- Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Eighth Amendment (Amendment VIII) to the
United States Constitutionis part of the United States Bill of Rightswhich took effect in 1791. The amendment prohibits the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishments. The phrases employed are taken from the English Bill of Rights of 1689. In " Robinson v. California", ussc|370|660|1962, the Supreme Court of the United Statessaid that the Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause is applicable to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court has not explicitly ruled on whether the Excessive Bail and Excessive Fines Clauses apply to the states.
This amendment was ratified as part of the
United States Bill of Rightsin 1791. It is almost identical to a provision in the English Bill of Rights of 1689, in which Parliament declared, "as their ancestors in like case have usually done...that "excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted".” [ [http://www.constitution.org/eng/eng_bor.htm English Bill of Rights of 1689] ]
The state of Virginia had adopted this italicized language of the English Bill of Rights in the
Virginia Declaration of Rightsof 1776, and the Virginia convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution recommended in 1788 that this language also be included in the federal Constitution.Schwartz, Bernard. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=d52OVwT_6PYC&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=%22excessive+bail+ought+not+to+be+required%22&source=web&ots=-ucMrdawBO&sig=zarWvikhmb8O7aq-gFHWt_N-KMs&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPA170,M1 The Great Rights of Mankind: A History of the American Bill of Rights] ", page 170 (Rowman & Littlefield 1992).] James Madisonchanged "ought" to "shall", when he proposed the amendment to Congress in 1789.
A hundred years before its approval by the Congress, England’s declaration against "cruel and unusual punishments" was approved by Parliament in February 1689, and was read to King William III and his wife Queen Mary II on the following day.Claus, Laurence. [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=600242 “The Anti-Discrimination Eighth Amendment”] , "Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy", Vol. 28 (2004)] Members of Parliament then explained in August 1689 that “the Commons had a particular regard…when that Declaration was first made” to punishments like the one that had been inflicted by the King's Bench against a perjurer named
Titus Oates. A few months after that explanation, Parliament enacted the English Bill of Rights into law, in December 1689. Titus Oates was a fixture on the London pillorycircuit during the reign of King James II (father of Queen Mary II), and Oates has become a fixture of the U.S. Supreme Court’s Eighth Amendment jurisprudence. [See " Harmelin v. Michigan", ussc|501|957|1991; " Ingraham v. Wright", ussc|430|651|1977; " Furman v. Georgia", ussc|408|238|1972; and " Weems v. United States", ussc|217|349|1910]
[H] owever unlimited the power of the court may seem, it is far from being wholly arbitrary; but it's discretion is regulated by law. For the bill of rights has particularly declared, that excessive fines ought not to be imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted: (which had a retrospect to some unprecedented proceedings in the court of king's bench, in the reign of king James the second).... [Blackstone, William. " [http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/amendVIIIs4.html Commentaries] " (1769)]
Virginians such as
George Masonand Patrick Henrywanted to ensure that this restriction would also be applied as a limitation on Congress. Mason warned that, otherwise, Congress may “inflict unusual and severe punishments.” [Patterson, John. " [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=LnrWuzVpHZYC&oi=fnd&pg=PP8&dq=%22inflict+unusual+and+severe+punishments%22&ots=NycRTyiG9K&sig=zxHgVXgm1HAOLXTBoBQ0ZIqZ5GU#PPA84,M1 The Bill of Rights: Politics, Religion, and the Quest for Justice] ", page 84 (2004).] Henry made the same point: "What has distinguished our ancestors?--That they would not admit of tortures, or cruel and barbarous punishment. But Congress may introduce the practice of the civil law, in preference to that of the common law. They may introduce the practice of France, Spain, and Germany...." [ [http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/amendVIIIs13.html "Debate in Virginia Ratifying Convention"] (16 June 1788), in "The Founders’ Constitution"] Ultimately, Henry and Mason prevailed, and the Eighth Amendment was adopted.
Cruel and unusual punishments
According to the Supreme Court, the Eighth Amendment forbids some punishments entirely, and forbids some other punishments that are excessive when compared to the crime, or compared to the competence of the perpetrator.
Furman v. Georgia", ussc|408|238|1972, Justice Brennan wrote, "There are, then, four principles by which we may determine whether a particular punishment is 'cruel and unusual'."
*The "essential predicate" is "that a punishment must not by its severity be degrading to human dignity," especially
*"A severe punishment that is obviously inflicted in wholly arbitrary fashion."
*"A severe punishment that is clearly and totally rejected throughout society."
*"A severe punishment that is patently unnecessary."
Continuing, he wrote that he expected that no state would pass a law obviously violating any one of these principles, so court decisions regarding the Eighth Amendment would involve a "cumulative" analysis of the implication of each of the four principles.
