- Guillermo Gonzalez (astronomer)
Guillermo Gonzalez (born 1963 in
Havana, Cuba) is an astrophysicist and notable proponent of intelligent design, and is a professor at Grove City College, an evangelical Christian school, in Grove City, Pennsylvania. He is a senior fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture, considered the hub of the intelligent design movement, and a fellow with the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design, which also promotes intelligent design. His primary research interest is studying the late stages of stellar evolutionusing spectroscopy, though he is also doing research on extrasolar planets. [ [http://www.public.iastate.edu/~astro/faculty/gonzalez.html Guillermo Gonzalez] Iowa University faculty page. Accessed Nov. 13, 2006] Previously, he was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Iowa State Universityuntil May 2008.
Education, work and academics
Gonzalez obtained his Ph.D. in Astronomy from the
University of Washingtonin 1993 and has done post-doctoral work at the University of Texas, Austinand the University of Washington. He has received fellowships, grants and awards from NASA, the University of Washington, Sigma Xi, and the National Science Foundation. [ [http://www.iscid.org/guillermo-gonzalez.php Guillermo Gonzalez] at the International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design. Accessed Nov. 13, 2006] He is a proponent of the Galactic Habitable Zone concept. [ [http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0103165 The Galactic Habitable Zone I. Galactic Chemical Evolution] , Guillermo Gonzalez, Donald Brownlee, Peter Ward, arXiv] [ Robert Roy Britt, [http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/astronomy/goldilocks_zone_020528-1.html Amid the Universe's Chaos, a Few Habitable Places] , Space.com, 28 May 2002]
Gonzalez was a regular contributor to "Facts for Faith" magazine produced by
Reasons to Believe, an old earth creationist group. [ [http://www.reasons.org/resources/fff/2000issue04/index.shtml?main#measurability_of_the_universe The Measurability of the Universe––a Record of the Creator’s Design] By Guillermo Gonzalez, Facts for Faith Issue 4, 2000.] In addition to his work for the Discovery Institute, he is a researcher for the Biologic Institute, which is funded by the institute for research into intelligent design. [cite news | url=http://biologicinstitute.org/people/ | title=Biologic Institute People| publisher= Biologic Institute|date= 2007 | first= | last= | accessdate =2007-05-17]
In 2004 he published "
The Privileged Planet" and its accompanying video, which takes the arguments of the Rare Earth hypothesisand combines them with arguments that the Earth is in prime location for observing the universe. He then proposes that the Earth was intelligently designed. William H. Jefferys, a Professor of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin, reviewed the book writing "the little that is new in this book isn't interesting, and what is old is just old-hat creationism in a new, modern-looking astronomical costume." [cite news | url=http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/784_review_of_emthe_privileged_p_6_7_2005.asp | title=Review of The Privileged Planet | publisher= National Center for Science Education| date= July 2005 | first= | last= | accessdate = 2006-10-18] A documentary based on the book was produced by the Discovery Institute. [ [http://www.privilegedplanet.com/ Privileged Planet official webpage] ]
Iowa State University tenure denial
Two years prior to his consideration for tenure, approximately 130 faculty of Iowa State University signed a statement co-authored by
Hector Avalos, a professor of Religious Studies, opposing "all attempts to represent Intelligent Design as a scientific endeavor." Similar statements were issued by faculty at the University of Northern Iowaand at the University of Iowa. A total of approximately 400 professors signed the three petitions. [ [http://www.iowastatedaily.com/media/paper818/news/2005/12/12/News/Intelligent.Design.Opponents.Willing.To.Debate-1127186.shtml?norewrite&sourcedomain=www.iowastatedaily.com Intelligent Design opponents willing to debate] , Marcos Rivera, Virginia Arrigucci and Emily Schaefer, Iowa State Daily] [ [http://www.biology.iastate.edu/STATEMENT.htm Statement by Iowa State University Faculty] ] Although no mention of Gonzalez was made in these petitions, two years later at the time of his denial of tenure, The Waterloo-Cedar Falls Courier called Gonzalez "the unnamed target" of the ISU petition. [ [http://www.wcfcourier.com/articles/2007/05/15/news/breaking_news/doc464974df40e01506090454.txt Intelligent design advocate denied tenure at ISU] , Nafeesa Syeed, The Waterloo-Cedar Falls Courier] However, Hector Avaloshas stated that this statement "was in no way targeted specifically at Gonzalez", that Tom Ingebritsen, an Associate Professor in the Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, had been advocating, and teaching a course in, Intelligent Design at ISU for a number of years before Gonzales arrived, and that " [a] t that time [the] statement began to circulate, Dr. Gonzalez was not well-known as an ID advocate to most faculty even at ISU". Avalos also accused the Discovery Institute of "combining sentences from different sections of [the statement] in order create a fragmented syntax that appears to target Gonzalez": [ [http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/12/never_trust_a_creationist_elli.php Never trust a creationist ellipsis — Hector Avalos on the Gonzalez emails] , Pharyngula] quotation|Here issic the three original sentences, snippets of which were recombined by the Discovery Institute:
[emphasis in original]
#Intelligent Design has become a significant issue in science education, and it has now established a presence, even if minimal, at Iowa State University.
