras.

To see a list of towns that were the source of the surnames see towns and to see the list of common names with Gotra see Gotras.


Vishnukundinas, one of the ancient clans that ruled in Andhra Pradesh from 5th to 7th centuries. It is believed that Vishnukundina Madhava Varma along with members of the other three gotras conquered the Salankayanas and established there rule. [Social and Economic Conditions in Eastern Deccan from AD. 1000- AD 1250. A. Vaidehi Krishnamoorthy. 1970. Deccan India, Originally presented as the author’s thesis, Osmania University. Pg. 159] Some of the feudal kingoms of this time were the Kotas, Chagis, and Paricchedi.

The Paricchedis Kings were ancestors of the Pusapati royal family who built Bezawada (Modern Vijayawada) off the river Krishna by 626 AD and another capital in Kollipaka establishing themselves for nine centuries there. [A History of Telugu Literature. Pg. 36 [http://books.google.com/books?id=4ZUOAAAAYAAJ&q=&pgis=1] ] They were staunch patrons of Hindu Dharma in contrast to the Chalukyas, who initially were patrons of Jainism. [Mediaeval Jainism: With Special Reference to the Vijayanagara Empire By Bhasker Anand Saletore [http://books.google.com/books?id=D71KAAAAMAAJ&q=paricchedi&dq=paricchedi&lr=&pgis=1] ] The family name was changed to Pusapati after moving to the coastal region. The name is derived from the Sanskrit "Pushavat" ("Pushan"), meaning of the sun, to highlight their Suryavanshi lineage. They founded the city of Vizianagaram, named after Vijay Rama Raju, spelled with a "Z" to differentiate it from the Vijayanagar Dynasty in Hampi. They obtained the title of "Gajapathi", after the battle of Nandapur, in the northern circars in the 16th century.

The Raju families of Rajapalayam are descendents of families led by the brother of the Vizianagaram Maharaja, Pusapati Chinna Raju, who initially settled at "Kila-raja-kula-raman" and then moved their settlements to Rajapalayam. The original emigrants served under Chokkanath Nayak, king of Madurai. They purchased land from Vijay Ranga Chokkanath Nayak and constructed Rajapalayam in 1885. The word "palayam" is frequently used in many Tamil cities as a suffix and it translates roughly to "Fort". [History of Rajapalayam. [http://www.rajapalayam.com/about.html] ]

Chalukya Period

Chalukyas were a royal dynasty that succeeded the Vishnukundinas and ruled large parts of southern and central India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. As early as the first century, they were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahana rule. Historians generally agree that the Chalukyas originated from Karnataka, were led into Andhra by Pulakesi II, who appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as his Viceroy. On death of Pulakesi II, Kubja Vishnuvardhana declared himself king of the Eastern deccan and his dynasty was known as the Eastern Chalukyas. The Western Chalukyas were the forfathers of the Solankis of Gujarat.

*Eastern Chalukya

The Eastern Chalukyas, also known as Vengi Chalukyas parceled out their territory into many small principalities (estates) held by the nobility consisting of collateral branches of the ruling house of Elamanchili, Pithapuram and Mudigonda. The Eastern Chalukyas who were Chandravanshi Kshatriyas were closely connected by marriage ties with other Kshatriya families (Kona Haihayas (Heheya, Kalachuris), Kolanu Saronathas, Chagis, Parichedas and Kota Vamsas etc.) [The Andhras through the Ages: Kandavalli Balendu Sekharan]

*Chedi-Kalachuri-Kona Chodas

The Matsyas, Chedis, Haihayas and Kalachuris seem to share a common mythylogical and historical background with possible ancestry links to ancient Matsya Desa. The Chedis (A.K.A. Haihaya, Kalachuri) eventually became the Chodarajus of Kona. Historians such as Dr. P.B. Desai are emphatic about the central Indian origin of the Karnataka Kalachuris who are also referred to as "Katachuris" (shape of a sharp knife), "Kalanjara-pura-vara-dhis-vara" (Lord of Kalanjara) and "Haihaya" (Heheya). Mount Kalanjara is in north central India, east of the Indus Valley floodplain.

Historians have also pointed out that several Kalachuri kings were related to Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances and had ruled from places like Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur. By the time they are mentioned in the Telugu epic "Battle of Palnadu", they are referred to as the Haihaya family of the Kona region (Amalapuram and Razole taluqs of the present East Godavari District), and the Haihaya family of Palanadu, feudatories of the Chalukyas. The Kona Chiefs later took the title of Chodas, loyal governors for the newly formed Chola-Chalukya empire. Their gotra is Kasyapa.

