Swissair Flight 111

Swissair Flight 111

Infobox Airliner accident

caption = CG render of McDonnell Douglas MD-11 HB-IWF
date = September 2, 1998
type = In-flight fire involving faulty wiring, leading to instrument failure and loss of control
site = Atlantic Ocean, near St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia flag|Canada|size=20px
aircraft_type = McDonnell Douglas MD-11
aircraft_name = "Vaud"
operator = Swissair
tail_number = HB-IWF
origin = John F. Kennedy Int'l Airport New York, New York flag|United States|size=20px
destination = Cointrin International Airport Geneva flag|Switzerland|size=14px
passengers = 215
crew = 14
fatalities = 229 (all)

Swissair Flight 111 (SR-111, SWR-111) was a Swissair McDonnell Douglas MD-11 on a scheduled airline flight from John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, United States to Cointrin International Airport in Geneva, Switzerland. This flight was also a codeshare flight with Delta Air Lines.

On September 2, 1998 the aircraft used for the flight, registered HB-IWF, crashed into the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Halifax International Airport at the entrance to St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia. The crash site was 8 kilometres (5 mi) from shore, roughly equidistant between the tiny fishing and tourist communities of Peggys Cove and Bayswater. All 229 people on board died. [ [ database] ]

The resulting investigation by the Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) took over four years and cost CAD$57 million (at that time approximately US$39 million). [ "Nova: Crash of Flight 111" Referenced August 5, 2006] The organization concluded that flammable material used in the aircraft's structure allowed a fire to spread beyond the control of the crew, resulting in the loss of control and crash of the aircraft. [TSB Report "Conclusions" 3.1, page 253, "Findings as to Causes and Contributing Factors", paragraph 1]

Swissair Flight 111 was known as the "U.N. shuttle" due to its popularity with United Nations officials; the flight often carried business executives, scientists, and researchers. [" [ Doomed plane's gaming system exposes holes in FAA oversight] ," "USA Today", February 16, 2003]


The aircraft and its crew

The aircraft, a McDonnell Douglas MD-11, serial number 48448 registered HB-IWF, was manufactured in 1991 and Swissair was its only operator. The airframe had a total of 36,041 hours. The three engines were Pratt & Whitney 4462s. The cabin was configured with 241 seats (12 first-, 49 business-, and 180 economy-class). First- and business-class seats were equipped with an in-flight entertainment system. [TSB 1.6, page 9, " [ Aircraft Information] "]

An MD-11 has a standard flight crew consisting of a captain and a first officer, and a cabin crew made up of a maître de cabine (M/C - purser) supervising the work of 11 flight attendants. All personnel on board Swiss Air Flight 111 were qualified, certified and trained in accordance with Swiss regulations, under the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA). [TSB 1.5, pages 5-7, " [ Personnel Information] "]

The flight

Flight SR-111 departed JFK at 20:18 (EDT) with 215 passengers, 2 pilots and 12 flight attendants, en route to Geneva.

Delta sold the tickets for 53 of the Swissair passengers as part of a codeshare arrangement." [ From Europe and New York, grieving families head to crash site] ," "CNN"] Because Air Canada was on strike at the time, some passengers who would have flown on Air Canada instead flew Swissair 111. [" [ Isle family grateful for missing Swissair flight] ," "Honolulu Star-Bulletin"]

At 22:10 Atlantic Time, cruising at FL330, or convert|33000|ft|m|0, the flight crew Captain Urs Zimmermann and First Officer Stephan Loew, detected an odour in the cockpit and determined it to be smoke in the air conditioning system. Four minutes later, the smoke was visible and the pilots began to consider diverting to a nearby airport for the purpose of a quick landing. At 22:14 AT the flight crew made a "pan-pan" radio call, indicating that there was an emergency but no immediate danger to the aircraft, and requested a diversion to Boston's Logan International Airport (300 nautical miles away). Instead, the aircraft was directed to the closer Halifax International Airport in Enfield, Nova Scotia, 66 nm (104 km) away. The crew then put on their oxygen masks and the aircraft began its descent.

