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Assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. This article covers educational assessment including the work of
Assessments can be classified in many different ways. The most important distinctions are: (1) formative and summative; (2) objective and subjective; (3) referencing (criterion-referenced, norm-referenced, and
ipsative); and (4) informal and formal.
Formative and summative
There are two main types of assessment:
Summative assessment- Summative assessment is generally carried out at the end of a course or project. In an educational setting, summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade.
Formative assessment- Formative assessment is generally carried out throughout a course or project. Formative assessment, also referred to as educative assessment, is used to aid learning. In an educational setting, formative assessment might be a teacher (or peer) or the learner, providing feedback on a student's work, and would not necessarily be used for grading purposes.
Summative and formative assessment are referred to in a learning context as "assessment of learning" and "assessment for learning" respectively.
A common form of formative assessment is diagnostic assessment. Diagnostic assessment measures a student's current knowledge and skills for the purpose of identifying a suitable program of learning. Self-assessment is a form of diagnostic assessment which involves students assessing themselves. Forward-looking assessment asks those being assessed to consider themselves in hypothetical future situations. Assessments can also be done on pieces of [http://resources.jacobrcampbell.com/analysis+SB5370.php legislation] .
Performance-based assessment is similar to summative assessment, as it focuses on achievement. It is often aligned with the
standards-based education reformand outcomes-based educationmovement. Though ideally they are significantly different from a traditional multiple choice test, they are most commonly associated with standards-based assessmentwhich use free-form responses to standard questions scored by human scorers on a standards-based scale, meeting, falling below, or exceeding a performance standard rather than being ranked on a curve.
A well-defined task is identified and students are asked to create, produce, or do something, often in settings that involve real-world application of knowledge and skills. Proficiency is demonstrated by providing an extended response. Performance formats are further differentiated into products and performances. The performance may result in a product, such as a painting, portfolio, paper, or exhibition, or it may consist of a performance, such as a speech, athletic skill, musical recital, or reading.
Objective and subjective
Assessment (either summative or formative) can be subjective. Objective assessment is a form of questioning which has a single correct answer. Subjective assessment is a form of questioning which may have more than one correct answer (or more than one way of expressing the correct answer). There are various types of objective and subjective questions. Objective question types include true/false answers,
multiple choice, multiple-response and matching questions. Subjective questions include extended-response questions and essays. Objective assessment is becoming more popularFact|date=January 2008 due to the increased use of online assessment ( e-assessment) since this form of questioning is well-suited to computerisation.
Bases of comparison
Test results can be compared against an established criterion, or against the performance of other students, or against previous performance:
Criterion-referenced assessment, typically using a
criterion-referenced test, as the name implies, occurs when candidates are measured against defined (and objective) criteria. Criterion-referenced assessment is often, but not always, used to establish a person’s competence (whether s/he can do something). The best known example of criterion-referenced assessment is the driving test, when learner drivers are measured against a range of explicit criteria (such as “Not endangering other road users”).
Norm-referenced assessment (colloquially known as "grading on the curve"), typically using a
norm-referenced test, is not measured against defined criteria. This type of assessment is relative to the student body undertaking the assessment. It is effectively a way of comparing students. The IQ test is the best known example of norm-referenced assessment. Many entrance tests (to prestigious schools or universities) are norm-referenced, permitting a fixed proportion of students to pass (“passing” in this context means being accepted into the school or university rather than an explicit level of ability). This means that standards may vary from year to year, depending on the quality of the cohort; criterion-referenced assessment does not vary from year to year (unless the criteria change). Ipsative assessmentis self comparison either in the same domain over time, or comparative to other domains within the same student.
Informal and formal
Assessment can be either formal or informal. Formal assessment usually implicates a written document, such as a test, quiz, or paper. A formal assessment is given a numerical score or grade based on student performance, whereas an informal assessment does not contribute to a student's final grade. An informal assessment usually occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, performance and portfolio assessments, participation, peer and self evaluation, and discussion.
