- Brookings Institution
caption = The Brookings Institution building near
Dupont Circlein Washington, D.C.
abbreviation = Brookings
motto = Quality. Independence. Impact.
formation = 1916
type = Public Policy
headquarters = 1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW
leader_title = President
website = [http://www.brookings.edu www.brookings.edu] The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit public policy organization based in
Washington, D.C.[http://www.brookings.edu/about.aspx About Brookings] ] One of Washington's oldest think tanks, Brookings conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9016635 Brookings Institution] "Encyclopedia Britannica".] Their stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous and cooperative international system." Brookings states that its scholars "represent diverse points of view" and describes itself as non-partisan. [http://www.brookings.edu/about/Research.aspx Brookings Research] ]
Media descriptions of Brookings range from liberal to
centrist; however, despite its left-of-center reputation, some U.S. pundits have criticized the work of Brookings' foreign policy scholars for being too supportive of Bush administration positions. [http://matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com/archives/2007/08/very_serious_indeed.php Very Serious Indeed] by Matthew Yglesias, ‘’Atlantic Monthly,’’ August 24, 2007] [http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2007/08/12/ohanlon/index.html The Truth Behind the Pollack-O'Hanlon Trip to Iraq] by Glenn Greenwald, Salon.com.]
The organization's president,
Strobe Talbottwas United States Deputy Secretary of Stateunder President Clinton. Brookings employs five research vice presidents: Carlos Pascual (former U.S. ambassador to Ukraineand senior director on the National Security Councilstaff), Lael Brainard (a former White House Deputy National Economic Adviser and Chair of the Deputy Secretaries Committee on International Economics during the Clinton Administration), William Gale(a former senior staff economist for the Council of Economic Advisersunder President Bush), Bruce Katz, and Pietro Nivola.
Brookings as an institution produces an Annual Report. [http://www.brookings.edu/about/annualreport.aspx Brookings Annual Report] ] The Brookings Institution Press publishes books and journals from the institution's own research as well as authors outside the organization. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/press.aspx Brookings Institution Press] ] The books and journals they publish include "Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy, Globalphobia: Confronting Fears about Open Trade, India: Emerging Power, Through Their Eyes, Taking the High Road, Masses in Flight" and "Stalemate" to name a few. In addition, books, papers, articles, reports, policy briefs and opinion pieces are produced by Brookings research programs, centers, projects and, for the most part, by experts. [ [http://brookingspress.typepad.com/bipblog/ Brookings Press Blog] ] [ [http://www.brookings.edu/press/books.aspx Brookings Institution Press: Books] ]
Brookings claims to have contributed to the creation of the
United Nations, the Marshall Plan, the Congressional Budget Office, as well as influencing policies of deregulation, broad-based tax reform, welfare reform, and foreign aid.
Of the 200 most prominent think tanks in the U.S., the Brookings Institution's research is the most widely cited by the media, [http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/polisci/faculty/groseclose/Media.Bias.8.htm "A Measure of Media Bias"] by Tim Groseclose and Jeff Milyo, December 2004.] [http://fair.org/index.php?page=2897 Study Finds First Drop in Think Tank Cites] by Michael Dolny, ‘’FAIR’’, May/June 2006] and the third most-cited of all public policy institutes by Members of Congress, behind only the
Heritage Foundationand the American Civil Liberties Union. [ [http://mason.gmu.edu/~atabarro/MediaBias.doc "A Measure of Media Bias"] by Tim Groseclose and Jeff Milyo, September 2003.] In a 1997 survey of congressional staff and journalists, Brookings ranked as the second-most influential and first in credibility among 27 think tanks. [http://www.ssireview.org/pdf/2005SP_feature_rich.pdf War of Ideas: Why Mainstream and Liberal Foundations and the Think Tanks they Support are Losing in the War of Ideas in American Politics] by Andrew Rich, Stanford "Social Innovation Review", Spring 2006] More over, “Brookings and its researchers are not so concerned, in their work, in affecting the ideological direction of the nation” and rather tend “to be staffed by researchers with strong academic credentials.” Along with the more conservative American Enterprise Instituteand Heritage Foundation, Brookings is generally considered one of the three most influential policy institutes in the U.S. [http://slate.com/id/2299/ Happy Birthday, Heritage Foundation] by Jacob Weisberg, "Slate", January 9, 1998]