At 22:19 AT the plane was convert|30|nmi|km away from Halifax airport, but required more time to descend from its altitude of convert|21000|ft|m. At 22:20 AT the crew informed ATC that they needed to dump fuel, and the aircraft was subsequently diverted away from the airport. In accordance with the checklist "In case of smoke of unknown origin", the crew shut-off the power supply in the cabin, which caused the recirculating fans to shut off. This caused a vacuum which induced the fire to spread back into the cockpit. At 22:24 AT, the crew declared an emergency. Aircraft systems, such as lighting, flight instruments, and the autopilot began to fail and as a result the crew gradually lost control of the aircraft. According to readings from seismographic recorders in Halifax and Moncton, the aircraft struck the ocean at 22:31 AT. [TSB 1.1, pages 1-3, " [ History of the Flight] ", paragraph 13 ] The crash location was approximately coord|44|24|33|N|63|58|25|W|region:CA-NS_type:landmark_scale:500000|display=inline,title, with 300 metres' uncertainty. [ [ TSB - Communiqués ] ]

Nationalities of passengers

Most of the passengers were American, French, and Swiss. ["Fire On Board," "Mayday"] " [ Names of Swissair Crash Victims] ," "CNN"]

Originally Swissair stated that 39 Swiss, 30 French, 137 Americans, 1 Canadian, and 22 other people were on the flight. [" [ Swissair 111 crashes in the ocean near Peggys Cove] ," "CBC"] The numbers were later revised to 132 Americans (including one Delta Air Lines flight attendant), 41 Swiss (including 13 crew members), 30 French, 6 Britons, 3 Germans, 2 Greeks, 2 Lebanese, 1 each from Afghanistan, India, Iran, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, St. Kitts and Nevis, Sweden, and Yugoslavia, and 4 others.

Recovery and investigation

The aircraft broke up on impact with the water, and most of the debris sank to the ocean floor (a depth of 55 m or 180 ft). Some debris was found floating in the crash area, and over the following weeks debris washed up on the nearby shorelines.TSB 1.12, page 77, " [ Wreckage Recovery] "]

The initial focus of the recovery was on finding and identifying human remains, and on recovering the flight recorders, but this proved difficult as the force of impact was "in the order of at least 350 "g"", [TSB 1.13.3, " [ Injury Patterns] "] and the environmental conditions, only allowed recovery along with wreckage. [TSB 1.13, page 103-105, " [ Recovery of Occupants] "] Only one of the victims was visually identifiable. 147 were identified by fingerprint, dental records, and X-ray comparisons. The remaining 81 were identified through DNA tests. [Butler, page 264, "DNA Testing in High Profile Cases"]

The cockpit voice recorder (CVR) and flight data recorder (FDR) were found by the submarine "Okanagan" using sonar to detect the underwater locator beacon signals, and quickly retrieved by Navy divers (the FDR on September 6 and the CVR on September 11, 1998). However, both had stopped recording when the aircraft lost electrical power at approximately convert|10000|ft|m|abbr=on, 5 minutes and 37 seconds before impact.

The survey and recovery, dubbed "Operation Persistence" was TSB guided with resources from the military, CCG, RCMP, and many others. The area was surveyed using route survey sonar, laser line scanners, and remotely operated vehicles to locate items, then recovered (initially by divers and ROV's, later by dredging and trawling). [T.W. Wiggins [ "Minor War Vessel Involvement"] ]

On October 2, 1998 the Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) initiated a heavy lift operation to retrieve the major portion of the wreckage from the deep water before the expected winter storms began. By October 21, 27% of the wreckage was recovered. [Transportation Safety Board [ chronology] ]

At that point in the investigation, the crash was generally believed to have been caused by faulty wiring in the cockpit, after the entertainment system in the plane started to overheat. Certain groups issued Aviation Safety Recommendations. The TSB released its preliminary report on August 30, 2000, but the final report was not completed until 2003.Harvard reference
last=Transportation Safety Board
title=In-Flight Fire Leading To Collision With Water
journal=Aviation Investigation Report

The final phase of wreckage recovery employed the ship Queen of the Netherlands to dredge the remaining aircraft debris. It concluded in December 1999 with 98% of the aircraft retrieved: approximately 126,554 kg (279,000 lb) of aircraft debris and 18,144 kg (40,000 lb) of cargo.


An estimated 2 million pieces of debris were recovered and brought ashore for inspection at a secure handling facility in a marine industrial park at Sheet Harbour, where small material was hand inspected by teams of RCMP officers looking for human remains, personal effects and valuables from the aircraft's cargo hold. The material was then transported to CFB Shearwater where it was assembled and inspected by over 350 investigators from multiple organizations such as TSB, NTSB, FAA, AAIB, Boeing, and Pratt & Whitney. [TSB, page 80, " [ Aircraft Wreckage Examination] ] [TSB [ STI-098] Supporting Technical Information ]

As each piece of wreckage was brought in, it was carefully cleaned with freshwater, sorted, and weighed. The item was then placed in a specific area of a Hangar at CFB Shearwater, based on a grid system representing the various sections of the plane. All items not considered significant to the crash were stored with similar items in large boxes. When a box was full, it was then weighed and moved to a custom-built temporary structure (J-Hangar) on a discontinued runway for long-term storage. If deemed significant to the investigation, the item was documented, photographed, and kept in the active examination hangar. [TSB 1.19.1, page 197-198, " [ Exhibit Tracking Process] ] Particular attention was paid to any item showing heat damage, burns, or other unusual marks.