Wilkerson v. Utah", ussc|99|130|1878, the Supreme Court commented that drawing and quartering, public dissecting, burning alive and disemboweling would constitute cruel and unusual punishment while determining that death by firing squad was as legitimate as the common method of that time, hanging.
The case of "
Weems v. United States", ussc|217|349|1910, marked the first time that the Supreme Court exercised judicial reviewto overturn a criminal sentence as cruel and unusual. [Melusky, Anthony and Pesto, Keith. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=NU_Mo7leji8C&pg=PA87&dq=Weems+and+%22cadena+temporal%22&ei=-5xtSMOAAabQigGuroUp&sig=ACfU3U12_B-cSUEECS4fzNDeAPHQ_4DZSA Cruel and Unusual Punishment: Rights and Liberties Under the Law] ", page 87 (ABC-CLIO 2003).] The Court overturned a punishment called cadena temporal, which mandated "hard and painful labor", shackling for the duration of incarceration, and permanent civil disabilities. This case is often viewed as establishing a principle of proportionality under the Eighth Amendment. [Finkel, Norman. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=-B8EIq-ZnFsC&pg=PA139&dq=Weems+and+proportionality&ei=AMBtSNrCBLW2iQGL6rGLBg&sig=ACfU3U3PuWaRmWGXkB5dx54S0eKb3Z_huQ#PPA138,M1 Commonsense Justice: Jurors' Notions of the Law] ", page 138 (Harvard University Press 2001).] However, others have written that "it is hard to view Weems as announcing a constitutional requirement of proportionality." [The quoted sentence is from the opinion of Justice Scalia, joined by Chief Justice Rehnquist, in the later case of " Harmelin v. Michigan", ussc|501|957|1991.]
Trop v. Dulles", ussc|356|86|1958, the Supreme Court held that punishing a natural-born citizen for a crime by taking away his citizenship is unconstitutional, being "more primitive than torture" because it involved the "total destruction of the individual's status in organized society".
Robinson v. California", ussc|370|660|1962 the Court decided, 6-2, that a California law authorizing a 90-day jail sentence for "be [ing] addicted to the use of narcotics" violated the Eighth Amendment, as narcotics addiction "is apparently an illness", and California was attempting to punish people based on the state of this illness, rather than for any specific act. The Court wrote: "To be sure, imprisonment for ninety days is not, in the abstract, a punishment which is either cruel or unusual. But the question cannot be considered in the abstract. Even one day in prison would be a cruel and unusual punishment for the 'crime' of having a common cold."
"Robinson" was the first case in which the Supreme Court applied the Eighth Amendment against the state governments, via the Fourteenth Amendment. Before "Robinson", the Eighth Amendment had only been applied against the federal government. [Federman, Cary. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=VllckbKwNTAC&pg=PA99&dq=Robinson+and+%22applied+the+eighth%22+and+fourteenth&ei=TJptSM-QD7W2iQGL6rGLBg&sig=ACfU3U3wLTn1K4dYumYZeqd6B8K-u2Iujw The Body and the State: Habeas Corpus and American Jurisprudence] ", page 99 (SUNY Press 2006).] Justice
Potter Stewart's opinion for the "Robinson" Court held that "infliction of cruel and unusual punishment [is] in violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments." The framers of the Fourteenth Amendment, such as John Bingham, had discussed this subject:
[M] any instances of State injustice and oppression have already occurred in the State legislation of this Union, of flagrant violations of the guarantied privileges of citizens of the United States, for which the national Government furnished and could furnish by law no remedy whatever. Contrary to the express letter of your Constitution, "cruel and unusual punishments" have been inflicted under State laws within this Union upon citizens, not only for crimes committed, but for sacred duty done, for which and against which the Government of the United States had provided no remedy and could provide none. [" [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwcglink.html#anchor39 Congressional Globe] ", 39th Cong., 1st Sess., 2542 (1866) quoted in "
Furman v. Georgia", ussc|408|238|1972 (concurring opinion of Justice Douglas). The same words of John Bingham had been quoted in Justice Black's dissent in " Adamson v. California", ussc|332|46|1947; Black and three other dissenting justices had unsuccessfully urged in "Adamson" that the Eighth Amendment and the rest of the Bill of Rights be applied against the states.]
Traditionally, the length of a prison sentence was not subject to scrutiny under the Eighth Amendment, regardless of the crime for which the sentence was imposed. It was not until the case of "
Solem v. Helm", ussc|463|277|1983, that the Supreme Court held that incarceration, standing alone, could constitute cruel and unusual punishment if it were "disproportionate" in duration with respect to the offense. The Court outlined three factors that were to be considered in determining if the sentence is excessive: "(i) the gravity of the offense and the harshness of the penalty; (ii) the sentences imposed on other criminals in the same jurisdiction; and (iii) the sentences imposed for commission of the same crime in other jurisdictions." The Court held that in the circumstances of the case before it and the factors to be considered, a sentence of life imprisonmentwithout parole for cashing a $100 check on a closed account was cruel and unusual.