501(c)(3)non-profit organization, Brookings describes itself as independent and non-partisan. [ [http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2008/04/30/obama_repudiates_ex_pastor/ Obama repudiates ex-pastor] by Joseph P. Williams, ‘’Boston Globe’’, April 30, 2008] Media descriptions of Brookings range from liberal to centrist. The " New York Times" has referred to the organization as liberal, liberal-centrist, and centrist. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/14/politics/14heritage.html Next Generation of Conservatives (By the Dormful)] by Jason DeParle, ‘’New York Times’’, June 14, 2005] [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9804E4D61F3FF936A25756C0A96F958260 Silicon Valley's New Think Tank Stakes Out 'Radical Center'] by Neil A. Lewis, ‘’New York Times’’, May 15, 1999] [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F06E5D71E3BF937A1575AC0A9669C8B63 ECONOMIC VIEW; Friedman And Keynes, Trading Pedestals] by Tom Redburn, ‘’New York Times’’, September 24, 2000] [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/13/nyregion/13ROBINSON.html Marshall A. Robinson, 83, Former Foundation Chief, Dies] by Wolfgang Saxon, ‘’New York Times’’, January 13, 2006] [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01E0D9163DF93BA3575AC0A96F958260& Air Force's Newest Jet Fighter Is in Fierce Fight, in Capitol] by Elizabeth Becker, ‘’New York Times’’, September 8, 1999] [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/20/opinion/20mon2.html The Way to Save] ‘’New York Times’’, February 20, 2006] " The Washington Post" sometimes describes Brookings as liberal. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/20/AR2007062002342_pf.html Stumping for Attention To Deficit Disorder] by Lori Montgomery, ‘’The Washington Post’’, June 21, 2007] [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/blog/2006/11/13/BL2006111300496_pf.html The Unbelievable Karl Rove] by Dan Froomkin, ‘’Washingtonpost.com’’, November 13, 2006] [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A48583-2002Apr14?language=printer 2003 Budget Completes Big Jump in Spending] by Glenn Kessler, ‘’The Washington Post’’, April 15, 2002] The " Los Angeles Times" describes Brookings as liberal-leaning and centrist. [ [http://www.latimes.com/business/la-na-stimulus17jan17,0,2412219.story?page=1 Parties Suggest They'd Yield for Stimulus Pact] by Maura Reynolds and Richard Simon, ‘’Los Angeles Times’’, January 17, 2008] [ [http://articles.latimes.com/2008/02/02/news/fg-alqaeda2 U.S. Won't Say Who Killed Militant] by Josh Meyer, ‘’Los Angeles Times’’, February 2, 2008] [ [http://articles.latimes.com/2007/07/24/editorial_pages/oe-goldberg24 A green light to genocide] by Goldberg, ‘’Los Angeles Times’’, July 24, 2007] In 1977, " Time Magazine" described them as the "nation's pre-eminent liberal think tank." [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,915490,00.html The Other Think Tank] " Time Magazine", September 19, 1977] The organization is described as centrist by the progressive media watchdog group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting.Sam Husseini, " [http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1436 Brookings: The Establishment's Think Tank] ," "Extra!", Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (November/December 1998).] Lawrence Soley, " [http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1490 Brookings: Stand-In for the Left] ," "Extra!", Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (1991).] Michael Dolny, " [http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1102 Think Tanks in a Time of Crisis] ," "Extra!", Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (March/April 2002).]
Some liberals argue that despite its left-of-center reputation, Brookings foreign policy scholars have been overly supportive of Bush administration policies abroad. "The Atlantic's"
Matthew Yglesias, for example, has pointed out that Brookings' Michael O'Hanlonfrequently agrees with—and appears on stage with—scholars from conservative organizations such as the American Enterprise Institute, " The Weekly Standard", and the Project for a New American Century. Similarly, Brookings fellow and research director Benjamin Wittesis a member of the conservative Hoover Institution's Task Force on National Security and Law. [ [http://www.tnr.com/politics/story.html?id=377c198a-033f-46e5-b233-fb55af4174b8 Yoonited States of America ] ] The Brookings Board of Trustees include prominent Republicans such as Kenneth Duberstein, a former chief of staff to Ronald Reagan, and prominent Democrats, such as former Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/about/Trustees.aspx About Brookings Trustees] ] Its scholars include former government officials hailing from both Democratic and Republican administrations, as well as many who have not served in government and do not advertise a party affiliation.
aban Center for Middle East Policy
In 2002, the Brookings Institution established the
Saban Center for Middle East Policyin order “to promote a better understanding of the policy choices facing American decision makers in the Middle East”. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/saban.aspx About Us, Saban Center for Middle East Policy] , Brookings Institution] The Center is named after Haim Saban, an Israeli-American media proprietor, who donated $13 million toward its establishment [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2003_June_23/ai_103998774 Saban Family Foundation Announces $100 Million in Charitable Gifts] Find Articles2003-06-23] and directed by Martin Indyk, a former US diplomat and a former director of research at the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. The Center’s political slant has been described as “pro-Israel” by US foreign policy scholars John Mearsheimerand Stephen Walt. [ [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n06/mear01_.html The Israel Lobby] John Mearsheimer & Stephen Walt The London Review of Books] A U.S. government indictment alleges that the Center’s Director of Research, Kenneth Pollack, provided information to former AIPAC employees Steve J. Rosenand Keith Weissmanduring the AIPAC espionage scandal. [ [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1139395590059&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull Bush officials subpoenaed in AIPAC trial] , N Guttman, Jerusalem Post, 13 March 2006]
Brookings was founded in 1916 as the Institute for Government Research (IGR), which they claim was "the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level." [ [http://www.brookings.edu/lib/history_hp.htm Brookings Institution History] Brookings Institution.]
