- Health Impact Assessment
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is defined as "a combination of procedures, methods and tools bywhich a policy, program or project may be judged as to its potential effects on thehealth of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population." Harv|ECHP|1999|p=4
HIA is intended to produce a set of
evidence-based recommendations to inform decision-makingHarv|Taylor|Quigley|2002|p=2. HIA seeks to maximise the positive healthimpacts and minimise the negative health impacts of proposed policies, programs or projects.
The procedures of HIA are similar to those used in other forms of
impact assessment, such as environmental impact assessmentor social impact assessment. HIA is usually described as following the steps listed, though many practitioners break these into sub-steps or label them differently:
# "Screening" - determining if an HIA is warranted/required
# "Scoping" - determining which impacts will be considered and the plan for the HIA
# "Identification and assessment of impacts" - determining the magnitude, nature, extent and likelihood of potential health impacts, using a variety of different methods and types of information
# "Decision-making and recommendations" - making explicit the trade-offs to be made in decision-making and formulating evidence-informed recommendations
# "Evaluation and monitoring (and follow-up)" - process and impact
evaluationof the HIA and the monitoring and management of health impacts
The main objective of HIA is to apply existing knowledge and evidence about health impacts, to specific social and community contexts, to develop evidence-based recommendations that inform decision-making in order to protect and improve community health and wellbeing. Therefore, usually because of financial and time constraints, HIA does not generally involve new research or the generation of original scientific knowledge. However, the findings of HIAs, especially where these have been monitored and evaluated over time, can be used to inform other HIAs in contexts that are similar to those of the original HIA. A HIA's recommendations may focus on both
designand operationalaspects of a proposal.
HIA has also been identified as a mechanism by which potential
health inequalitiescan be identified and redressed prior to the implementation of proposed policy, program or project Harv|Acheson|1998.
A number of manuals and guidelines for HIA's use have been developed (see Further Reading).
Determinants of health
The proposition that policies, programs and projects have the potential to change the
determinants of healthunderpins HIA's use. Changes to health determinanats then leads to changes in health outcomes or the health status of individuals and communities. The determinants of health are largely environmental and social, so that there are many overlaps with environmental impact assessmentand social impact assessment.
Levels of HIA
Three forms of HIA exist:
* Desk-based HIA, which takes 2-6 weeks for one assessor to complete and provides a broad overview of potential health impacts;
* Rapid HIA, which takes approximately 12 weeks for one assessor to complete and provides more detailed information on potential health impacts; and
* Comprehensive HIA, which takes approximately 6 months for one assessor and provides a in-depth assessment of potential health impacts. Harv|IMPACT|2004|p=7
It has been suggested that HIAs can be prospective (done before a proposal is implemented), concurrent (done while the proposal is being implemented) or retrospective (done after a proposal has been implemented) Harv|Taylor|Gorman|Quigley|2003|p=1. This remains controversial, however, with a number of HIA practitioners suggesting that concurrent HIA is better regarded as a monitoring activity and that retrospective HIA is more akin to
evaluationwith a health focus, rather than being assessment per se Harv|Kemm|2003|p=387. Prospective HIA is preferred as it allows the maximum practical opportunity to influence decision-making and subsequent health impacts.
HIA practitioners can be found in the private and public sectors, but are relatively few in number. There are no universally accepted competency frameworks or certification processes. It is suggested that a lead practitioner should have extensive education and training in a health related field, experience of participating in HIAs, and have attended an HIA training course. It has been suggested and widely accepted that merely having a medical degree should not be regarded as an indication of competency.
HIA is currently being used or developed around the world, most notably in
Europe, North America, Canada, Australia, New Zealandand Thailand.The new safeguard policies and standards of the International Finance Corporation(IFC), part of the World Bank, were established in 2006. These contain a requirement for health impact assessment in large projects. The standards have been accepted by most of the leading lending banks, under the Equator Principles. Health impact assessments are becoming routine in many large development projects in both public and private sectors of developing countries. For example, guidelines are available in the Oil and Gas sector. There is also a long history of health impact assessment in the water resource development sector -- large dams and irrigation systems.