Internal and external
Internal assessment is set and marked by the school (i.e. teachers). Students get the mark and feedback regarding the assessment. External assessment is set by the governing body, and is marked by non-biased personnel. With external assessment, students only receive a mark. Therefore, they have no idea how they actually performed (i.e. what bits they answered correctly.)
tandards of quality
The considerations of validity and reliability typically are viewed as essential elements for determining the
qualityof any assessment. However, professional and practitioner associations frequently have placed these concerns within broader contexts when developing standards and making overall judgments about the quality of any assessment as a whole within a given context.
In the field of
psychometrics, the " Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" [ [http://www.apa.org/science/standards.html#overview "The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"] ] place standards about validity and reliability, along with errors of measurement and related considerations under the general topic of test construction, evaluation and documentation. The second major topic covers standards related to fairness in testing, including fairness in testing and test use, the rights and responsibilities of test takers, testing individuals of diverse linguistic backgrounds, and testing individuals with disabilities. The third and final major topic covers standards related to testing applications, including the responsibilities of test users, psychological testing and assessment, educational testing and assessment, testing in employmentand credentialing, plus testing in program evaluationand public policy.
In the field of
evaluation, and in particular educational evaluation, the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation[ [http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/jc/ Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation] ] has published three sets of standards for evaluations. "The Personnel Evaluation Standards" [Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (1988). " [http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/jc/PERSTNDS-SUM.htm The Personnel Evaluation Standards: How to Assess Systems for Evaluating Educators.] " Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.] was published in 1988, "The Program Evaluation Standards" (2nd edition) [Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (1994). " [http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/jc/PGMSTNDS-SUM.htm The Program Evaluation Standards, 2nd Edition.] " Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.] was published in 1994, and "The Student Evaluation Standards" [Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (2003). " [http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/jc/briefing/ses/ The Student Evaluation Standards: How to Improve Evaluations of Students.] " Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press.] was published in 2003.
Each publication presents and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation. Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote educational evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate. In these sets of standards, validity and reliability considerations are covered under the accuracy topic. For example, the student accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will provide sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance.
°=Validity and reliability=
A valid assessment is one which measures what it is intended to measure. For example, it would not be valid to assess driving skills through a written test alone. A more valid way of assessing driving skills would be through a combination of tests that help determine what a driver knows, such as through a written test of driving knowledge, and what a driver is able to do, such as through a performance assessment of actual driving. Teachers frequently complain that some examinations do not properly assess the
syllabusupon which the examination is based; they are, effectively, questioning the validity of the exam.
It is well to distinguish between "subject-matter" validity and "predictive" validity. The former, used widely in education, predicts the score a student would get on a similar test but with different questions. The latter, used widely in the workplace, predicts performance. Thus, a subject-matter-valid test of knowlege of driving rules is appropriate while a predictively-valid test would assess whether the potential driver could follow those rules.
Reliability relates to the consistency of an assessment. A reliable assessment is one which consistently achieves the same results with the same (or similar) cohort of students. Various factors affect reliability – including ambiguous questions, too many options within a question paper, vague marking instructions and poorly trained markers.
A good assessment has both validity and reliability, plus the other quality attributes noted above for a specific context and purpose. In practice, an assessment is rarely totally valid or totally reliable. A ruler which is marked wrong will always give the same (wrong) measurements. It is very reliable, but not very valid. Asking random individuals to tell the time without looking at a clock or watch is sometimes used as an example of an assessment which is valid, but not reliable. The answers will vary between individuals, but the average answer is probably close to the actual time. In many fields, such as medical research, educational testing, and psychology, there will often be a trade-off between reliability and validity. A history test written for high validity will have many essay and fill-in-the-blank questions. It will be a good measure of mastery of the subject, but difficult to score completely accurately. A history test written for high reliability will be entirely multiple choice. It isn't as good at measuring knowledge of history, but can easily be scored with great precision. We may generalise from this. The more reliable is our estimate of what we purport to measure, the less certain we are that we are actually measuring that aspect of attainment. It is also important to note that there are at least thirteen sources of invalidity, which can be estimated for individual students in test situations. They never are. Perhaps this is because their social purpose demands the absence of any error, and validity errors are usually so high that they would destabilise the whole assessment industry.