*Kota Vamsa (Dharanikota) ("Fort Dynasty") [Answers.com [http://www.answers.com/topic/kota-907] ]

The Kota kings, Kshatriyas of Dhananjya gotra ruled from Dharanikota during the 11th and 12th century AD. Last King of this dynasty was Kota Betaraja. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=430nAMZz8LwC&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=kota+keta+raja&source=web&ots=_KTwnPrYjw&sig=6oY_2LnEAQcEkD80wVGfjwuaVwc&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result] ] [V. Ramachandra Rao: Vepachedu Education Foundation [http://indculture0.tripod.com/morekammas2.htm] ] The Jampana, Dantuluri, Uppalapati, Pakalapati and Nallaparaju royal families of Dhananjaya Gotra, who were Zamindars of "Rama-Chandra-Puram", [Orissa Gov.NIC.IN [http://orissagov.nic.in/e-magazine/Orissareview/Aug2006/engpdf/aug-06.pdf] ] "Mogalthur", "Kotapalli", "Ghandavaram", "Kuppili," "Moida" and "Mutta Talaga Chirala", of which the current direct descendent is actor turned politician Krishnam Raju Uppalapathi, uncle of popular Telugu actor Prabas Uppalapathi, all claim descent from this ancient dynasty. [Studies in south India Jainism. M.S. Rama Swami Ayyangar, B. Seshagiri Rao [http://books.google.com/books?id=BBUdAAAAMAAJ&q=kota+dhananjaya&dq=kota+dhananjaya&lr=&pgis=1] ]


The Chagis have been around since the Chalukyas at least and possible the 6th or 7th century. They were mentioned as subordinate Chiefs of the Chalukyas and Kakatiyas. In Yanama-lakud-uru, south of Bezawada and inscription is left in honor of Tulukam Velnadu Sagi Doraya Raju dated 1215 A.D. In 1246 inscriptions describe the reign of Chagi Manma Raju and in 1230 grants by Chagi Pota Raju. An inscription in Gudimetla on a fort dated around 1268 A.D. during the reign of Kakatiya Rudrama Devi Maharaju states that Sagi Pota Raju was her commander in chief. Sagi Gannama was a governor under Vira Pratapa Purushottama Gajapati (AD 1462-1496). He built a hill fort in Vinukonda. This fort was captured by Krishna Deva Raya. Munagalapalle south of Nandigama. [ Lists of the Antiquarian Remains in the Presidency of Madras: Robert Sewell pg 43, 56-7 [http://books.google.com/books?id=1tU0AAAAIAAJ&q=chagi+sagi&dq=chagi+sagi&lr=&pgis=1] ]

The royals of "Kota Uratla" and "Thangedu" royal families claim to be descendents of the Chagis, with their name changing over time to Sagi. [Historical Sketches of Ancient Dekhan By Kandadai Vaidyanatha Subrahmanya Aiyer [http://books.google.com/books?id=1tU0AAAAIAAJ&q=chagi+sagi&dq=chagi+sagi&lr=&pgis=1] ] The founder of Peddapuram line of kings was Sagi Potha Raju who participated in the battle of Palnadu in 1178-1182. The family attained the title of Jagapati in the 16th century and changed their surname to Vatsavai in honor of a fort during the times of Vatsavayi Timma Raju 1555-1607. [Andhra Between the Empires. Y. Sudershan Rao Suleka Publishers, Hanamankonda 1991 pg 7]

All these clans were important participants in the battle of Palnadu which turned out to be a battle over social changes. In it a "Brahma Naidu" sought the cooperation of all the royal families to bring about social change to do away with caste distinctions and bring about a more egalitarian society. He was opposed by the Chalukyas and especially the Haihayas as well as their loyal supports who wanted to keep the current rigid social system that was being practiced. It was supposedly a very bloody battle in which Brahma Naidu's faction lost but in the long run it brought about the demise of the caste system as it was practiced amongst Telugu royals.

