- 3rd Armored Division (United States)
Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= U.S. 3rd Armored Division
caption=3rd Armored Division shoulder sleeve insignia
country= United States of America
allegiance= United States of America
United States Army
type=Armored Division (Heavy)
colors=Blue, Red, Gold, Black
identification_symbol=Armored Division Triangle
World War IIWar in Southwest Asia
previous=2nd Armored Division ("Inactive")
next=4th Armored Division ("Inactive")The 3rd Armored Division —nicknamed the Spearhead Division— and sometimes colloquially referred to within the U.S. Army as the "Third Herd", was an armored division of the
United States Army. The division was first activated in 1941, and was a key participant in the European Theater of World War II. The division was stationed in Germanyfor much of the Cold War, and participated in the Persian Gulf War. Shortly after the Gulf War, the division was deactivated as part of a general drawing down of forces at the end of the Cold War. As of 2006its strength is officially zero, but it is not inactive.
World War II
Order of Battle
The Third Armored Division was organized as a "heavy" armored division, as was its counterpart, the Second Armored Division aka "Hell on Wheels". Other U.S. armored divisions of the time were smaller by comparison, since in the judgement of U.S. Military Staff, the large divisions were so large as to be somewhat unwieldy when maneuvering across the European road systems.
As a "heavy" division, the 3rd Armored possessed two armored
regiments totalling four medium tank battalions and two of light tanks (18 companies) instead of three tank battalions containing both (12 companies), 232 Medium tanks instead of the 168 allotted a light armored division, and with attached units numbered over 16,000 men, instead of the normal 12,000 found in the light armored divisions. Each division type had an infantrycomponent of three mechanized infantrybattalions.
The division's core units were the 36th Armored Infantry Regiment, the 32nd Armored Regiment, the 33rd Armored Regiment, the 23rd Armored Engineer
Battalion, the 83rd Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, and the 143rd Armored Signal Company. During World War II, these were organized operationally into task forces known as Combat Commands A, B and R (Reserve), as in the light divisions.
In addition to the core units, a number of other units of various kinds were attached to the division during various operations. As with most American divisions in World War II, the 3rd Armored suffered heavy casualties, and by the end of the war replacement troops often outnumbered veterans in the line units.
During 1944 and 1945, the units comprising the Third Armored Division included:
* 32nd Armored Regiment
* 33rd Armored Regiment
* 36th Armored Infantry Regiment
* 54th Field Artillery Battalion
* 67th Field Artillery Battalion
* 391st Field Artillery Battalion
* 143rd Signal Company
* 23rd Armored Engineer Battalion
* 83rd Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
* Headquarters Company, 3rd Armored Division
* Service Company, 3rd Armored Division
* Division Trains
* Supply Battalion
* 45th Armored Medical Battalion
* 503rd Intelligence Corps
643rd Tank Destroyer Battalion(attached 22 December 1944to 26 December 1944)
* 703rd Tank Destroyer Battalion (attached
25 June 1944to 17 December 1944, 2 January 1945to 9 May 1945)
* 803rd Tank Destroyer Battalion (attached
25 June 1944to 2 July 1944)
* 413th AAA Gun Battalion (attached
7 July 1944to 16 July 1944)
* 486th AAA Auto-Weapons Battalion (attached
25 June 1944to 9 May 1945)=)
The division was activated on
April 15, 1941at Camp Beauregard, Louisiana. In June 1941, it moved to Camp Polk Louisiana (now Fort Polk). On 9 March 1942, it came under Army Ground Forces and was assigned to the II Armored Corps. In July 1942, it was transferred to Camp Young, CA and from August to October 1942, took part in maneuvers at the Desert Training Center. It left Camp Young in January 1943 and moved to the Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania.
The 3rd AD arrived in the European Theatre on
September 15, 1943, conducting pre-invasion training in the Liverpool and Bristol areas. It remained in Somerset, Englanduntil June 24 1944, when it departed to partake in the Normandyoperations.