Cockpit and recordings

The front 10m (33 ft) of the aircraft, from the front of the cockpit to near the front of the first-class passenger cabin, was reconstructed. Information gained by this allowed investigators to determine the severity and limits of the fire damage, its possible origins and progression. [ [ TSB Report, para 1.19.3, Partial Aircraft Reconstruction, page 199] ] The cockpit voice recorder used a 1/4 inch recording tape, operating on a 30 minute loop. It therefore only retained the last half hour of the flight.TSB 1.11, pages 73-74, " [ Flight Recorders] ] The CVR recording and transcript are protected by a strict privilege under section 28 of the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act, [cite web| title=section 28 of the "Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act" |publisher=Canadian Legal Information Institute |url= |accessdate=2008-06-10] and thus have not been publicly disclosed. The air traffic control recordings are less strictly privileged: section 29 of the same act provides only that they may not be used in certain legal proceedings. [cite web| title=section 29 of the "Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act" |publisher=Canadian Legal Information Institute |url= |accessdate=2008-06-10] The air traffic control transcripts were released within days of the crash in 1998.cite web |title=ATC transcript Swissair Flight 111 - 02 SEP 1998 |publisher=Aviation Safety Network |url= |accessdate=2006-11-27] The air traffic control audio was released in May 2007. [ [ the Toronto Star] (accessed May 25, 2007).]

TSB Findings

The investigation identified eleven causes and contributing factors of the crash in its final report. The first and most important was:

Aircraft certification standards for material flammability were inadequate in that they allowed the use of materials that could be ignited and sustain or propagate fire. Consequently, flammable material propagated a fire that started above the ceiling on the right side of the cockpit near the cockpit rear wall. The fire spread and intensified rapidly to the extent that it degraded aircraft systems and the cockpit environment, and ultimately led to the loss of control of the aircraft.TSB 3.1, page 253, " [ Findings as to Causes and Contributing Factors] ]

Arcing from wiring of the in-flight entertainment system network did not trip the circuit breakers. While suggestive, the investigation was unable to confirm if it was this arc was the "lead event" that ignited the flammable covering on insulation blankets that quickly spread across other flammable materials. The crew did not recognize that a fire had started and were not warned by instruments. Once they became aware of the fire, the uncertainty of the problem made it difficult to address. The rapid spread of the fire led to the failure of key display systems, and the crew's ability to control the aircraft was soon overcome. Because he had no light by which to see his controls after the displays failed, the pilot was forced to steer the plane blindly; as a result, the plane swerved off course and headed back out into the Atlantic. Recovered fragments of the plane show that the heat inside the cockpit became so great that the ceiling started to melt.

The recovered standby attitude indicator and airspeed indicator showed that the aircraft struck the water at 300 knots (560km/h, 348 mph) in a 20 degrees nose down and 110 degree bank turn, or almost upside down. [TSB 1.12.12, page 103, [ "Aircraft Attitude and Airspeed at the Time of Impact"] ] Less than a second after impact the plane would have been totally crushed, killing all aboard almost instantly.

The TSB concluded that even if the crew had been aware of the nature of the problem, the rate at which the fire spread would have precluded a safe landing at Halifax even if an approach had begun as soon as the "pan-pan" was declared.

TSB Recommendations

The TSB made nine recommendations relating to changes in aircraft materials (testing, certification, inspection and maintenance), electrical systems, and flight data capture. (Both flight recorders stopped when they lost power six minutes before impact.) General recommendations were also made regarding improvements in checklists and in fire-detection and fire-fighting equipment and training. These recommendations have led to widespread changes in FAA standards, principally impacting wiring and fire hardening.

The lack of flight recorder data for the last six minutes of the flight added significant complexity to the investigation and was a major factor in its duration. The Transportation Safety Board team had to reconstruct the last six minutes of flight entirely from the physical evidence. The plane was broken into millions of small pieces by the impact, making this process time-consuming and tedious. The investigation became the longest and most expensive transport accident investigation in Canadian history, costing $CAD57 million over five years.


