- White supremacy
White supremacy is a racist [cite book |title=Black Intellectuals, Black Cognition, and a Black Aesthetic |last=Wright |first=William D. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1997 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |location= |isbn=0275955427 |pages=9 |quote=White supremacy is a racist doctrine pertaining to white people, and white people only, that refers to their alleged innate superiority.] ideology based on the assertion that
white peopleare superior to other racial groups. The term is sometimes used specifically to describe a political ideology that advocates the social and political dominance of whites. [cite book |title=Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Preference |last=Wildman |first=Stephanie M. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1996 |publisher=NYU Press |location= |isbn=0814793037 P. 87]
White supremacy, as with racial
supremacismin general, is rooted in ethnocentrismand a desire for hegemony. It is associated with varying degrees of racism as well as a desire for racial separation. White supremacy has often resulted in anti-black racism and antisemitism, although it has also involved prejudiceand discriminationagainst a wide variety of "non-white" groups.
Different forms of white supremacy have different definitions of 'white', and not all white supremacist organizations agree on which group is the greatest enemy. [cite book |title=Spaces of Hate: Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A. |last=Flint |first=Colin |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2004 |publisher=Routledge |location= |isbn=0415935865 |pages=53 |quote=Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern cultrue poses special challenges for them. In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white os to be distinct from those marked as nonwhite, yet the placement of the distinguishing line has varied significantly in different times and places. ] White supremacists frequently consider
Jews to be the gravest threat to their cause, because they can assimilate much more easily than other ethnic groups. [cite book |title=Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies |last=Gerstenfeld |first=Phyllis B. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2003 |publisher=Sage Publications Inc. |location= |isbn=0761928146 |pages=155 |quote=The third reason that Jews may be so vilified is that, compared with people of color, they can much more easily assimilate; they can easily "pass." This represents a particular threat to white supremacy because Jews can infiltrate the white power structure in a way that people of color cannot. ]
Politically, socially and economically, white supremacy was dominant in the
United Statesbefore the American Civil Warand for decades after Reconstruction. The same is true of Apartheid-era South Africa and of parts of Europeat various time periods; most notably under Nazi Germany's Third Reich. The extent and nature of white supremacy's continuing influence in western culture is a subject of ongoing debate. In some parts of the United States, many people who were considered non-white were disenfranchised, barred from government office, and prevented from holding most government jobs — well into the second half of the twentieth century. White leaders often viewed Native Americans (known as First Nationsin Canada) and Australian Aborigines as obstacles to economic and political progress, rather than as settlers in their own right. Many European-settled countries bordering the Pacific Oceanlimited immigration and naturalization from the Asian Pacific countries, usually on a cultural basis. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriagethrough so-called " anti-miscegenation laws" until 1967, when these laws were declared unconstitutional. South Africamaintained its white supremacist-like Apartheid system until the early 1990s.
The white supremacist ideology has become associated with a racist faction of the
skinhead subculture, despite the fact that when the skinhead scene first developed in the United Kingdomin the late 1960s, it was heavily influenced by Jamaican rude boys and British mods. [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20010219175613/ska.about.com/musicperform/ska/library/1999/aa081699a.htm Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness] ] [ [http://www.reggaereggaereggae.com/Special%20Articles.htm Special Articles ] ] cite book |last=Old Skool Jim |first= |title=Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes |publisher=Trojan Records |date= |location=London |id=TJETD169] By the 1980s, a sizable and vocal white power skinheadfaction had formed; partly influenced by Ian Stuart Donaldsonand his Rock Against Communismband, Skrewdriver.Fact|date=December 2007 The band's 1983 EP "White Power" was the first white power rock musicrecording printed by the White Noise record label.Fact|date=December 2007
White supremacist movements and ideologies
White supremacist groups can be found in most countries and regions with a significant white population, including
North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Latin America. In all of these locations, their views represent a relatively small minority of the population, and active membership of the groups is quite small. However, a backlashto the influx of non-white immigrants into various European nations has spurred a rise in membership in such organizations, as well as an escalation in militant white supremacist demonstrations and hate crimes. The militant approach taken by white supremacist groups has caused them to be watched closely by law enforcement officials. Some European countries have laws forbidding hate speech, as well as other laws that ban or restrict white supremacist organizations but not all.
Another variant, "Pan Aryanism", accepts native Europeans from all of continental Europe and extends its acceptance to non-European Caucasoids, such as some Middle Easterners, North Africans, and Central/West/South Asians. Yet this is usually on an individual basis and not all people from these regions are accepted by Pan-Aryanists as white. The acceptance of Middle Easterners in Pan-Aryanist ideology, Syrians, Lebanese, Turks (who are sometimes considered European), and Persians are accepted as white, but Saudis and Yemenites "as a whole" are not.