The Eastern Chalukyas through marital alliances merged into the Cholas and ruled from 1076 C.E to 1019 C.E as Chalukya-Cholas and finally lost control to the Kakatiyas. [The Andhras through the Ages: Kandavalli Balendu Sekharan]

Kshatriyas in Kakatiya Period

There were few Kshatriya kingdoms in Kakatiya period. The Chagis, Kota Kings and Paricchedis continued to hold onto their regions albeit as subordinate rulers of Kakatiyas. There are inscriptions during Kakatiya rule mentioning Pericheda Bhimaraju splitting lordship of the Guntur region with Kota kings, [No. 395. (A. R. No. 94 of 1917.) (Published in the Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society, Vol. IV, pp. 147-64.) S. 1183. (Durmati)] the Chodarajus were ruling in Narasaraopeta, the Sagis were described as Kshatriyas ruling with Gudimetal as their capital and a Rudraraju was the General of Nathavadi region allied to the Kakatiyas. [ [http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/south_indian_inscriptions/volume10/kakatiya_dynasty_1.html South Indian Inscriptions - Volume 10 - Kakatiya Dynasty Inscriptions @ whatisindia.com ] ] [ No. 257. (A. R. No. 324 of 1915.) On the Garudastambha in the temple of Venugopalasvami, Uppumaguluru, Narasaraopeta Taluk, same District. S. 1133. Damaged and partly illegible. Refers to the gift of an oil-mill and land made by Balli Chodaraju presumably to some temple.] [(A. R. No. 138 of 1917.) On a slab lying in front of the temple of Venugopalasvami, Potturu, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1168. Incomplete. The portion which describes the actual grant is missing. The portion available refers to what was probably a gift made to a Siva temple by Paricheda Bhimaraja, Tammu Bhimaraju, Devaraju and Ganapa Deva Raju for the merit of their father Komma Raju and mother Surala Devi. Contains the usual Parichedi titles.] [No. 373. (A. R. No. 283 of 1924.) On a pillar lying in the temple of Chandramaulisvara, Anumanchipalli, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1182. (Raudri) States that a certain Brahmin Chavali Bhaskara consecrated the image of Sagi-Ganapesvara and that king Sagi Manma endowed the temple with land. Describes the Sagi family as of Kshatriya caste (bahujakula) and gives the donor’s genealogy.] [No. 468. (A. R. No. 318 of 1924.) On a pillar lying near a dilapidated mosque among the ruins of the fort at Gudimetta, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1213. States that Dadi Somaya-Sahini and Peddaya-Sahini gave lands to the temple of Visvanatha-Mahadeva who were the officers of Rudraraju.] [No. 544. (A. R. No. 270 of 1924.) On a pillar set up in the temple of Anjaneyasvami at Konakanchi, same Taluk and District. Undated. States that, while Sagi Potaraja was ruling the Nathavadi country with Gudimetla as his capital, his kampu Birama’s sons Kassevu-Setti and Kurivi-Setti and the latter’s wife Surama got the temple of Narendresvara plastered, consecrated the images of Narayana Deva and Brahma Deva and also got the temples of attendant gods plastered, and gave two tanks for the naivedya and Patrapagudamu in these temples. Also states that Kurri-Setti of the Teliki thousand tribe of Bejevada presented two lamps to the temples.]

The Kakatiyas were from the Sudra clan, after Kakatiya King Ganapatideva married his two daughters into two Kshatriya family clans (Chalukyas and Kotas), Kakatiyas started claiming Kshatriya status as evidenced by an inscription found in Guntur District. [Social and Economic Conditions in Eastern Deccan from $A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1250 By A. Vaidehi Krishnamoorthy [http://books.google.com/books?id=YekEAAAAMAAJ&q=kakatiya+chalukya+prince+marriage&dq=kakatiya+chalukya+prince+marriage&pgis=1] ] [The history of India By Mountstuart Elphinstone [http://books.google.com/books?id=y2UBAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA241&dq=kakatiya+chalukya+prince#PPA242,M1] ] Ganapatideva's first daughter Rudramadevi was married to Veerabhadra, Eastern Chalukyan prince of Nidadavolu [History of the Minor Chāḷukya Families in Medieval Āndhradēśa By Kolluru Suryanarayana [http://books.google.com/books?id=f6seAAAAMAAJ&q=kakatiya+chalukya+prince+marriage&dq=kakatiya+chalukya+prince+marriage&pgis=1] ] and his second daughter Ganapamba was married to Kota Betaraja. [Annual Report By Archaeological Survey of India, John Hubert Marshall [http://books.google.com/books?id=qhwTAAAAIAAJ&q=kota+kakatiya&dq=kota+kakatiya&pgis=1] ] [Social and Cultural Life in Medieval Andhra By M. Krishna Kumari [http://books.google.com/books?id=WKtAAAAAMAAJ&q=kota+kakatiya&dq=kota+kakatiya&pgis=1] ] But the exact caste affinity of Kakatiyas to any present caste is still unknown.