The first elements of the 3rd Armored in
Francesaw combat on June 29, with the division as a whole beginning combat operations on July 9, 1944. During this time, it was under the command of VII Corps and XVIII Airborne Corps for some time, and assigned to the First Army and the 12th Army Group for the duration of its career.
The division "spearheaded" the US First Army through Normandy, taking part in a number of engagements, notably including the Battle of
Saint Lô, where it suffered significant casualties. After facing heavy fighting in the hedgerows, and developing methods to overcome the vast thickets of brush and earth that constrained its mobility, the unit broke out at Marigny, alongside the 1st Infantry Division, and swung south to Mayenne.
Ordered to help close the
Falaise Gapand Argentan pocket which contained the German Seventh Army, the division finished the job near Putanges by 18 August. Six days later the outfit had sped through Courville and Chartres and was located at the banks of the Seine River. On the night of August 25, 1944the crossing of the Seine by the division started; once over, the 3rd slugged its way across France, reaching Belgiumon September 2, 1944.
Liberated in the path of the division were Meaux, Seissons, Laon, Marle, Mons, Charleroi, Namur and Liege. It was at Mons that the division cut off 40,000
Wehrmachttroops and captured 8,000 prisoners. Then the division began the first invasion of Germanysince the days of Napoleon.
Across the Rhine
September 10, 1944the Spearhead Division fired what it claimed was the first American field artillery shell of the war onto German soil. Two days later it passed the German border and soon breached the Siegfried Line, taking part in the Battle of Hurtgen Forest.
The 3rd Armored Division continued fighting during the
Battle of Bulge, far north of the deepest German penetration. Countering German attacks, it severed an important highway leading to St Vith. By late January 1945, the German offensive had been checked, and the division began pushing its way into Germany. Advancing at a little better than half a mile a day against stiff resistance, the 3rd captured ten towns in January 1945, took 2,149 prisoners and destroyed 61 armored vehicles.
Death of a General
The division began a thrust into the
Rhinelandof Germany on February 7, 1945. On March 31, the commander of the division, Major General Maurice Rose, famed as one of few commanding generals to frequent the front lines during combat, rounded a corner in his jeep and found himself face to face with a German tank. As he withdrew his pistol to surrender, the young German tankcommander, apparently misunderstanding Rose's intentions, shot the general.
After Rose's death, the two sergeants with him were taken prisoner. Shortly after this, the division went into battle against Waffen SS units, and captured over 100 troops. [http://www.wansleben.de/body_haxtergrund.html] German historians claim these troops were killed while under guard by Third Armored Division troops, and believe that they were killed in retribution for Rose's death. This is possible, but it is an unfortunate fact that SS prisoners were sometimes killed by Allied troops, who put their adherence to the
Geneva Conventionaside in the case of SS Troops, due to their heinous reputation, especially after the Malmedy Massacre of 17 December 1944.
The division swept into the key city of
Colognein March 1945. Beyond Cologne the division swept up Paderborn in its advance, to shut the back door to the Ruhr. In April, the 3rd crossed the Saale River, north of Halle, and sped on toward the Elbe River.
April 11, 1945, the 3rd Armored discovered the Dora-Mittelbauconcentration camp. The division first arrived on the scene, reporting back to headquarters that it had uncovered a large concentration campnear the town of Nordhausen. Requesting help from the 104th Infantry Division, the 3rd immediately began transporting some 250 ill and starving prisoners to nearby hospital facilities.
At war’s end it pulled up near Dessau. Occupational duty near Langen was given the division following V-E Day, a role it filled until inactivation. The division was inactivated on
10 November 1945.
The 3rd Armored Division had 231 days of combat in World War II, with a total of 2,540 killed, 7,331 wounded, 95 missing, and 139 captured. Total battle and non-battle casualties came to 16,122.
