- Disability-adjusted life years
Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) is a measure for the overall
disease burden. Originally developed by the World Health Organization, it is becoming increasingly common in the field of public healthand health impact assessment (HIA). It is designed to quantify the impact of premature deathand disabilityon a population by combining them into a single, comparable measure. In so doing, mortality and morbidityare combined into a single, common metric. The DALY was first conceptualized by Murray and Lopez in work carried out with the World Health Organisationand the World Bankknown as the global burden of disease study, which was published in 1996.
Traditionally, health liabilities were expressed using one measure: (expected or average number of) Years of Life Lost (YLL). This measure does not take the impact of disability into account, which can be expressed by: Years Lived with Disability (YLD).DALYs are calculated by taking the sum of these two components. In a formula: DALY = YLL + YLD cite web
last = Med-Vet-Net
title = Methodological choices for calculating the disease burden and cost-of-illness of foodborne zoonoses in European countries
url = http://www.medvetnet.org/pdf/Reports/Report_07-002.pdf
accessdate = 5 April
accessyear = 2008 ] .
The DALY relies on an acceptance that the most appropriate measure of the effects of chronic illness is time, both time lost due to premature death and time spent disabled by disease. One DALY, therefore, is equal to one year of healthy life lost. Japanese life expectancy statistics are used as the standard for measuring premature death, as the Japanese have the longest life expectancies. [http://archneur.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/57/3/418.pdf Menken M, Munsat TL, Toole JF. The Global Burden of Disease Study - Implications for Neurology. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:418-420] ]
Looking at the burden of disease via DALYs can reveal surprising things about a population's health. For example, the 1990 WHO report indicated that 5 of the 10 leading causes of disability were psychiatric conditions. Psychiatric and neurologic conditions account for 28% of all years lived with disability, but only 1.4% of all deaths and 1.1% of years of life lost. Thus, psychiatric disorders, while traditionally not regarded as a major epidemiological problem, are shown by consideration of disability years to have a huge impact on populations.
Quality-adjusted life years(QALY)
Health-adjusted life years(HALY)
* [http://www.who.int/healthinfo/boddaly/en/index.html WHO Definition]
* [http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/hnp/hddflash/workp/wp_00068.html#TofC11 Measurement and Use]
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