See Inscriptions, to see some of the many archived inscriptions click this link. [ [http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/south_indian_inscriptions/volume_9/chalukyas_of_kalyani_149.html] ]

Gajapatis of Kalinga/Orissa

The region between Cuttack and Vijayawada was known as Kalinga (ancient Orissa), and was controlled often by the Oriya rulers the Eastern Gangas of the Vashistha gotra. The early Eastern Gangas ruled from Kalinga-nagara (Mukhalingam near Srikakulam Andhra Pradesh). They shifted their capital to Cuttack in the 12th century. The Eastern Gangas were succeeded by the Suryavanshi Gajapati rulers.

The Bhoi and Suryavanshi Gajapatis of Orissa, on the height of their power in the 15th century, ruled over a kingdom extending from the Ganga river in the north to the Kaveri in the south under Gajapati Kapilendra Deva. But by the early 16th century, the Gajapatis lost great portions of their southern dominion to Vijayanagar and Golconda. During the Gajapathi reign an inscription mentions a Bhupathiraju Vallabha Raju Mahapatra in Chodavaram. [ No. 741. (A. R. No. 54 of 1912.) On a pillar in the temple of Kesavasvami at Chodavaram, Viravalli Taluk, Vizagapatam District. Saka year not given (Kalayukti) Records the consecration of the image of Garutmanta by Bondu Mallayya for the prosperity etc. of Bhupatiraju Vallabha Raju-Mahapatra.]

It was common for the Zamindari families of the border region of Orissa and Andhra to have alliances. Early on they actually sided with the Gajapathis against the Vijayanagar Empire. There was a notable exception with inscriptional confirmation of two Kshatriya generals fighting on the side of Krishna Deva Raya. Of the modern clans, the Virycharla royals of "Kurupam" [KURUPAM (Zamindari) [http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/k/kurupam.html] ] and the Satrucharla clan of "Salur" have more in common with the Orissa royals, who claim descent from the Gajapathi and Ganga Dynasties, then they do with the Godavari clans. [CHINNA MERANGI (Zamindari) [http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/c/chinnamerangi.html] ]

The Rajas of Kurupam are related through marriage to Jeypore Royal family, Bhanj dynasty of Daspalla princely state,Parmar dynasty of Gangpur princely state of Orissa and Kacchawa dynasty of Talcher princely state of Orissa founded in the 12th century.

Vijayanagara Period

Out of the four clans that ruled the Vijayanagara empire, two clans Saluva Dynasty and Aravidu Dynasty claimed to be of the Kshatriya Varna. [Journal of the Andhra Historical Society By Andhra Historical Research Society pg 61 [http://books.google.com/books?id=gVNdhHtG134C&q=aravidu+kshatriya&dq] ] Raja Achutya Deva Raya was extensively interviewed by Robert Sewell in order to help him in research for his book, [Robert Sewell: Vijayanagar: A forgotten Empire [http://www.eng.utah.edu/~banerjee/Ebooks/Vijayanagar.pdf] ] and is acknowledged by the Government of Karnataka as the direct descendant of this line. In his royal biography he takes on the title of "Zamindar of Anegundi, Senior Representative of the Royal House of Vijayanagar, born 4th August 1936, adoptive son of Rani Lal Kumari, Guru (Religious Head) of the Hindu Kshatriya Community, enjoys the customary privileges and honors at Hampi Temple and at Anegondi Temple, during all religious functions as well as Muslim festivals." [Aenegondi [http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/a/anegundi.html] ] His family states they are of the Kshatriya Raju caste and marry among Telugu speaking Kshatriya Rajus settled in this area.

Raju families such as the Chodarajus, Nandyalas, Madirajus, Tirumalarajus, Gobburis, Saluvas (Bommarajus) of Karvetinagar, the Rajas of Owk and Matla Chiefs were all at one time or other, relatives of the Aravidu dynasty. All of these families still live in and around the Hampi area.