The 3rd Armored Division lost more tanks in combat than any other U.S. division. Combat Command A lost more tanks than any other unit in the 3rd Armored Division.
Medals & Awards Earned by Division Soldiers
*Distinguished Service Crosses - 17
Legions of Merit- 23
Silver Stars - 885
Soldiers Medal- 32
*Bronze Stars - 3,884
Purple Hearts - in excess of 10,500
Air Medals - 138
*Distinguished Flying Crosses - 3
uccessive Division Commanders during World War II
* Major General Alvin C. Gillem, April 1941 to January 1942
* Major General Walton H. Walker, January 1941 to August 1942
* Major General Leroy R. Watson, August 1942 to August 1944
* Major General Maurice Rose, August 1944 to March 1945 KIA
Brigadier GeneralDoyle O. Hickey, March to June 1945
* Brigadier General Truman E. Beidinot, June & July 1945
* Brigadier General Frank A. Allen, Jr., July 1945
* Major General Robert W. Grow, July 1945 until inactivation
The Cold War
The division was reactivated on
15 July 1947at Fort Knox, Kentuckyto act as training formation. In 1955it was reorganized for combat and shipped to Germany the next year. It replaced the 4th Infantry Division under a program called Operation Gyroscope.
The Mission and the Men
The 3rd Armored's primary mission during this period was, in the event of war, to defend the
Fulda Gapagainst numerically superior Warsaw Pactforces alongside other NATOelements. At the peak of East/West tensions during the 1980s, as many as nineteen Soviet and East German divisions faced off against Spearhead soldiers. To prepare their defenses against an invasion, the division's units frequently conducted field training at Hohenfels[http://www.hohenfels.army.mil Training Area] and at, Wildfleckenand GrafenwöhrU.S. Army training areas, conducting exercises of live fire, movement and communications. The division would also frequently take to the German countryside for training maneuvers, including what became an annually staged war game Reforger, which simulated invasion of Western Europe by Warsaw Pact forces.
Throughout the Cold War, "Third Herd"s headquarters company, 503d Adjutant General Co. and 503d M.P. Co. were based on Drake
Kaserne, with 141st Signal Bn. and other support units stationed across the street at Edwards Kaserne in Frankfurt, West Germany. A number of its subunits were based in other Kasernes throughout the German state of Hessen, notably Kirch-Goens and Butzbach (CCA/1BDE), Gelnhausen (CCB/2BDE), and Friedberg (CCC/3BDE). The NCO Academy contained 2 companies: Co.'A' was assigned to the medieval castle at Usingen-Kransburg, while Co. 'B' was located in Butzbach. The division itself comprised an average of 15,000 soldiers, organized into three Combat Commands (CC's) later renamed Brigades (ROAD Reorg in 1963), organizations of comparable size to the World War II combat commands. These brigades were individually manned by at least one battalion each of infantry, armor, and artillery, and various supporting units, notably including medical, engineering, and aviation elements. The division was also assigned a dedicated military intelligencebattalion by 1980.
Most of the Kasernes were located adjacent to or within German communities, leading to lively trade and interaction between soldiers and German civilians. A few, however, were somewhat remotely located, particularly Ayers Kaserne (aka "The Rock"), where the 1st Brigade was stationed, outside Kirch-Goens. The most famous soldier in the 3rd Armored Division during the 1950s was
Elvis Presley, assigned to Company A, 1st Medium Tank Battalion, 32nd Armor Regiment, Combat Command C at Ray Barracks in Friedberg. After his time in service, Presley made the movie G.I. Blues, in which he portrays a 3rd Armored Division tank crewman with a singing career. Former Secretary of State, General Colin Powellalso served in this division.
1990, Communismin eastern Europe collapsed, the two German states reunited, and the Soviet Army was being withdrawn back to the Soviet Union. With these events, the Cold War came to a peaceful conclusion, freeing U.S. army units in Europe for other deployments.