However, in "
Harmelin v. Michigan", ussc|501|957|1991, a fractured Court retreated from the "Solem" test and held that for noncapital sentences, the Eighth Amendment only constrains the length of prison terms by a "gross disproportionality principle." Under this principle, the Court sustained a mandatory sentence of life without parole imposed for possession of 650 grams or more of cocaine. In "Harmelin", Justice Scalia, joined by Chief Justice Rehnquist, said "the Eighth Amendment contains no proportionality guarantee", and that "what was 'cruel and unusual' under the Eighth Amendment was to be determined without reference to the particular offense." Scalia wrote "If 'cruel and unusual punishments' included disproportionate punishments, the separate prohibition of disproportionate fines (which are certainly punishments) would have been entirely superfluous."
The Supreme Court declared executing the mentally handicapped in "
Atkins v. Virginia", ussc|536|304|2002, and executing people who were under age 18 in " Roper v. Simmons", ussc|543|551|2005, to be violations of the Eighth Amendment.
Death penalty for rape
Coker v. Georgia", ussc|433|584|1977, the Court declared that the death penalty was unconstitutionally excessive for rapeof a womanand, by implication, for any crime where a death does not occur. The majority in "Coker" stated that "rape by definition does not include the death of or even the serious injury to another person." The dissent countered that the majority "takes too little account of the profound suffering the crime imposes upon the victims and their loved ones." The dissent also characterized the majority as "myopic" for only considering legal history of "the past five years."
June 25, 2008, in " Kennedy v. Louisiana", the Court returned to the subject of its decision in "Coker", and ruled that the death penalty was excessive for child rape "where the victim’s life was not taken."Greenhouse, Linda. [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/26/washington/26scotuscnd.html?em&ex=1214625600&en=c70d615789f2e6fc&ei=5087%0A "Supreme Court Rejects Death Penalty for Child Rape"] , "New York Times" ( 2008-06-26)] The Supreme Court failed to note a federal law providing for the death penalty in cases of child rape. [cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/02/washington/02scotus.html?hp|title=In Court Ruling on Executions, a Factual Flaw|accessdate=2008-07-02|publisher= The New York Times|author= Linda Greenhouse|date=2008-07-02] On October 1, 2008, the Court declined to reconsider its opinion in this case, but did amend the majority and dissenting opinions in order to acknowledge that federal law. Justice Scalia (joined by Chief Justice Roberts) wrote in dissent that "the proposed Eighth Amendment would have been laughed to scorn if it had read 'no criminal penalty shall be imposed which the Supreme Court deems unacceptable.'" [ [http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/07pdf/07-343Scalia.pdf Statement of Justice Scalia with whom the Chief Justice joins, respecting the denial of rehearing] ( 2008-10-01).]
pecial procedures for death penalty cases
The first significant general challenge to
capital punishmentthat reached the Supreme Court was the case of " Furman v. Georgia", ussc|408|238|1972. In a 5-4 decision, the Supreme Court overturned the death sentences of "Furman" for murder, as well as two other defendants for rape. Of the five justices voting to overturn the death penalty, two found capital punishment itself to be unconstitutionally cruel and unusual, and three found that the statutes at issue were implemented in a random and capricious fashion, discriminating against blacks and the poor. "Furman v. Georgia" did not hold — even though it is sometimes claimed that it did — that capital punishment is " per se" unconstitutional. [Million, Joelle. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=4jrTbqgd5s8C&pg=PA180&dq=Furman+and+%22per+se%22+and+unconstitutional&ei=zaxtSPPTNYGkiwHO38T7BQ&sig=ACfU3U2udVfcaUOGuQuxmH6-iOIF2n3XNQ Racial Issues in Criminal Justice: The Case of African Americans] ", page 180 (Greenwood 2003).]
States with capital punishment rewrote their laws to address the Supreme Court's decision, and the Court then revisited the issue in a murder case: "
Gregg v. Georgia", ussc|428|153|1976. In "Gregg", the Court found, in a 7-2 ruling, that Georgia's new death penalty laws passed Eighth Amendment scrutiny: the statutes provided a bifurcated trial in which guilt and sentence were determined separately; and, the statutes provided for "specific jury findings" followed by state supreme court review comparing each death sentence "with the sentences imposed on similarly situated defendants to ensure that the sentence of death in a particular case is not disproportionate." Because of the "Gregg" decision, executions resumed in 1977.