#Accordingly, if you are concerned about the negative impact of Intelligent Design on the integrity of science and on our university, please consider signing the "Statement on Intelligent Design by Iowa State University Faculty" below.
#We, therefore, urge all faculty members to uphold the integrity of our university of "science and technology," convey to students and the general public the importance of methodological naturalism in science, and reject efforts to portray Intelligent Design as science.
Denial of tenure and appeals
In April 2007 Iowa State University denied Gonzalez tenure.
On June 1, 2007, Gregory Geoffroy, President of Iowa State University, rejected Gonzalez's appeal and upheld the denial of tenure. In making this decision, Geoffroy states that he "specifically considered refereed publications, [Gonzalez's] level of success in attracting research funding and grants, the amount of telescope observing time he had been granted, the number of graduate students he had supervised, and most importantly, the overall evidence of future career promise in the field of astronomy" [ [http://www.midiowanews.com/site/tab1.cfm?newsid=18417567&dept_id=554432&brd=2700&pag=461 Statement from Iowa State University President Greg Geoffroy] Ames Tribune. June 2, 2007.] and that Gonzalez "simply did not show the trajectory of excellence that we expect in a candidate seeking tenure in physics and astronomy -- one of our strongest academic programs." Geoffroy noted, "Over the past 10 years, four of the 12 candidates who came up for review in the physics and astronomy department were not granted tenure." [cite web |url=http://www.iastate.edu/~nscentral/news/2007/jun/statement.shtml |title=Statement from Iowa State University President Gregory Geoffroy |accessdate=2007-12-03|date=06-01-2007|publisher=Iowa State University News Service ] Gonzalez appealed to the Iowa Board of Regents and the board affirmed the decision on February 7, 2008. [Citation
last1 = Monastersky | first1 = Richard
title = Intelligent Design and Tenure: Not in the Stars
newspaper = Chronicle of Higher Education
year = 2008
url = http://chronicle.com/news/article/3900/intelligent-design-and-tenure-not-in-the-stars] [Citation
last1 = Beisser | first1 = Andrea
title = Regents dismiss Gonzalez appeal
newspaper = Iowa State Daily
year = 2008
url = http://media.www.iowastatedaily.com/media/storage/paper818/news/2008/02/08/News/Regents.Dismiss.Gonzalez.Appeal-3197302.shtml?xmlsyn=1 ]
Reasons for denial
The University has issued an
FAQconcerning the situation saying that "The consensus of the tenured department faculty, the department chair, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the dean of Liberal Arts and Sciences, and the executive vice president and provost was that tenure should not be granted. Based on recommendations against granting tenure and promotion at every prior level of review, and his own review of the record, President Gregory Geoffroy notified Gonzalez in April that he would not be granted tenure and promotion to associate professor." [ [http://www.iastate.edu/~nscentral/news/2007/may/tenureFAQ.shtml Facts regarding status of tenure case at Iowa State] , Iowa State University] The denial of tenure for Gonzalez resulted in one of the Discovery Institute intelligent design campaignswith the Institute encouraging its followers to call and email Geoffroy and urge him to reverse the decision. ["Action Item: Help Guillermo Gonzalez in his fight for academic freedom. Contact ISU President ... let him know that you support academic freedom for Dr. Gonzalez to follow the evidence wherever it leads." [http://www.evolutionnews.org/2007/05/iowa_state_avoids_key_question.html#more Iowa State Avoids Key Question in Gonzalez Tenure Case] Discovery Institute, Evolutionnews.org.] [ [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&id=2939 Dr. Guillermo Gonzalez And Academic Persecution] Discovery Institute. May 18, 2007.] The Chronicle of Higher Educationsaid of Gonzalez and the Discovery Institute's claims of