South Asian Caucasoids (Pakistanis, Northern Indians etc) "as a whole" may generally not be accepted in this ideology as well, however some Pan-Aryanists acknowledge and have disputing beliefs on lighter skinned people descended from
Indo-Europeansin this region. An example is a textbook for those taking entrance examinations for the British Civil Servicein the early 1900s categorically stated that Afghans and Berbers were in the highest classification, along with Northern Europeans, but above the Spanish and Italians. "Geography of the World". Civil Service Book Depot, 1904.] .
Those who follow the ideology of "Nordicism" and "
Germanism" consider Northern European people who are Nordic (Scandinavians, Germans, and Dutch) to be superior, shunning those of Southern and Eastern Europe (who may have darker features and different cultures) along with anyone whose ethnic heritage is not European. In Madison Grant's 1916 book, " The Passing of the Great Race", Europeans who were not of Germanic origin and had Nordic characteristics such as blonde hair and light eyes were considered to be a Nordic admixture and suitable for Aryanization. Grant, Madison. "The Passing of the Great Race". Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1916.]
Christian Identitymovement, which is regarded by other branches of Christianityas heretical, is closely tied to white supremacy. The Ku Klux Klan's reasons for supporting racial segregationare not primarily based on religious ideals, although some Klan groups are openly Christian Protestantbecause of their northern European/Germanic roots.Some white supremacists identify themselves as Odinists, although most Odinists reject white supremacy, and white supremacists make up only a small fraction of those who support Odinism (belief in the gods of Norse mythology). The white supremacist version of Odinism claims that the universe is composed of "worlds of light" ( white people) and "worlds of dark" (non-white people).Fact|date=January 2007 Some white supremacist groups, such as the South African Boeremag, conflate elements of Christianity and Odinism.
The World Church of the Creator, now called the
Creativity Movement, believed that a person's race is his religion. Aside from this central belief, its ideology is similar to many Christian Identity groups, in the conviction that there is a Jewish conspiracy in control of the United Statesgovernment, international banking, and the media. They claim that a Racial Holy War("RAHOWA"), is destined to happen, which would eliminate Jews and "mud races" from the planet. In the early 1990s, there was a dramatic increase in membership, due to the growing belief in the apocalypse. A different (non-racist) group called Church of the Creatorlegally trademarked the name and won a lawsuit in 1996, leading to the white supremacist group to change its name to the Creativity Movement. [ [http://www.churchofthecreator.org/TM/TMindex.html Trademark Litigation - Church Of The Creator® ] ]
White Power is a white nationalist political slogan and a name for the associated ideology. It was coined by
American Nazi Partyleader George Lincoln Rockwell. He used the term in a debate with Stokely Carmichaelof the Black Panther Party, after Carmichael issued a call for " Black Power". "White Power" became the name of the American Nazi Party's newspaper, and the title of a book by Rockwell. Many white nationalists, including "white supremacists" and certain neo-Nazis, have since used the phrase "White Power" to describe their political goal.
"White Power" as an ideology has become closely associated with a racist faction of the
skinhead subculture. When the skinhead scene first developed in the United Kingdomin the late 1960s, it was heavily influenced by Jamaican rude boys and British mods. [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20010219175613/ska.about.com/musicperform/ska/library/1999/aa081699a.htm Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness] ] [http://www.reggaereggaereggae.com/Special%20Articles.htm] cite book |last=Old Skool Jim |first= |title=Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes |publisher=Trojan Records |date= |location=London |id=TJETD169] However, by the 1980s, a sizable and vocal white power skinheadfaction had formed; partly influenced by Ian Stuart Donaldsonand his Rock Against Communismband, Skrewdriver. The band's 1983 EP "White Power" was the first white power rock musicrecording printed by the White Noise record label.
* Dobratz, Betty A. and Shanks-Meile, Stephanie. "White power, white pride!": The white separatist movement in the United States" (Twayne Publishers, NY, 1997).
* Lincoln Rockwell, George. "White Power" (John McLaughlin, 1996).
Jim Crow law
Nadir of American race relations
* Neo-Nazi groups of the United States
Race and intelligence
Sons of Silence
White Australia policy
Zionist Occupation Government
* [http://reactor-core.org/white-power.html "White Power" by George Lincoln Rockwell]
* [http://www.adl.org/hate_symbols/music.asp Anti-Defamation League article on white power music]
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