*The founding brothers of the Aravidu dynasty were the son-in-laws of Krishna Deva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty and were also related previously through marriage with the Saluva Dynasty. Gobburi Narasaraju was the nephew of Aliya Ramaraju and [Questioning Ramayanas: A South Asian tradition by Paula Richman [http://books.google.com/books?id=7RW6MrAiJ-0C&pg=PA166&dq=gobburi&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=-Nr_AGktoqU82jw1_zSlycjz8ck#PPA166,M1] ] Emperor Venkatapthi Raju was married to Gobburi Kondama, [The Madras tercentenary commemoration volume. by Madras Tercentenary Celebration Committee. [http://books.google.com/books?id=pwMk4FIcpuUC&pg=PA41&dq=gobburi&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=b4zOcWfZzrzWHBQ9GFrEmKPI6wY] ] the sister of the Raja of Srisailam, Gobburi Giriappa. [Cyclic tables of Hindu and Mahomedan chronology, regarding the history of the Telugu and Kannadi countries to which are added the genealogies of particular Hindu families, with essays on various matters of enquiry by Charles Philip Brown [http://books.google.com/books?id=V5khtVz0yIgC&pg=PT30&dq=gobburi&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=VwABeSlfq0a18LFHLxCqlGnpa3A] ] After the death of Venkatapathi Raju, from 1614-1616 there was a great war of succession. Amongst the claimants to the throne was Gobburi Jaga Deva Raju, the brother-in-law of the emperor and also a relative of the Raja of Karvetinagar, Saluva Makaraju. [Gazetteer of the Nellore District : brought upto 1938. Pg 61 [http://books.google.com/books?id=2qx-smrZLyUC&pg=PA61&dq=gobburi&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=CCUy9YUjhvNyMa17bKMCNsFDCbI#PPA61,M1] ] [The Nayaks of Tanjore. by V Vriddhagirisan [http://books.google.com/books?id=GD_6ka-aYuQC&pg=PA57&dq=gobburi&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=2xG9G5tYvWWa8rHCN8aMqzrNb0o] ] The Matla Chiefs fought against the Gobburis. [Tidings of the king a translation and ethnohistorical analysis of the Rāyavācakamu by Phillip B Wagoner; NetLibrary, Inc. [http://books.google.com/books?id=nLYPejP-iE8C&pg=PA205&dq=gobburi&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=xuxv1x6RXQTsFFFqOo9FoaNw6bY] ]
*The Matli-Matla chiefs were Ellamrajus who gained the territory after defeating the Tirupatirajus in battle in 1604 AD. [244 Siddhavatam (Siddhavatam Taluk) On the east wall near the entrance of the old fort. Saka 1527; Visvasu The inscriptions refers itself to the reign of Venkatapati Raya and enumerates the achievements of the Matli Chiefs Ellama Raju and his son Ananta Raju. The latter is stated to have built the radiant and extensive stone wall at Siddhavatam which his father had acquired in the battle of Utukuru. In the telugu portion, which is a stsamalika, it is stated that while Vira Venkata Raya was ruling the empire from Chandragiri-sima, Anata Raju constructed the tank, Ananta Raju-cheruvu at Siddhavatam which his father had acquired at the point of his sword after defeating Konda Raju Tirupati Raju in battle and built a wall around the town so that it might protect the temple of Siddhavatesvara. His is also said to be the author of Kakutstha-vijayamu and of the Kavyas. (Published in Epigraphia Indica xxxxvii. pp. 103-112, by Dr. N. Venkata Ramanayya)]
*The Chodaraju's gotra was given as Kasyapa and the Nandyala's gotra was given as atreya and were described as belonging to Chandravanshi, both were related through marriage and both were appointed Mahamandaleswars during the start of the 16th century. [97 (No. 201 of 1967) Chidipiralla (Kamalapuram Taluk) On a stone near the Anjaneya temple. S. 1501; Bhadhanya, (A.D. 1578) It records the digging of irrigation canals at Chadupurella as the old ones became out of use, by Mahamandal-eswara Katta Mama Singa Raya Deva Choda Maharaja, who is said to be holding the Nayamkara of Chadupurala n the Ghandikota sima (as a subordinate chief) under his son-in-law Mahamandal-eswara Nandyala Narashim-ayya Deva Maharaja.] [No. 73. (A.R. No. 353 of 1915.) Kundurru, Narasarowpet Taluk, Guntur District. 