discrimination "At first glance, it seems like a clear-cut case of discrimination ... But a closer look at Mr. Gonzalez's case raises some questions about his recent scholarship and whether he has lived up to his early promise." The Chronicle observed that Gonzalez had no major grants during his seven years at ISU, had published no significant research during that time and had only one graduate student finish a dissertation. [ [http://chronicle.com/daily/2007/05/2007052103n.htm Advocate of Intelligent Design Who Was Denied Tenure Has Strong Publications Record] Richard Monastersky. The Chronicle of Higher Education, May, 2007. Subscription needed] The Discovery Institute misrepresents an op-ed by John Hauptman, one of Gonzalez's colleagues in the physics department. Hauptman states clearly that Gonzalez's work falls far short of what scientists know to be science, containing not one single number, not one single measurement or test of any kind. [ [http://www.evolutionnews.org/2007/06/darwinist_misrepresents_guille.html ISU Physicist Misrepresents Guillermo Gonzalez’s Arguments for Testing Intelligent Design] Casey Luskin, Discovery Institute. EvolutionNews.org, June 4, 2007.] [http://desmoinesregister.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070602/OPINION01/706020313/1035/OPINION Rights are intact: Vote turns on question, 'What is science?'] John Hauptman. Des Moines Register, June 2, 2007. dead link as of Nov. 13, 2007] "I believe that I fully met the requirements for tenure at ISU," said Gonzalez. On May 8, 2007 Gonzalez appealed the decision. [ [http://media.www.iowastatedaily.com/media/storage/paper818/news/2008/02/07/News/Gonzalez.Appeal.To.Be.Decided.By.Board.Of.Regents-3193635.shtml Gonzalez appeal to be decided by Board of Regents] Andrea Beisser, Iowa State Daily. February 7, 2008.]
Gonzalez's failure to obtain research funding has been cited as a factor in the decision. "Essentially, he had no research funding," said Eli Rosenberg, chairman of Gonzalez's department. "That's one of the issues." [ [http://desmoinesregister.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070601/NEWS02/706010392/1001/COMM05&template=printart www.desmoinesregister.com | Printer-friendly article page ] ] According to the Des Moines Register, "Iowa State has sponsored $22,661 in outside grant money for Gonzalez since July 2001, records show. In that same time period, Gonzalez's peers in physics and astronomy secured an average of $1.3 million by the time they were granted tenure."On February 7th, 2008, his appeal to the Board of Regents was denied. [ [http://chronicle.com/news/article/3900/intelligent-design-and-tenure-not-in-the-stars Intelligent Design and Tenure: Not in the Stars] , "
The Chronicle of Higher Education", February 7, 2008]
Discovery Institute and intelligent design campaign
The Discovery Institute launched a campaign portraying Gonzalez as a victim of discrimination by "Darwinist ideologues" for his support of intelligent design, [ [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&id=4051&program=DI%20Main%20Page%20-%20News&callingPage=discoMainPage Intelligent Design Scientist Denied Tenure Despite Exceeding Standard Requirements] ,
Discovery Institute] [http://www.midiowanews.com/site/index.cfm?newsid=18333457&BRD=2700&PAG=461&dept_id=554188&rfi=8 Proponent of intelligent design denied tenure by ISU] , By: William Dillon, Mid-Iowa News] comparing Gonzalez's denial of tenure to the claims of discrimination by Richard Sternberg, another institute affiliate, over the Sternberg peer review controversy. [ [http://www.evolutionnews.org/2007/05/iowa_state_university_denies_t.html Updated: Iowa State University Denies Tenure to Noted Scientist Who Supports Intelligent Design] , John West, Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute] The institute's public relations campaign also makes the same claims of discrimination as the campaign it conducted on behalf of institute Fellow Francis J. Beckwithwhen he was initially denied tenure at Baylor University.