The Institution's founder,
philanthropist Robert S. Brookings( 1850– 1932), originally financed the formation of three organizations: the Institute for Government Research, the Institute of Economics, and the Robert Brookings Graduate School. The three were merged into the Brookings Institution in 1927.
Great Depressioneconomists at Brookings embarked on a large scale study commissioned by President Franklin D. Rooseveltto understand the underlying causes of the depression. Brookings' first president Harold Moulton and other Brookings' scholars later led an effort to oppose President Roosevelt's New Dealpolicies because they thought such measures were impeding economic recovery. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/lib/depression.htm Brookings History: The Depression] .] With the outbreak of World War II, Brookings researchers turned their attention to aiding the administration with a series of studies on mobilization.
In 1948, Brookings was asked to submit a plan for the administration of the European Recovery Program. The resulting organization scheme assured that the
Marshall Planwas run carefully and on a businesslike basis. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/lib/war.htm Brookings History: War and Readjustment] .]
In 1952, Robert Calkins succeeded Moulton as president of the Brookings Institution. He secured grants from the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations that put the Institution on a strong financial basis. He reorganized the Institution around the Economic Studies, Government Studies, and Foreign Policy Progams. In 1957, the Institution moved from Jackson Avenue to a new research center near
Dupont Circleon Massachusetts Avenue. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/lib/academic.htm Brookings History: Academic Prestige] .] Kermit Gordonassumed the presidency of Brookings in 1967. He began a series of studies of program choices for the federal budget in 1969 entitled "Setting National Priorities". He also expanded the Foreign Policy Studies Program to include research in national security and defense. After the election of Richard Nixonto the presidency in 1968, the relationship between the Brookings Institution and the White House deteriorated. Yet throughout the 1970s, Brookings was offered more federal research contracts than it could handle. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/lib/doubts.htm Brookings History: National Doubts and Confusion] .]
By the 1980s, the Institution faced an increasingly competitive and ideologically charged intellectual environment. The need to reduce the federal budget deficit became a major research theme as well as investigating problems with national security and government inefficiency. Bruce MacLaury, fourth president of Brookings, also established the Center for Public Policy Education to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/lib/agendas.htm Brookings History: Setting New Agendas] .]
Michael Armacostbecame the fifth president of the Brookings Institution and led an effort to refocus the Institution's mission heading into the 21st Century. Under Armacost's direction, Brookings created several interdisciplinary research centers such as the Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, which has brought attention to the plight of cities, and the Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies, which brings together specialists from different Asian countries to examine regional problems. Strobe Talbottbecame president of Brookings in 2002. Shortly thereafter, Brookings launched the Saban Center for Middle East Policyand the John L. Thornton China Center. In October 2006, Brookings announced the establishment of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center in Beijing. In July 2007, the Institution announced the creation of the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform to be directed by senior fellow Mark McClellan, and then in October 2007, the creation of the Brookings Doha Centerin Qatar.
Named to Nixon's "Enemies List"
During the administration of President
Richard M. Nixon, Brookings was named to Nixon's famous enemies list, due to its criticism of Nixon's domestic and foreign policies. Nixon-administration advisor Charles Colsoneven proposed firebombing the Brookings Institution and stealing politically damaging documents while firefighters put the fire out. [ [http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=06/04/27/149236 Democracy Now! interview with John Dean and Daniel Ellsberg] ] [ [http://articles.latimes.com/2003/feb/18/nation/na-tapes18 'Insanity' in Nixon's White House] "Los Angeles Times", February 18, 2003.] [ [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/290425781.html?dids=290425781:290425781&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Feb+18%2C+2003&author=Elizabeth+Mehren&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&edition=&startpage=A.11&desc=Los+Angeles+Times LA Times Archives] - Insanity' in Nixon's White House Presidential scholars hear about 1971 plan to firebomb a think tank, from John Dean.] [Dean, John. "Blind Ambition", 1976, ISBN 0-671-81248-3. p 35–39.]
Brookings focuses on five main areas of research: Economic Studies, Foreign Policy, Governance, Global Economy and Development, and Metropolitan Policy.