The assessments which have caused the most controversy are the use of
High school graduation examinations, which first appeared to support the defunct Certificate of Initial Mastery, which can be used to deny diplomas to students who do not meet high standards. They argue that one measure should not be the sole determinant of success or failure. Technical notes for standards based assessments such as Washington's WASL warn that such tests lack the reliability needed to use scores for individual decisions, yet the state legislature passed a law requiring that the WASL be used for just such a purpose. Others such as Washington State University's Don Orlichquestion the use of test items far beyond standard cognitive levels for testing ages, and the use of expensive, holistically graded tests to measure the quality of both the system and individuals for very large numbers of students.Fact|date=August 2007
High stakes tests, even when they do not invoke punishment, have been cited for causing sickness and anxiety in students and teachers, and narrowing the curriculum towards test preparation. In an exercise designed to make children comfortable about testing, a Spokane, Washington newspaper published a picture of a [http://www2.asd.wednet.edu/Pioneer/barnard/projects/04-05/art/WhatsaWASL/index.html monster] that feeds on fear when asked to draw a picture of what she thought of the state assessment. This, however is thought to be acceptable if it increases student learning outcomes.
Standardized multiple choice tests do not conform to the latest education standards. Nevertheless, they are much less expensive, less prone to disagreement between scorers, and can be scored quickly enough to be returned before the end of the school year. Legislation such as
No Child Left Behindalso define failure if a school does not show improvement from year to year, even if the school is already successful. The use of IQ testshas been banned in some states for educational decisions, and norm referenced tests have been criticized for bias against minorities. Yet the use of standards based assessments to make high stakes decisions, with greatest impact falling on low-scoring ethnic groups, is widely supported by education officials because they show the achievement gapwhich is promised to be closed merely by implementing standards based education reform. Many states are currently using testing practices which have been condemned by dissenting education experts such as Fairtestand Alfie Kohn.
Notes and references
Confidence-Based Learningaccurately measures a learner’s knowledge quality by measuring both the correctness of his or her knowledge and the person’s confidence in that knowledge.
Evaluationis the process of looking at what is being assessed to make sure the right areas are being considered.
* Grading is the process of assigning a (possibly mutually exclusive) ranking to learners.
measurementis a process of assessment or an evaluation in which the objective is to "quantify" level of attainment or competence within a specified domain. See the Rasch modelfor measurement for elaboration on the conceptual requirements of such processes, including those pertaining to grading and use of raw scores from assessments.
Educational evaluationdeals specifically with evaluation as it applies to an educational setting. As an example it may be used in the No Child Left Behind(NCLB) government program instituted by the governmentof the USA.
Electronic portfoliois a personal digital record containing information such as a collection of artifacts or evidence demonstrating what one knows and can do.
Health Impact Assessmentlooks at the potential health impacts of policies, programs and projects.
Program evaluationis essentially a set of philosophies and techniques to determine if a program 'works'.
Psychometrics, the science of measuring psychological characteristics
Social Impact Assessmentlooks at the possible social impacts of proposed new infrastructure projects, natural resource projects, or development activities.
Standardized testingis any test that is used across a variety of schools or other situations.
Rubrics for assessment
Science, Technology, Society and Environment Education
* [http://ahe.cqu.edu.au Assessment in Higher Education] web site.
* [http://edutopia.org/php/keyword.php?id=005 Edutopia: Assessment Overview] A collection of media and articles on the topic of assessment from The George Lucas Educational Foundation
* [http://www.apa.org/science/standards.html The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing]
* [http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/jc/ Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation]
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