1522 A.D., May 13 (Tuesday). It registers the grant of a piece of land in the village of Konudortta...by Maha Mandalesvara Sarvayya Deva Chodaraju, son of Alamandala Yarayya Deva Chodaraju of Kasyapa-gotra. Vinikondasima is said to have been given to the donor as nayankara by Maha Pradhana Saluva Timmarasayya.] [No. 129. (A.R. No. 690 of 1917.) Kovelakuntla, Koilkuntla Taluk, Kurnool District. 1543 A.D., August 25 (Saturday). It registers the grant of income derived from svamyatas in his nayankara territory of Kovila Kuntlasima....by Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhalesvara Deva Maharaju, son of Singa Raju Deva Maharaju and the grandson of Narasingayya Deva Maharaju of the lunar race.] [No. 139. (A.R. No. 498 of 1906.) Mopuru, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah District. 1545 A.D., January 19, ’50. It records the remission of all taxes like Durga Vartana, Danayani Vartana, bedige, kanika and others in favour of the Vidvan mahajanas of the villages belonging to temples and to agraharas in Ghandikota Sakalisima obtained by the donor, Timmaya Deva Maharaju, son of Narasingaya Deva Maharaju and grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhala Deva Maharaju as Nayankara from the king. A similar remission of these taxes in the villages granted to the Bhai Ravesvara temple of Mopura is also recorded with the stipulation that the amount accrued was to be utilized for the daily worship and the rathosvava of the god.]
*The Madiraju's gotra was given as Kasyapa and Suryavanshi and related to the Thirumalarajus, both appointed Mahamandeleswars of Guntur area and happened to be the grandchildren of Aravidu Rama Raya. [No. 191. (A.R. No. 584 of 1909.) Macherla, Palnadu Taluk, Guntur District. On a slab set up in the courtyard of the Virabhadresvara temple. Sadasiva, 1554 A.D. The record is dated in Chronogram ‘rasa-saila-veda..’ and the numerals 76, Ananda, Ashadha, su. 15, Friday, lunar eclipse. The word for the numeral 1 is apparently lost. The details of the date correspond to 1554 A.D., June 15, ’51, if the month was Adhika Ashadha. The inscription which is damaged, records a grant of 14 putti and 10 tumu of land constituting it into a village by name Lingapuram, by Ling Amma, wife of Veligoti Komara Timma Nayaka to the gods Ishta Kamesvara and Viresvara of Macherla situated to the north of Macherla and west of the Chandra Bhaga river, in Nagarjuna-konda-sima which Komara Timma Nayaka is said to have obtained as nayankara from Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju Deva Maharaju.] [No. 201. (A.R. No. 161 of 1905.) Markapur, Markapur Taluk, Kurnool District. On the east wall, left of entrance, of the antarala-mandapa in the Chenna-kesava-svamin temple. Sadasiva, 1555 A.D. This is dated Saka 1476, Ananda, Magha su. 7, corresponding to 1555 A.D., January 29. It records a gift of the various toll incomes due from the 18 villages, viz., Marakarapuram, Channavaram, Konddapuram, Yachavaram, Rayavaram, Gonguladinna, Tarnumbadu, Surepalli, Vanalapuram, Chanareddipalle, Gangireddipalle, Korevanipalle, Medisettipalle, Gollapalle, Jammuladinna, Tellambadu, Kamalpuram and Kondapalli to god Chennakesava by Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Narappadeva Maharaju, son of Aubhalayya Deva Maharaju, grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Singa Raju Deva Maharaju, of Kasyapa-gotra and Surya-vamsa, and nephew of Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju. The gift villages are said to be situated in Kochcherla Kotasima which was held by the donor as Nayankara from the king. Records in addition that the lanjasunkham (levy on prostitutes) collected during the festivals at Marakapuram was also made over to the temple and that fie out of every six dishes of offerings to the deity, were to be made over to the satra (feeding house) for feeding paradesi Brahmanas of the smartha sect, the sixth dish being the share of the sthanikas, the adhikaris and the karanas.] [No. 228. (A.R. No. 411 of 1911.) Vontimitta, Sidhavatam Taluk, Cuddapah District. On a slab set up near the eastern gopura of the Kodanda Rama Swamy temple. Sadasiva, 1558 