Two memorials to those who died on the crash have been established by the government of Canada. One is to the east of the crash site at The Whalesback, a promontory one kilometre (0.6 mile) north of Peggys Cove. The second memorial is a more private but much larger commemoration located west of the crash site near Bayswater Beach Provincial Park on the Aspotogan Peninsula. Here, the unidentified remains of the victims are interred. A fund was established to fund maintenance of the memorials and the government passed an act to recognize them. [ [ Articles on memorial maintenance difficulties ca 2002] ] [ [ "Flight 111 Special Places Memorial Act"] ] Various other charitable funds were also created, including one in the name of a young victim from Louisiana, Robert Martin Maillet, which provides money for children in need. [ [ Robert Martin Maillet Memorial Fund] ]

In September 1999 Swissair and Boeing offered the families of the passengers full compensation. The offer was rejected in favor of a $19.8 billion suit against Swissair and DuPont, the supplier of Mylar insulation sheathing. A US federal court dismissed the claim in February 2002. [cite web
publisher=Rapoport Law Offices
title=Over $13 Million for Victims of Swissair Disaster

A number of notable individuals died in this accident, including Jonathan Mann, former head of the WHO's AIDS program; Mann's wife, AIDS researcher Mary-Lou Clements-Mann; Pierce J. Gerety Jr., UNHCR Director of Operations for the Great Lakes Region of Africa, who was on a special mission for U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to attempt to negotiate a peace accord with Laurent Kabila in an erupting regional war; and Joseph LaMotta, son of former boxing world champion Jake LaMotta. [cite web
publisher=Chebucto Community Net
title=Passengers and Crew Members, Swiss Air Flight 111: September 2, 1998

The crash destroyed a number of works of art, including a piece by Pablo Picasso. [ cite news
title=Picasso Painting Lost In Crash
location=Halifax, Nova Scotia

After the crash, the flight route designator for Swissair's New York-Geneva route was changed to Flight 139.

Since the crash there have been many television documentaries on Flight 111, including episodes of disaster shows like History Channel's Disasters of the Century, Discovery Channel's "Mayday" and PBS's "NOVA" [ "Aircrash"] . "NOVA" created a classroom activity kit for teachers at schools using the crash as an example of an airplane crash investigation. [cite web

In May 2007 the TSB released copies of the audio recordings of the air traffic control transmissions associated with the flight. [cite web
author=Dean Beeby
title=Swissair recordings revive horrifying drama of deadly 1998 tragedy
work=Canadian Press
] [cite web
title=Swissair crash recordings revive drama of one of Canada's worst aviation disasters|date=2007-05-22
] The transcripts of these recordings had been released in 1998 (within days of the crash), but the TSB had refused to release the audio on privacy grounds. The TSB argued that under Canada's "Access to Information Act" and "Privacy Act", the audio recordings constituted personal information and were thus not disclosable. Canada's Federal Court of Appeal rejected this argument in 2006, in a legal proceeding concerned with air traffic control recordings in four other air accidents. [cite web
title=Canada (Information Commissioner) v. Canada (Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board) 2006 FCA 157
] The Supreme Court of Canada did not grant leave to appeal that decision, and consequently the TSB released a copy of the Swissair 111 air traffic control audio recordings to Canadian Press, which had requested them under the "Access to Information Act". [cite web
author=Dean Beeby
title=Doomed flight's tapes released
work=Toronto Star
] Several key minutes of the air traffic control audio can be found on the "Toronto Star" web site. [cite web
title=Canadian Press video of last minutes of Swissair flight 111



*Harvard reference
Last=Transportation Safety Board
Title=In-Flight Fire Leading To Collision With Water
Journal=Aviation Investigation Report

*cite book
author=Butler, John Marshall
title=Forensic DNA Typing: biology & technology behind STR markers
publisher=Academic Press, San Diego
id=ISBN 0-12-147951-X

*cite book
author=Kimber, Stephen
title= Flight 111:The Tragedy of the Swissair Crash
publisher=Seal Books, Toronto
id=ISBN 0-7704-2840-1

External links

* [ PlaneCrashInfo.Com - Swissair Flight 111 Entry]
* [ Memorial]
* [ PBS NOVA: Crash of Flight 111]
* [ Pre-crash photo of HB-IWF at Geneva, January 1998]
* [ The Investigation of Swissair 111 "The Nature of Things"] Canadian Broadcasting Corporation] (Flash movie)
*imdb title|id=0263140|title=Blessed Stranger: After Flight 111
* [ Photographs of the Swissair Flight 111 Memorial at Bayswater, Nova Scotia]
* [ Photographs of the Swissair Flight 111 Memorial at Whalesback, Nova Scotia]
* [ Imaging Takes on the Swissair Disaster]
* [ QuickTime-format air-traffic control transmission audio with video diagram]
* [ Isle family grateful for missing Swissair flight] - "Honolulu Star-Bulletin"
* [ Swissair recovery switches to salvage mode] "CNN"
* [ Names of Swissair crash victims] "CNN"
* [ From Europe and New York, grieving families head to crash site] "CNN"
* [ Swissair profile] "CNN"
* [ Swissair to replace controversial Mylar insulation] "CBC"
* [ Swissair crash warning to airlines] , "BBC"
* [ "Falling From You" | Commemorative Rock Song by Nick Thal Band (Free download)]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”