The division remained in Germany until momentous events in the
Middle Eastdeveloped. In August 1990, Iraqinvaded Kuwait, and soon after, President George Herbert Walker Bushcommitted US troops to the theater, first to defend Saudi Arabia, and then to eject Iraqi troops from Kuwait.
Redeployment and Retraining
The 3rd Armored Division, then commanded by Major General Paul Funk, was one of four US heavy divisions deployed with
U.S. Army VII Corps. The division and its equipment were shifted from Germany to Saudi Arabia, with in some cases, National Guard and U.S. Army Reserveelements taking over some of their duties in Germany, while in others, kasernes were left virtually empty. One must note that this massive redeployment was possible only due to the Western victory in the Cold War, in which the 3rd AD helped to play an integral part by guarding the Fulda Gap.
After redeployment, the "Third Herd" acclimated to the desert climate and its troops faced new challenges in mobility, tactics and maintenance in a sandy and hot climate. Various National Guard and Army Reserve units were then attached to the division for the duration of the conflict, swelling the division's size to over 20,000 troops - 25% larger than during its time in Germany.
The majority of the division's troops never received Desert
BDUs, due to a shortage of the uniforms, and fought in lightweight summer "woodland camouflage" uniforms, covered by tanker suits or the ever-present and much-despised chemical warfare protective MOPPsuits.
Finally, after months of training the division moved to the
Line of Departure, alongside the 1st Armored Division on its left flank and the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regimenton its right flank. While the Iraqi Army concentrated much of its defenses in and around Kuwait itself, the 3rd AD and VII Corps launched a massive armored attack into Iraq, just to the west of Kuwait, taking the Iraqis completely by surprise.
Scouts from 2nd Brigade crossed on the afternoon of the
February 23, 1991just after 1500 hours. Less than two hours later, they had penetrated several miles into Iraq and managed to capture over 200 prisoners. On February 24, the official first day of action, the division as a whole swung into action as part of a coordinated attack by hundreds of thousands of allied troops.
During the first day of battle, the "Third Herd" pushed 18 miles into Iraq, taking over 200 prisoners. By dawn of the second day, an additional 50 prisoners had been taken, with scouts reporting enemy reinforcements moving to meet the division.
The Second Day
At 1115 hours of the second day, all elements of the division were finally across the Line of Departure. The day was marked by hard pushing to penetrate deep and fast, striking for an objective south of
Basra. In the course of its drive, various elements of the division engaged the enemy, taking prisoners, skirmishing, sometimes bypassing enemy strongholds to gain ground, other time engaging in full scale battle.
By nightfall of the second day, 3AD had driven 53 miles into Iraq, with dozens of enemy vehicles destroyed, hundreds of POWs captured, and was on the verge of achieving its first objective - an accomplishment that war planners had not anticipated.
The Third Day
On the third day of combat,
February 26, the division closed in upon its objective and faced for the first time the Iraqi Republican Guard, a much stronger foe than the forces the division had first engaged, and less inclined to retreat or surrender. Opposing forces included the highly touted Republican Guard "Tawakalna" Division, the Iraqi 52nd Armored Division and elements of the 17th and the 10th Armored Divisions. The division engaged in full scale tank battles for the first time since World War II, and as one of the division's veterans states "There was more than enough action for everyone".
Action continued after nightfall, and by 1840 hours, the ground and air elements of the 3rd AD could report over 20 tanks, 14 APCs, several trucks and some artillery pieces destroyed. Unfortunately, that same evening, the 4-32nd Armored Battalion lost the division's first casualties in a
Bradley Fighting Vehicleto 25mm cannon fire - with two soldiers killed and three wounded. During the night, both darkness and sandstorms hampered soldiers' visibility, but thermal sighting systems on board the M1A1 Abramstanks and Bradleys allowed gunners to knock out Iraqi targets.