The International Association for Impact Assessment conference [http://www.iaia.org] was held in
Seoulin 2007 and in Perth in 2008. The 9th International HIA Conference [http://www.profbriefings.co.uk/hia08/] (previously known as the United Kingdom and Ireland HIA Conference) will be held in Liverpoolin October 2008.
The 2nd South East Asian and Oceania Regional HIA Conference [http://www.hia2008chiangmai.com] is being held in
Chiang Mai, Thailandin December 2008.
"This page uses . References are sorted alphabetically by author surname."
Books and Edited Book Chapters
*. Includes several chapters on HIA.
Journal Special Issues
Manuals and Guidelines
"This page uses . Further reading categories are sorted alphabetically; citations are sorted by year (newest to oldest), then alphabetically by author surname within years. If citations are included in the references section they are not listed in the further reading section."
HIA Resource Websites
* [http://www.healthimpactassessment.info HIA Community Wiki]
* [http://www.hiaconnect.edu.au HIA Connect, includes HIA Blog]
* [http://www.hiagateway.org.uk/page.aspx?o=hiagateway HIA Gateway]
* [http://www.ihia.org.uk "IMPACT" - International Health Impact Assessment Consortium]
* [https://webcollect.rivm.nl/hiadatabase RIVM HIA Database]
* [http://www.who.int/hia/en World Health Organization HIA Site]
Government HIA Websites
* [http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/public-health/ehb/buildings/hia.html Environmental Health Branch, New South Wales Health (Australia)]
* [http://www.who.dk/echp European Centre for Health Policy (Belgium)]
* [http://www.ihpp.thaigov.net/research-impact.html HPP-HIA Program (Thailand)]
* [http://www.publichealth.ie/index.asp?locID=122&docID=-1 Institute for Public Health in Ireland (Ireland)]
* [http://dphwww.sfdph.org/phes/ENCHIA.htm San Francisco Department of Public Health (United States)]
HIA Practitioner Websites
* [http://www.caveconsult.co.uk Ben Cave Associates]
* [http://www.birleyhia.co.uk Birley HIA]
* [http://www.iom-world.org/consulting/healthrisk.php Centre for Health Impact Assessment, Institute of Occupational Medicine]
* [http://www.habitatcorp.com Habitat Health Impact Consulting]
* [http://www.humanimpact.org Human Impact Partners]
* [http://www.ihia.org.uk "IMPACT" - International Health Impact Assessment Consortium]
* [http://www.pba.co.uk/SectorServices/Services/HealthImpactAssessment/tabid/330/Default.aspx Peter Brett Associates]
University HIA Websites
* [http://www.deakin.edu.au/hbs/hia Deakin University, "HIA Unit" (Melbourne, Australia)]
* [http://www.med.monash.edu.au/healthsci/shia-monash/index.html Monash University, "SHIA@Monash" (Melbourne, Australia)]
* [http://www.pcpoh.bham.ac.uk/publichealth/hiaru University of Birmingham, "HIA Research Unit" (Birmingham, UK)]
* [http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/hia/ University of California at Berkeley, "Health Impact Group", School of Public Health (Berkeley, USA)]
* [http://www.ph.ucla.edu/hs/health-impact University of California Los Angeles, "HIA Project" (Los Angeles, USA)]
* [http://www.ihia.org.uk University of Liverpool, "IMPACT - International Health Impact Assessment Consortium" (World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Health Impact Assessment), Division of Public Health (Liverpool, UK)]
* [http://chetre.med.unsw.edu.au/hia/index.htm University of New South Wales, "HIA Connect", Health Inequalities, Health Impact Assessment and Healthy Public Policy Program (CHETRE), Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, Faculty of Medicine (Sydney, Australia)]
* [http://www.wnmeds.ac.nz/academic/dph/research/hia/index.html University of Otago, "Health, Wellbeing and Equity Impact Assessment Unit", Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences (Wellington, New Zealand)]
* [http://www.iaia.org IAIA]
Other HIA Websites
* [http://healthimpactassessment.blogspot.com HIA Blog]
* EU funded research project to develop a quantitative software tool for HIA [http:///www.dynamo-hia.eu]
"This page uses . External links are sorted alphabetically."
Environmental impact assessment
Four-Step Impact Assessment
Healthy development measurement tool
Social impact assessment
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
List of environmental health hazards
Social determinants of health
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