Name=protease, serine, 1 (trypsin 1)
caption=Crystal structure of Trypsin
Name=protease, serine, 2 (trypsin 2)
Name=protease, serine, 3 (mesotrypsin)
Trypsin (EC number|184.108.40.206) is a
serine proteasefound in the digestive system, where it breaks down proteins. Trypsin predominantly cleaves peptide chains at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine and arginine, except when either is followed by proline. It is used for numerous biotechnologicalprocesses. The process is commonly referred to as trypsin proteolysisor trypsinisation.
Chemistry and function
Trypsin is secreted into the
duodenum, where it acts to hydrolysepeptides into their smaller building blocks, namely amino acids (these peptides are the result of the enzyme pepsin breaking down the proteins in the stomach). This is necessary for the uptake of protein in the food as though peptides are smaller than proteins, they are still too big to be absorbed though the lining of the ileum. Trypsin catalyses the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. The enzymatic mechanism is like all other serine proteases: A catalytic triadserves to make the active site serinenucleophilic. This is achieved by modifying the electrostatic environment of the serine. The enzymatic reaction that trypsins catalyze is thermodynamically favorable but requires significant activation energy(it is "kinetically unfavorable"). Trypsins have an optimal operating pHof about 8 and optimal operating temperature of about 37°C.ref_label|1|1|a
aspartateresidue (Asp 189) located in the catalytic pocket (S1) of trypsins is responsible for attracting and stabilizing positively-charged lysineand/or arginine, and is thus responsible for the specificity of the enzyme. This means that trypsin predominantly cleaves proteins at the carboxylside (or " C-terminalside") of the amino acids lysineand arginine, except when either is followed by proline.ref_label|1|1|a Trypsins are considered endopeptidases, i.e., the cleavage occurs within the polypeptidechain rather than at the terminal amino acids located at the ends of polypeptides.
Trypsin is produced in the
pancreasin the form of inactive zymogen, trypsinogen. It is then secreted into the small intestine, where the enzyme enteropeptidaseactivates it into trypsin by proteolytic cleavage. The resulting trypsins themselves activate more trypsinogens ( autocatalysis), so only a small amount of enteropeptidase is necessary to start the reaction. This activation mechanism is common for most serine proteases, and serves to prevent autodigestion of the pancreas.
The activity of trypsins is not affected by the
inhibitortosyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone TPCK, which deactivates chymotrypsin. This is important because, in some applications, like mass spectrometry, the specificity of cleavage is important.
Involvement in disease
One consequence of inheriting the autosomal recessive disease
cystic fibrosisis a deficiency of trypsin and other digestive enzymes from the pancreas. This leads to the disorder termed meconium ileus. This disorder involves intestinal obstruction ( ileus) due to overly thick meconiumwhich is normally broken down by trypsins and other proteases, then passed in feces.
Trypsins should be stored at very cold
temperatures(between −20°C and −80°C) to prevent autolysis (self-cleavage). Autolysismay also be prevented by storage of trypsins at pH 3 or by using trypsin modified by e.g. reductive methylation. When the pH is adjusted back to pH 8 activity returns.
Trypsin is available in high quantities in pancreases, and can be purified rather easily. Hence it has been used widely in various biotechnological processes.
tissue culturelab, trypsins are used to re-suspend cells adherent to the cell culture dish wall during the process of harvesting cells.
Trypsin can also be used to dissociate dissected cells (for example, prior to cell fixing and sorting).
Trypsins can be used to break down casein in breast milk. If trypsin is added to a solution of milk powder, the breakdown of casein will cause the milk to become
translucent. The rate of reaction can be measured by using the amount of time it takes for the milk to turn translucent.
Trypsin is commonly used in biological research during
proteomicsexperiments to digest proteins into peptides for mass spectrometry analysis, e.g. in-gel digestion. Trypsin is particularly suited for this, since it has a very well defined specificity, as it hydrolyzes only the peptide bonds in which the carbonyl group is contributed either by an Arg or Lys residue.
Trypsin can also be used to dissolve blood clots in its microbial form and treat inflammation in its pancreatic form.
Trypsin is used in baby food to pre-digest it. It can break down the protein molecules which helps the baby to digest it as its stomach is not strong enough to digest bigger protein molecules.
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* [http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/search/TablePage/15846780 Trypsin Inhibitors] and [http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/Area_of_Interest/Biochemicals/Enzyme_Explorer/Analytical_Enzymes/Trypsin.html Trypsin Assay Method] at
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