The Fourth & Fifth Days
By the fourth day, the division reached its objective, and pursued its now retreating enemy. The division turned east, into Kuwait, continuing to inflict heavy casualties and capture troops as it rolled forward, often hitting new units whose defensive berms and foxholes faced south from their northern flank, rendering their defenses ineffective. By nightfall, forces facing 3AD had been virtually eliminated, with their remnants in full retreat.
By the fifth day of combat, the division had achieved all objectives and continued to push east to block Iraqi retreat from Kuwait, conducting mopping up operations. One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, President Bush declared a ceasefire.
At the height of the battle, the 3rd Armored Division included 32 battalions and 20,533 troops. It was the largest coalition division in the Gulf War and the largest U.S. armored division in history. In its moving arsenal were 360 Abrams main battle tanks, 340 Bradley Fighting Vehicles, 128 self-propelled 155 mm howitzers, 42 Apache attack helicopters, 27 multiple-launch rocket systems, and more.
Superior training, initiative and equipment had enabled the soldiers of the "Third Herd" to spearhead their way through the Iraqi Army, including opponents with Soviet-provided training and equipment. In the 100-hour Gulf War, 3AD destroyed hundreds of Iraqi tanks and vehicles, and captured more than 2,400 Iraqi prisoners, with 15 division troops killed between December 1990 and late February 1991.
In 1991, Division Historian Dan Peterson, comparing the performance of the division in WWII and Desert Storm stated "History does always repeat itself. 3rd Armored Division was the Spearhead in both wars". The soldiers of "Spearhead" had lived up to the reputation set by their WWII predecessors. Following the war, 3rd Armored Division was one of the first units rotated to
Camp Doha, Kuwait, providing protection to Kuwait as it rebuilt.
Following Desert Storm, a number of the division's units were transferred to the First Armored Division.
January 17, 1992, the 3rd Armored Division officially ceased operations in Germany, with a ceremony in Frankfurt at Division Headquarters, Drake Kaserne.
"Sir, this is my final salute. Mission accomplished," said Maj. Gen. Jerry Rutherford, the division commander. Rutherford preceded the final salute to General
Crosbie E. Saint, USAREURCommander, with a loudly shouted "Spearhead!" Tears rolled down the cheeks of many of the soldiers gathered for the ceremony. The division colors were then returned to the United States, with the 3rd AD still officially active, since Army Regulations state that Divisional "Casing of Colors" cannot occur on foreign soil.
Official retirement took place at
Fort Knox, on October 17, 1992. In attendance at the ceremony were several former Spearhead commanding generals, and division veterans from all eras. In a traditional ceremony, Command Sgt. Major Richard L. Ross, holding the division color with battle streamers, passed it to General Frederick M. Franks, Jr., and with that, the official retirement of the "Third Herd" was complete, and the 3rd Armored Division was removed from the official force structure of the U.S. Army.
With the end of the Cold War, several of the division's overseas Kasernes were transferred to other units, particularly the 1st Armored Division. Over time, many were closed, fell into disrepair and were eventually demolished. Some 3rd Armored Units were also transferred to the 1st Armored, notably the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, later to become semi-famous as the unit portrayed in
The 1st Battalion, 32nd Armor Regiment now resides at
Fort Campbell, Kentuckyas part of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). The unit was reorganized as the 1st Squadron, 32nd Cavalry Regiment, and is assigned to the 1st BrigadeCombat Team of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) as its organic RSTAelement. The 1st Battalion, 33rd Armor Regiment is also calling Fort Campbell and the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) home. The 1st Battalion, 33rd Armor was reorganized as the 1st Squadron, 33rd Cavalry Regiment and is assigned to the 3rd Brigade Combat team of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). 4th Squadron, 7th Cavalry is now part of 1st Brigade, 2nd Infantry Divion.The following units joined the 1st Cavalry Division:
*1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry
*2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry
*3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry
*2nd Battalion, 227th Aviation
*3rd Battalion, 227th Aviation
In the modern era, the differences between an
InfantryDivision (Heavy) and an Armored Division are not as great as in past years. One of the consequences of this is that unit designations are somewhat liquid, with less regard for unit histories than for seemingly ensuring that the "lowest numbered" infantry and armored divisions remain active (with some exceptions).