The Discovery Institute filed a request for public records and as a result, in December 2007,
Des Moines Registerobtained faculty email records from 2005 that included discussions of intelligent design, and made mention of the impact that Gonzalez's support for it might have on his prospects for tenure. Emails included one by John Hauptman who worried that the anti-Gonzalez sentiments were "starting to smack of a witch's hanging." Hauptman went on to vote against Gonzalez's tenure in part over concerns about Gonzalez's support of intelligent design. cite news|author=Lisa Rossi |title=Intelligent design theory influenced ISU tenure vote |url=http://desmoinesregister.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071201/NEWS02/712010318/1001/NEWS | publisher=Des Moines Register |date=2007-12-01 |accessdate=2007-12-03 ] The Discovery Institute writes that the email records "demonstrate that a campaign was organized and conducted against Gonzalez by his colleagues, with the intent to deny him tenure". [ [http://www.evolutionnews.org/2007/12/secret_emails_reveal_how_isu_f.html Secret Emails Reveal How ISU Faculty Plotted to Deny Distinguished Astronomer Tenure] , Discovery Institute, access date=2007-12-05] In a letter to the Iowa State Daily, Physics and Astronomy Professor Joerg Schmalian stated that the e-mail "discussion was prompted by our unease with the national debate on intelligent design", not the issue of tenure. [http://media.www.iowastatedaily.com/media/storage/paper818/news/2007/12/10/Opinion/Letter.Released.Gonzalez.EMails.Lack.Context-3140394.shtml LETTER: Released Gonzalez e-mails lack context] , Joerg Schmalian, Iowa State Daily]
Critics such as
PZ Myershave argued that the Discovery Institute's statement "relies heavily on fragmentary quotes taken from emails that they obtained through an open records inquiry", that the "entire anti-evolution movement" has a track-record of taking quotations out of context, that "the DI has not made the full text of the sources available for examination", leading to a "reluctan [ce] to accept the quotes provided at face value", and that in any case " [t] his is precisely what his colleagues are supposed to do: discuss concerns about his tenure case." [ [http://pandasthumb.org/archives/2007/12/the-discovery-i-8.html The Discovery Institute and the Gonzalez Tenure Issue: Why Should Intelligent Design be Privileged?] , The Panda's Thumb] [ [http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/12/discovery_institute_blockbuste.php Discovery Institute blockbuster evidence in the Gonzalez tenure case!] , PZ Myers, Pharyngula] Another critic has analysed the list of Gonzalez's publications supplied by the Discovery Institute, and found that "he peaked in 1999, and the decline [in his publications] began "even while he was still at the University of Washington" and that " [e] ven more pronounced than the drop in publications is the complete bottom-out in first authorships that is almost sustained throughout his entire probationary period leading up to tenure." [ [http://scienceblogs.com/neurotopia/2007/12/a_handy_graphictimeline_of_gon.php A Handy Graphic/Timeline of Gonzalez's Publication Drop] , Neurotopia, Scienceblogs] [ [http://www.expelledexposed.com/index.php/the-truth/gonzalez Guillermo Gonzalez] Expelled Exposed, National Center for Science Education. 2008] Another critic commented:
Additionally, Gonzalez appeared in the controversial 2008 movie . The
American Association for the Advancement of Sciencedescribes the film as dishonest and divisive, aimed at introducing religious ideas into public school science classrooms,cite news | url=http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2008/0418expelled.shtml | title=New AAAS Statement Decries "Profound Dishonesty" of Intelligent Design Movie | publisher= American Association for the Advancement of Science|date= April 18, 2008 | first= | last= | accessdate =2008-04-20] and the film is being used in private screenings to legislators as part of the Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign for Academic