A.D. This is dated Saka 1480, Kalayukt, and Ashadha su. 12, Monday, corresponding to 1558 A.D. June 27. The inscription records a gift of the village Vontimetta with its hamlets in Sidhavatam-sima of Udayagiri Rajya to god Raghu Nayaka of the same village said to have been consecrated by Jambavanta, by Naga Raja Deva Maharaju of Kasyapa-gotra, and Surya-Vamsa and the son-in-law of Rama Raju and Gutti Yara Thirumalaraju Deva Maharaju of Kasyapa-gotra, and Surya-Vamsa and the sons of Sri Ranga Raju and the grandsons of Aravidu Rama Raju of Atreya-gotra and Soma-Vamsa. The gift village was situated in Siddhavatamsima which the donor appears to have held as his nayankara]
*Madhava Varma Bejawada was mentioned in 1509 AD. as of the Vasishtha gotra and Suryavansi. [No. 45. (A.R. No. 491 of 1906.) Pulivendla, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah District. 1509 A.D., October 24. It records a gift of the village Kunddal Kundu...by Narasayya Deva Maharaju, brother of Basava Raju, son of Tamma Raju, grandson of Valla Bharaya and great-grandson of Bejawada Madhava Varma of Vasishtha-gotra and Surya-vamsa.]
*Krishna Deva Raya defeated among others Rachi Raju Pusapati, Srinatha Raju and Lakshmipati Raju on his way to defeating Pratapa Rudra Gajapati Raju of the Gajapathi Dynasty. He immediately reinstated these rulers as his vassals and married the daughter of Pratapa Rudra as a truce offering. All this occurred between 1514-1517 AD. [No. 52. (A.R. No. 18 of 1915.) Srisailam, Nandikotkur Taluk, Kurnool District. 1515 A.D., July 25. The record is important for the historical information contained in it. The king, it is stated, started out from Vijayanagara on a campaign of conquest towards the east, conquered at a stretch Udayagiri, Addanki, Vinukonda, Bellamkonda, Nagarjunikonda, Tangedu, Ketavaram and other hill-forts and land-forts and captured Tirumala Kataraya Mahapatra. Having taken Kondavidu, he captured alive Virabhadra Raya, Nara Hari Deva, Rachuri Mallukhanu, Uddandakhanu, Jannala Kasavapatra, Pusapati Rachiraju, Srinatha Raju, Lakshmipati Raju, Paschima Balachandra Mahapatra and others. Later he reinstated the captives in their places, visited Amaresvara at Dharanikota and performed the Tulapurusha ceremony in the presence of the god on the banks of the river Krishnaveni. ] [No. 57. (A.R. No. 474 of 1919.) Little Kanchipuram, Kanchipuram Taluk, Chingleput District. 1517 A.D., January 14. States that the king, having conquered Udayagiri, captured Ravutaraya-mahapatra, and having taken the hill fortresses of Addanki, Vinikonda, Bellamkonda, Tangeda, Ketavaram, etc., captured alive Vira Bhadra Raya, son of Pratapa Rudra Gajapati Raju. Narahari Deva, son of Kumara Hamvira and others, performed Tulapurusha at Amaresvara in Dharanikota, returned to Vijayanagara and started out again on a campaign of conquest towards Kalinga, reached Bejawada, conquered Kondapalli, captured Praha Raju Siras Chandra Mahapatra, Bodajana Mahapatra, Bujilikhanu and others, took at a stretch all the fortresses of Telangana such as Anantagiri, Udrakonda, Urlugonda, Aruvapalli, Jallipalli, Kandikonda, Kappaluvayi, Nalgonda, Kambhammettu, Kanakagiri, Samkkaragiri, etc., installed the jayastambha at Simhadri Potnuru and performed the mahadana there, returned to Rajamahendra and desiring to have the mahadanas performed by his queens Chinna Devi and Tirumala Devi, returned to Vijayanagara...]
*Ganapathirajus were described as of the Suryavanshi and Kasyapa gotra and were Mahamandaleswars in 1555 AD. [No. 205. (A.R. No. 59 of 1915.) Chinna Ahobalam, Sirvel Taluk, Kurnool District. On the west wall of the Narasimha-svamin shrine in the Narasimha-svamin temple. Sadasiva, 1555 A.D. This is dated Saka 1478 (current), Rakshasa, Sravana ba. 7 corresponding to 1555 A.D., August 9 (Friday). The record is damaged and fragmentary. It seems to register a gift (of land) to god Ahobala Narasimha by Ganapatiraju who belonged to the Kasyapa-gotra Apastamba-sutra and Yajus-sakha and was the son of Nandi Raju and the grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Krishna Raju of the solar race.]