For example, the 5th Infantry Division was reflagged as the 2nd Armored Division, after the original division was retired. After some time, the 2nd Armored was reflagged -again- as the
U.S. 4th Infantry Division. Should the U.S. Army grow in size once again, the 2nd Armored Division would likely be reactivated prior to the 3rd Armored Division.
If the 3rd Armored was reactivated, most of the new soldiers would never have served in the division, and the equipment, if not brand new would have been transferred from storage, or other units. Some of the regiments historically associated with the division might be returned to it, but once again, new units might simply be reflagged in the name of the old for a semblance of historical continuity.
As technological advances and the nature of warfare change, it may be that someday soon, heavy armored vehicles and large units of over 10,000 soldiers may no longer be desirable. If so, then the "Third Herd" may never return to duty. However, in the minds of its veterans, and those who love history, it will remain forever alive.
The 3rd Armored Division had thirty-nine commanders over the couse of its history, many of whom went on to four star rank. [http://www.3ad.org/div_cdrs/3adcdr.htm]
In Media & Memory
Despite the division's impressive record and the important role it played during the war, it has been often overlooked by both historians and Hollywood, who have favored depictions and histories of units participating in
D-Day, and in the siege of Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge. Books, movies and other media that feature the Third Armored Division include:
* [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0044106/ The Tanks Are Coming (1951) -- A typical WWII action movie of the time, only vaguely based on actual events]
G.I. Blues(1960) -- Elvis Presley, a real life 3AD tanker, stars as a 3rd AD Tanker with an off-post singing career and dreams of owning a nightclub
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0891416706 Death Traps: The Survival of an American Armored Division in World War II -- A unique look at the war from a Maintenance Officer's perspective]
* [http://store.aetv.com/html/product/index.jhtml?id=71052 Rolling Thunder - The True Story of the Third Armored Division (2002) -- A History Channel documentary detailing the history of the division from birth to the 1990s]
* [http://store.aetv.com/html/product/index.jhtml?id=74432&browseCategoryId=&location=&parentcatid=&subcatid= Stormin' Norman and the Abrams Tank -- Featuring footage of the 3rd AD in the Gulf War, & interviews with 3AD tankers]
* [http://www.3ad.com 3AD.com -- The 3rd Armored Division History Foundation -- Covering 1941 to 1992 with high-quality photos, feature articles, documents, audio, and more. Includes, for example, complete text of the 260-page 3AD WWII history "Spearhead in the West" ; audio of President Kennedy's speech to the troops in 1963; details on 3AD Cold War nuclear weapons; Spearhead Newspaper's Gulf War reports; and a look at Elvis Presley's Army days.]
* [http://www.3ad.org Association of 3d Armored Division Veterans (All-era group) - Extensive historical information, personal photos, and featuring a roster of Operation Desert Storm troops.]
* [http://home.earthlink.net/~3adspearhead/ 3rd Armored Division Association (WWII veterans) - a site by Charles R. Corbin Jr., Past President of the Association, with unit histories, photos, and interviews with WWII veterans.]
* [http://web.library.uiuc.edu/ahx/ead/ua/2620076/2620076f.html 3rd Armored Division Association Archives at the University of Illinois. Text-only listings of their large WWII collection, which must be visited in person.]
* [http://www.3rdarmored.com/ WWII Reenacting Organization: 32nd Armored Regiment & 83rd Recon Battalion of the 3rd Armored Division (Recreated).]
* [http://unitpages.military.com/unitpages/unit.do?id=100081 3rd AD Unit page on Military.com.]