Some states have passed laws imposing mandatory death penalties in certain cases. The Supreme Court found these laws to be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment, in the murder case of "
Woodson v. North Carolina", ussc|428|280|1976, because these laws remove discretion from the trial judge to make an individualized determination in each case. [Palmer, Louis. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=8xxjJTGrEhAC&pg=PA15&dq=%22Woodson%22+and+mandatory&ei=QrJtSKzpOZy4iQGPnsXcAw&sig=ACfU3U2bq-Mx7W2O0YHM-xIwy0qBR5S3gg#PPA14,M1 The Death Penalty: An American Citizen's Guide to Understanding Federal and State Laws] ", page 14 (McFarland 1998).] Other statutes specifying factors for courts to use in making their decisions have been upheld. Some have not: in " Godfrey v. Georgia", ussc|446|420|1980, the Supreme Court overturned a sentence based upon a finding that a murder was "outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible, and inhuman," as it deemed that any murder may be reasonably characterized in this manner. Similarly, in " Maynard v. Cartwright", ussc|486|356|1988, the Court found that an "especially heinous, atrocious or cruel" standard in a homicide case was too vague. However, the vagueness of this language depends on how lower courts interpret it. In " Walton v. Arizona", ussc|497|639|1990, the Court found that the phrase "especially heinous, cruel, or depraved" was not vague in a murder case, because the state supreme court had expounded on its meaning. ["Walton" was overruled on other grounds by " Ring v. Arizona", ussc|536|584|2002]
Generally speaking, the Court has held that death penalty cases require extra procedural protections. As the Court said in "
Herrera v. Collins", ussc|506|390|1993, which involved the murder of a police officer, "the Eighth Amendment requires increased reliability of the process..."
Punishments specifically allowed
Wilkerson v. Utah", ussc|99|130|1878, the Court stated that death by firing squadwas not cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments.
Rummel v. Estelle", ussc|445|263|1980, the Court upheld a life sentence with the possibility of parole for fraud crimes totaling $230.
Harmelin v. Michigan", ussc|501|957|1991, the Court upheld a life sentence without the possibility of parole for possession of 672 grams of cocaine.
Lockyer v. Andrade", ussc|538|63|2003, the Court upheld a 50 years to life sentence with the possibility of parole imposed under California's three-strikes law when the defendant was convicted of shoplifting videotapes worth a total of $150 fine.
Evolving standards of decency
Trop v. Dulles", ussc|356|86|1958, Chief Justice Earl Warrensaid: "The [Eighth] Amendment must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society." Subsequently, the Court has looked to societal developments, as well as looking to its own independent judgment, in order to determine what those "evolving standards of decency" should be." [http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/07pdf/07-343.pdf Kennedy v. Louisiana] ", 554 U.S. ____ (2008).] The Court has then applied those standards not only to say what punishments are inherently cruel, but also to say what punishments that are not inherently cruel are nevertheless cruelly disproportionate to the offense in question.
The "evolving standards" test is not without its scholarly critics. For example, Professor John Stinneford asserts that the "evolving standards" test misinterprets the Eighth Amendment:
The Framers of the Bill of Rights understood the word “unusual” to mean “contrary to long usage.” Recognition of the word’s original meaning will precisely invert the “evolving standards of decency” test, and ask the Court to compare challenged punishments with the longstanding principles and precedents of the common law, rather than shifting and nebulous notions of “societal consensus” and contemporary “standards of decency.” [Stinneford, John. [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1015344 “The Original Meaning of 'Unusual': The Eighth Amendment as a Bar to Cruel Innovation”] , "Northwestern University Law Review", Vol. 102, No. 4 (2008).]
England, sheriffs originally determined whether or not to grant bail to criminal suspects. Since they tended to abuse their power, Parliament passed a statute in 1275 whereby bailable and non-bailable offenses were defined. The King's judges often subverted the provisions of the law. It was held that an individual may be held without bail upon the Sovereign's command. Eventually, the Petition of Rightof 1628 argued that the King did not have such authority. Later, technicalities in the law were exploited to keep the accused imprisoned without bail even where the offenses were bailable; such loopholes were for the most part closed by the Habeas Corpus Act 1679. Thereafter, judges were compelled to set bail, but they often required impracticable amounts. Finally, the English Bill of Rights (1689) held that "excessive bail ought not to be required." Nevertheless, the Bill did not determine the distinction between bailable and non-bailable offenses. Thus, the Eighth Amendment has been interpreted to mean that bail may be denied if the charges are sufficiently serious. The Supreme Court has also permitted "preventive" detention without bail. In " United States v. Salerno", ussc|481|739|1987, the Supreme Court held that the only limitation imposed by the bail clause is that "the government's proposed conditions of release or detention not be 'excessive' in light of the perceived evil."
Capital punishment in the United States
Cruel and unusual punishment
Crime against humanity
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