The current Bommaraju family of Karvetinagar are of Kshatriya Raju caste and trace their origins back to an ancestor who migrated from the Pithapuram area of the Godavari Delta about the 8th or 9th century. One ancestor obtained the favor of the Eastern Chalukya King, Vimala Aditya and Saluva Narasa was appointed the Chief of the region around Tirupati, where he founded a town called Narasapuram. The founder of the family Narasa was granted permission by his patron, the Chalukyas, to use the royal seal and boar-signet of the Chalukyas, a proud distinction still kept up. The family became feudatories of Vijayanagar, and had marriage alliances with the Saluva and loyalties to the Aravidu dynasties over the next two hundred years. Around the 16th century the family changed their name to the current Bommaraju, retaining Saluva as a title. [ A Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India By Robert Sewell pg 44-45]

Nizam/Colonial Period

The Sultans, Nizams and British all employed Rajus and other prominent castes of Andhra as the governors of estates with the responsibility of collecting taxes. In 1857 the British broke up the estates and realigned the bigger brigands into "Princely states" and the lesser ones as "Zamindars" or "Jagirdars". These zamindars were abolished after the formation of the Indian Union in 1947.

Zamindaris of Rajus

Zamindars and the families that controlled them in parenthesis.

#Ankapilli (originally Pusapadi)
#Chemudu (Vyricharla)
#Charmahal (Kalidindi)
#Chinchinada (Alluri)
#Darlapudi (Chintalpati) [History in Modern Indian Literature By Siba Pada Sen pg 188 [http://books.google.com/books?id=n_gQAAAAMAAJ&q=pusapati&dq=pusapati&lr=&as_brr=0&pgis=1] ]
#Dimili (Pusapati)
#Ellore (Thirupathiraju)
#East Godhavari(Alluri)
#Ganzcolara (Thirupathiraju)
#Golgonda (Bhupathiraju)
#Godicharla (Vatsavai)
#Godilanka (Alluri)
#Kasipuram (Pusapati)
#Katrenikuna (Dantuluri)
#Kumili (Pusapati)
#Kuppili (Jampana)
#Kottakota (Pinnamraju)
#Kota Uratla (Raja Sagi)
#Thangedu (Raja Sagi)
#Kondakirla (Sagi)
#Kurupam (Vyricharla)
#Korukonda (Thirupathiraju)
#Kottur (Sagi)
#Koppuram (Nallaparaju)
#Madgole (Chintalapati) Claim descent from Matsya desa. [A Manual of the District of Vizagapatam, in the Presidency of Madras By David Freemantle Carmichael pg 309 [http://books.google.com/books?id=6dBNAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA309&dq=inuganti#PPA293,M1] ]
#Merangi (Satrucharla)
#Mogalthur (Kalidindi)
#Mutta Talaga Chirala (Uppalapati)
#Moida (Penumatcha)
#Nakkapilli (Kakarlapudi)
#Peddapuram (Vatsavai)
#Ponamanda (Mandapathi)
#Rajamundry (Pusapati)
#Ramachandrapuram Kota royal family S.R.K. Raja Gopal Narasa Raju.
#Rayavaram (Sagi)
#Rajala (Sagi)
#Sarvasiddhi (Sagi)
#Srirampuram (Kakarlapudi)
#Salur (Satrucharla)
#Sangam Valsa
#Tuni (Vatsavai)
#Vizianagaram (Pusapati)
#Uppada (Pusapati)
#Vemalapudi (Sagi)
#Velchur Kodur (Sagi)
#Wurutla (Dantuluri)
#Jeypore In 1768, Viziaram Raju had granted the Jeypore country as a jagir.

=Modern community=Rajus of Andhra are designated as forward caste. [Caste, Class and Social Articulation In Andhra Pradesh. Mapping Differential Regional Tragectories. K. Srinivasulu Pg 6, 11, 51 [http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/working_papers/wp179.pdf] ] . Most of Rajus are doing well in Education, Information Technology and other fields. While few Rajus are economically backward, Rajus are one of the few communities who never asked for Reservation. [ http://indculture0.tripod.com/rajus.htm ]

=References= [http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/IJHG/IJHG-08-0-000-000-2008-Web/IJHG-08-1-2-001-256-2007-Abst-PDF/IJHG-08-1-2-097-08-349-Trivedi-R/IJHG-08-1&2-097-08-349-Trivedi-R-Tt.pdf]

=Other Sources=

*Andhra Zamindars: [http://www.vepachedu.org/andhra-kingdoms.html]
*Karvetnagar [http://www.chennaimuseum.org/draft/gallery/03/01/013/tradi1.htm]
*Andhra Kingdoms [http://www.vepachedu.org/andhra-kingdoms.html]
*Indian Intelligence Report: Inscriptions: [http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/south_indian_inscriptions/volume_9/chalukyas_of_kalyani_149.html]
*History of the Andhras []
*Caste system: [http://www.vepachedu.org/castemore.htm]
*Caste politics In the North, West, and South India Before Mandal. [http://www.nd.edu/~kellogg/events/pdfs/Jaffrelot.pdf]
*V. Ramesam, K. Mahadevan. Andhra Chronology (90-1800 A.C): [http://www.openlibrary.org/details/andrachronology035467mbp]
*Caste Transformation (Winners and Losers) [http://www.odi.org.uk/Livelihoodoptions/ppts/Caste%20Transformation%20part1.ppt#1]
*The Andhras through the ages: Kandavalli Balendu Sekharan
*Class-study of the History and Cultue of the Andhras: Kandavalli
*Precolonial India in Practice: Cynthia Talbot
*A study of the history and culture of the Andhras: Kambhampati Satyanarayana
*Inscriptions: [http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/south_indian_inscriptions/volume_9/chalukyas_of_kalyani_149.html]
* Dharani Priya, B: A study of genetic demography of the Kshatriyas, Ph.D. Thesis, Andhra University (2001)

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