The five main research programs are:
* [http://www.brookings.edu/economics.aspx Economic Studies Program]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/governance.aspx Governance Studies Program]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/foreign-policy.aspx Foreign Policy Studies Program]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/global.aspx Global Economy and Development Program]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/metro.aspx Metropolitan Policy Program]
Policy centers include the following:
* [http://www.brookings.edu/brown.aspx Brown Center on Education Policy]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/cnaps.aspx Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/ccf.aspx Center for Children and Families]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/dynamics.aspx Center on Social and Economic Dynamics]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/cuse.aspx Center on the United States and Europe]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/health.aspx Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/china.aspx John L. Thornton China Center]
Saban Center for Middle East Policy
* [http://www.brookings.edu/taxpolicy.aspx Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/wolfensohn.aspx The Wolfensohn Center]
Operational centers include the following:
* [http://www.brookings.edu/doha.aspx Brookings Doha Center]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/brookings-tsinghua.aspx Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy]
Non-research programs include the following:
* [http://www.brookings.edu/execed.aspx Brookings Center for Executive Education]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/press.aspx Brookings Institution Press]
In 2006, Brookings announced the founding of The John L. Thornton China Center, a major new center focused on the study of Chinese politics and policy, with support from former President and COO of
Goldman SachsJohn L. Thornton. In 2006, Brookings announced the opening of its first-ever overseas center, the Brookings-Tsinghua Center at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and then its first center in the Muslim world, the Brookings Doha Centerin Qatar directeed by Hady Amrin 2007. In 2007, the Institution announced the creation of the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform to be directed by senior fellow Mark McClellan.
Brookings currently has over 140 resident and nonresident scholars. [ [http://www.brookings.edu/experts.aspx List of Brookings Experts] ] Some of Brookings' notable resident
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/daalderi.aspx Ivo H. Daalder] , Foreign Policy Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/damk.aspx Kenneth Dam] , Economic Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/dionnee.aspx E.J. Dionne] , Governance Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/easterbrookg.aspx Gregg Easterbrook] , Economic Studies, Governance Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/epsteinj.aspx Joshua M. Epstein] , Economic Studies, Center on Social and Economic Dynamics
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/g/galew.aspx William G. Gale] , Economic Studies, Tax Policy Center
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/gordonp.aspx Philip H. Gordon] , Foreign Policy Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/haskinsr.aspx Ron Haskins] , Economic Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/hesss.aspx Stephen Hess] , Media and Public Affairs, George Washington University
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/katzb.aspx Bruce Katz] , Metropolitan policy
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/mcclellanm.aspx Mark McClellan] , Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/ohanlonm.aspx Michael O'Hanlon] , expert on terrorism and foreign affairs
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/pascualc.aspx Carlos Pascual] , Foreign Policy Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/rivlina.aspx Alice Rivlin] ,
United States budget process
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/rices.aspx Susan E. Rice] , Foreign Policy Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/rodmanp.aspx Peter Rodman] , Foreign Policy Studies
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/sandalowd.aspx David B. Sandalow] , Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies, former
Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.
* [http://www.brookings.edu/experts/westd.aspx Darrell M. West] , electronic government, vice president and director of Governance Studies
Previous scholars include Under-Secretary-General of the Department of Political Affairs at the UN
Ibrahim Gambari. Stéphane Dion, leader of the Liberal Party of Canadaand Leader of the Official Opposition also served as a senior research fellow.
At the end of 2004 the Brookings Institution had assets of $258 million. It spent $39.7 million in that year. According to its annual report, [ [http://www.brookings.edu/admin/2004annualreport/39_40_contributors.pdf Brooking's Annual Report] ] the largest contributors in that year included the
Pew Charitable Trusts, the MacArthur Foundation, and the Carnegie Corporation; the governments of the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom. Others can be found listed at [http://www.mediatransparency.org/recipientgrants.php?recipientID=570 mediatransparency.org] .
List of Brookings Institution scholars
American Institute for Economic Research
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
* [http://www.brookings.edu/ Brookings Institution Official Web Site] .
* [http://www.brookings.edu/press/ Brookings Institution Press]
* [http://www.opportunity08.org Opportunity 08]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/projects/blueprint.aspx Blueprint for American Prosperity]
* [http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/home/ Brookings' Tax Policy Center]
* [http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1436 "Brookings: The Establishment's Think Tank", Extra!, FAIR, November/December 1998]
* [http://www.voltairenet.org/article30065.html "The Brookings Institution: a Think Tank of Good Feelings", Voltaire Network, June 30, 2004 (Critic of Brookings)] .
* [http://www.newamericancentury.org/iraq-20030328.htm Second Statement on Post-War Iraq]
* [http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2007/07/30/brookings/ "...credible Iraq experts O'Hanlon and Pollack]
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