* [http://www.blitzdoughs.com/ WWII reenacting organization, 36th Armored Infantry Regiment - SE USA]
3rd AD Unit Websites
* [http://voiceofiron.com Voice of Iron: The 143rd Signal Battalion, 3rd Armored Division]
* [http://www.503rdMPCompany.com/ "Spearhead's Finest" - 503rd Military Police Company Alumni]
* [http://www.3ad.com/pio Division Public Information Office 1965-68, including Drake Kaserne in Frankfurt/M]
* [http://www.1-33rdar.org/ 1/33 Armor Site by Bob Decker, assigned to 3rd AD at Gelnhausen in mid-1960s]
* [http://www.3ad.com/history/wwll/feature.pages/486.index.htm 486th AAA Bn - WWII - "Anti-Anything Bn"]
* [http://www.3ad.com/history/wwll/feature.pages/991st.index.htm 991st Field Artillery Bn - WWII - 155 mm guns]
Personal Photos & Remembrances of the Third Armored Division in WWII
* [http://www.3ad.com/archives/history/wwll/mischnick.index.htm A selection of photos from Marvin Mischnick, 3AD Headquarters photographer in WWII]
* [http://www.soldiersmuseum.com/pages/ww2/shreck-gallery/index.htm A collection of hi-res personal photos from WWII by Sergeant Walter Schreck of the 36th Combat Infantry Battalion, 3rd Armored Division]
* [http://www.geocities.com/ResearchTriangle/Facility/3991/ww2reeder.htm Remembrances and Photos of Charles "Ray" Reeder of the 33rd Armored Regiment]
* [http://3rdarmored.net Third Armored Division site built by Sgt. William Teicholz of the 3rd AD, and his son]
* [http://www.lonesentry.com/S15_thirdarmored/index.html WWII pictures of the division at work & rest]
Cold War Sites featuring the Third Armored
* [http://www.usarmygermany.com/Units/3rd%20Armd%20Div/USAREUR_3rd%20Armd%20Div.htm Detailed Early to Mid Cold War History of the division, from usarmygermany.com]
* [http://www.3ad.org/kasernen/divkaserne.htm Map of 3AD Cold War Kasernes and Units]
* [http://www.1-33rdar.org/centralfront.htm Maps of Central Front, Cold War Germany]
* [http://tankerslife2.homestead.com/index.html "The Tanker" - a site featuring photos of 3rd AD Cold War training exercises in 1978-79]
* [http://www.1-33rdar.org/gapattack.htm Fulda Gap Concerns in 1985]
* [http://home.earthlink.net/~leonbaldwin/army/3armor/index.html?b6=45th Medical Battalion, 3rd+Armored Site by Leon Baldwin, assigned to 3rd AD 1n 1960s]
* [http://www.1-33rdar.org/fulagap3.htm Davy Crocketts in the Southern Ave of Fulda Gap 1962]
* [http://www.1-33rdar.org/jchorazy.htm Gelnhausen and Fulda Gap]
Official & Government Sites
* [http://www.blm.gov/ca/needles/patton.html Bureau of Land Management site on 3rd AD training area in Mojave Desert]
* [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/eto-ob/3AD-ETO.htm Army WW2 European Documents]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/3ad.htm GlobalSecurity.org 3rd Armored Division site]
* [http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10006158 Unites States Holocaust Historical Museum site, featuring an overview of the liberation of the Nordhausen concentration camp by the 3rd AD, with videos and photos]
Other Relevant Sites
* [http://www.hurtgen1944.homestead.com Battle of Hurtgen Forest Website]
* [http://home.scarlet.be/~cv920172/index.htm Scorpio's Website - The Battle of the Huertgen Forest]
* [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=82374739 Text Version of "Spearhead in the West" from Questia.com (No G2 Battle Reports)]
* [http://www.battleofthebulge.org/fact/fact_sheet_of_the_3rd_armored_di.html Fact Sheet of the 3rd Armored Division] from http://www.battleofthebulge.org
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.