Freedom bills.cite web |url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120967537476060561.html?mod=googlenews_wsj |title=Evolution's Critics Shift Tactics With Schools|author=Stephanie Simon |date=May 2, 2008 |publisher= Wall Street Journal|accessdate=2008-05-03] "Expelled" portrays Gonzalez as a victim of religious discrimination and the Discovery Institutecampaign asserts that his intelligent design writings should not have been considered in the review. However, Gonzales listed "The Privileged Planet" as part of his tenure review file. Dr. Gregory Tinkler of Iowa Citizens for Science stated that "Being a religious scientist is perfectly normal and acceptable, but scientists are supposed to be able to separate science from non-science, and good research from bad. Academic freedom protects a scientist's ability to do science, not to pass off a political or religious crusade as science."cite web |url=http://pandasthumb.org/archives/2007/12/iowa-citizens-f-1.html#more |title=Iowa Citizens for Science Press Release on Gonzalez Case - The Panda's Thumb |accessdate=2008-03-05 |author= Wesley R. Elsberry|date= December 12, 2007 |publisher=The Panda's Thumb ] [cite web |url=http://www.iowascience.org/?p=37 |title=Iowa Citizens for Science - Gonzalez, Discovery Institute seek to replace science with politics, religion |accessdate=2007-12-16 |format= |work=]
Colleagues speak out
One of Gonzalez's colleagues, physics professor Joerg Schmalian wrote"To deny tenure to a colleague is a very painful experience. It literally causes sleepless nights to those who are forced to make a responsible decision. Faculty candidates who are being hired in our department always come with promising backgrounds and terrific accomplishments. The decision to recommend or deny tenure is then predominantly based on research performance while at Iowa State. As far as I can judge, this was no different in Gonzalez's case. What I know with certainty is that Gonzalez's views on intelligent design, with which I utterly disagree, had no bearing whatsoever on my vote on his tenure case."
Grove City College
In late 2007, Gonzalez accepted a non-tenure track position to head the astronomy program at
Grove City Collegein Pennsylvania starting in fall semester 2008. [ [http://www.whotv.com/global/story.asp?s=8196390 Intelligent Design Film Debuts With Former ISU Professor] , Who TV, April 18, 2008] Grove City College acquired an observatory from Edinboro Universityof Pennsylvania in February 2008 that will be utilized for astronomyclasses as well as faculty and student research. [ [http://www.gcc.edu/College_acquires_observatory_for_research.php College Acquires Observatory for Research] , Grove City College, February 13, 2008] The observatory's telescope will be operated more than 60 miles away remotely from the college's main campus. The purchase of the property, three buildings and equipment inside will pave the way for the addition of an astronomy minor on campus. Through this observatory and under Gonzalez's headship, the college's physicsdepartment plans to work with area public schools as well as other colleges and universities on educational and research projects and draw prospective students who are looking for strong physicsprograms and astronomycoursework.
* "" (co-author
Jay Richards), Regnery Publishing, Inc., Washington D.C., March 2004, ISBN 0-89526-065-4
* [http://www.physics.iastate.edu/index.php?cmd=researchgroups.astronomy.faculty-and-staff.faculty Department of Physics & Astronomy faculty page] at
Iowa State University
* [http://www.discovery.org/scripts/viewDB/index.php?command=view&isFellow=true&id=33 Guillermo Gonzalez, Senior Fellow] from the
* [http://www.privilegedplanet.com/ The Privileged Planet] Official Website
* [http://www.pandasthumb.org/archives/2005/09/intro_to_id_by.html U of Iowa professor Tara Smith's critical summary of a presentation by Gonzalez about Intelligent Design] on "
The Panda's Thumb" Weblog
* [http://telicthoughts.com/?p=291 Gonzalez: The controversy over ID at ISU]
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