- Hedge (barrier)
A hedge is a line of closely spaced
shrubs and bushes, planted and trained in such a way as to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area. Hedges, especially those used to separate a road from adjoining fields or one field from another, and of sufficient age to incorporate small trees, are also frequently known as hedgerows. It is also a simple form of Topiary.
Many hedgerows separating fields from lanes in
England, Irelandand the Low Countriesare estimated to have been in existence for more than seven hundred years. The root word of 'hedge' is much older: it appears in Old English, in German ("Hecke"), and Dutch ("haag") to signify 'enclosure', as in the name of the Dutch city The Hague, or more formal" 's Gravenhage", meaning "The Count's hedge". Charles the Baldis recorded as complaining in 864, at a time when most official fortifications were constructed of wooden palisades, that some unauthorized men were constructing "haies et fertés" – tightly interwoven hedges of hawthorns. [Rouche, Michel, "Private life conquers state and society," in "A History of Private Life" vol I, Paul Veyne, editor, Harvard University Press 1987 ISBN 0-674-39974-9, page 428]
The nineteenth century
Great Hedge of Indiawas probably the largest example of a hedge used as a barrier. It was planted and used to collect taxes by the British.
If hedges are not maintained or only trimmed repeatedly, gaps tend to form at the base over many years. In essence, hedgelaying consists of cutting most of the way through the stem of each plant near the base, bending it over and interweaving it between wooden stakes. This also encourages new growth from the base of each plant. Originally, the main purpose of hedgelaying was to ensure the hedge remained stock-proof. Some side branches were also removed and used as firewood.
The maintenance and laying of hedges in such a way as to form an impenetrable barrier for farm animals is a skilled art. In Britain there are many local hedgelaying traditions, each with a distinct style. Hedges are still being laid today as they are not only beautiful and functional but they also help
wildlifeand protect against soil erosion.
Dating ancient hedges
Hedges that have existed for hundreds of years are colonised by additional species. This may be useful to determine the age of the hedge. Hedgerow dating suggests that one new species is attracted to each 27 metre section of hedge every 100 years. However, results are mixed and the technique is controversial.
Hedges in gardening
Hedges, both clipped and unclipped, are often used as ornament in the layout of
gardens. Typical woody plants for clipped hedges include privet, hawthorn, beech, yew, leyland cypress, hemlock, arborvitae, barberry, box, holly, oleander, lavender, etc. An early 20th century fashion was for tapestry hedges, using a mix of golden, green and glaucous dwarf conifers, or beechand copper beech. Unclipped hedges take up more space, generally at a premium in modern gardens, but compensate by flowering. "Rosa multiflora" is widely used as a dense hedge along median (central) strips of dual-carriageway roads, such as parkways in the United States. In mild climates, more exotic flowering hedges are formed, using " Ceanothus", " Hibiscus" or " Camellia".Hedges of clipped trees forming avenues are a feature of 16th century Italian gardens such as the Boboli Gardensin Florence, and of formal French gardens in the manner of André Le Nôtre, e.g. at Versailles. The 'hedge on stilts' of clipped hornbeams at Hidcote Manor Garden, Gloucestershire, is famous and has sometimes been imitated.
Hedges below knee height are generally thought of as borders. Elaborately shaped and interlaced borders forming
knot gardens or parterres were fashionable in Europe during the 16th and early 17th centuries. Generally they were appreciated from a raised position, either the windows of a house, or a terrace.
Clipped hedges above eye level may be laid out in the form of a
labyrinthor garden maze. Few such mazes survived the change of fashion towards more naturalistic plantings in the 18th and 19th centuries, but many were replanted in 20th century restorations of older gardens. An example is behind the Governor's Palace, Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia.
pruningcan both be used to enhance a garden's privacy, as a buffer to visual pollutionand to hide fences. A hedge can be aesthetically pleasing, as in a tapestry hedge, where alternate species are planted at regular intervals to present different colours or textures.
* [http://www.hedgelaying.org.uk/ The British Hedgelaying Society]
* [http://landscaping.about.com/od/hedgesfences/a/hedge_plants.htm Plant Selection for Hedges]
* [http://homepage.eircom.net/~hedgerow/ Irish Hedgerow Diary]
* [http://www.hedgerows.co.uk/ The English Hedgerow Trust]
* [http://store.ashridgetrees.co.uk/Information/Hedging-Plant-Fruit-and-Tree-Lists-Suggestions Lists of Hedge Plants for Particular Purposes]
*Alan Brooks, Elizabeth Agate: [http://handbooks.btcv.org.uk/handbooks/index/book/6 "Hedging"] , British Trust for Conservation Volunteers, ISBN 0946752176
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