- Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.
name=Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy, Sr.
country=the United Kingdom
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Robert Worth Bingham
John Gilbert Winant
order2=1st Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission
Franklin D. Roosevelt
James M. Landis
birth_name= Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr.
death_date=death date and age|mf=yes|1969|11|18|1888|9|6 (Complications from a stroke)
Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, U.S.
Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., John F. Kennedy, Rosemary Kennedy, Kathleen Kennedy Cavendish, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, Patricia Kennedy Lawford, Robert F. Kennedy, Jean Kennedy Smith,
Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy, Sr. (September 6, 1888 – November 18, 1969) was a prominent American businessman and political figure, and the father of U.S. President
John F. Kennedyand United States Senators Robert F. Kennedyand Ted Kennedy. He was a leading member of the Democratic Party and of the Irish Catholic community. He was the inaugural Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC), appointed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and later directed the Maritime Commission. Kennedy served briefly as the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdomat the start of World War II.
Born to a political family in
Boston, Massachusetts, Joseph Kennedy was educated at Boston Latinand Harvard University, and embarked on a career in finance, making a large fortune as a stock market and commodity speculator and by investing in real estate and a wide range of industries, as well as bootlegging. During World War I, he was an assistant general-manager of Bethlehem Steeland developed a friendship with Roosevelt, then Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Kennedy made huge profits from reorganizing and refinancing several Hollywoodstudios, ultimately merging several acquisitions into Radio-Keith-Orpheum(RKO) studios. After Prohibitionended in 1933, Kennedy consolidated an even larger fortune when his company, Somerset Importers, became the exclusive American agent for Gordon's Ginand Dewar'sScotch. He owned the largest office building in the country, Chicago's Merchandise Mart, giving his family an important base in that city and an alliance with the Irish-American political leadership there.
His term as Ambassador and his political ambitions ended abruptly during the
Battle of Britainin November 1940, with the publishing of his controversial remarks suggesting that "Democracy is finished in England. It may be here, [in the US] ." [Boston Sunday Globe of November 10, 1940.] In later years, Kennedy worked behind the scenes to continue building the financial and political fortunes of the Kennedy family. After a disabling strokeon December 19, 1961, at the age of 73, Kennedy lost all power of speech, and remained confined to a wheelchair, although mentally intact. He died on November 18, 1969, two months after his eighty-first birthday-just 4 days away from the sixth anniversary of the death of his son John Fitzgerald Kennedy.
Background, education and family
Joseph Patrick Kennedy was born in
Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Patrick J. Kennedy, a successful businessman, ward boss, and Irish Americancommunity leader. Joseph's grandparents came to America in the mid 1840s to flee the Irish famine. Kennedy was born into a highly sectarian environment where Irish Catholics felt themselves excluded by upper-class Yankees. Many Boston Irish became active in the Democratic Party, including Patrick and numerous relatives.
Patrick Kennedy's home was a prosperous and comfortable one, thanks to his successful saloon business, investments, and an influential role in local politics. His mother, Mary Augusta Kennedy encouraged Joseph to attend the
Boston Latin School, where Joe was a below average scholar but was popular among his classmates, winning election as class president and playing on the school baseball team.
Kennedy followed in the footsteps of several older cousins by attending
Harvard College. At Harvard he focused on becoming a social leader, working energetically to gain admittance to the prestigious Hasty Pudding Club. While at Harvard he joined the Delta Upsilonfraternity and played on the baseball team. He was blackballed from the Porcellian Club. His father-in-law John F. Fitzgerald had attended Boston Latin School and Harvard Medical School.
Marriage & family
In 1914, Kennedy married
Rose Fitzgerald, the daughter of John F. Fitzgerald, the Democratic mayor of Boston and probably the most recognized politician in the city. Joe and Rose had the following nine children:
Kennedy made a large fortune as a stock market and commodity speculator and by investing in real estate and a wide range of industries. He never built a significant business from scratch, but his timing as both buyer and seller was usually excellent. Sometimes he made use of inside information in ways which would later be made illegal, but regulations were lighter in his era. He later became the Chairman of the SEC. When "Fortune" magazine published its first list of the richest people in the United States in 1957 it placed him in the $200-400 million band, meaning that it estimated him to be between the ninth and sixteenth richest person in the United States at that time.
After graduating from Harvard in 1912, he took his first job as a state-employed bank examiner. This allowed him to learn a great deal about the banking industry. In 1913, the Columbia Trust Bank, in which his father held a significant share, was under threat of takeover. Kennedy, borrowing $45,000 from family and friends, bought back control and at age 25 was rewarded by being elected the bank's president, "the youngest in America."
Kennedy emerged as a highly successful entrepreneur with an eye for value. For example he turned a handsome profit from ownership of Old Colony Realty Associates, Inc., which bought distressed real estate.
Although skeptical of American involvement in World War I, he sought to participate in war-time production as an assistant general-manager of
Bethlehem Steel, a major shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. There he oversaw the production of transports and warships critical to the war. This job brought him into contact with the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
In 1919, he joined the prominent
stock brokerage firm of Hayden, Stone & Co.where he became an expert in dealing in the unregulated stock marketof the day, engaging in tactics that would later be labeled insider tradingand market manipulation. In 1923 he left, and set up his own investment company, becoming a multi-millionaire during the bull marketof the 1920s.
David Kennedy, author of "Freedom From Fear", describes the Wall Street of the Kennedy era:
Kennedy formed alliances with several other Irish-Catholic money men, including
Charles E. Mitchell, Michael J. Meehan and Bernard Smith. He helped establish the Libby-Owens-Ford stock pool, an arrangement in which Kennedy and colleagues created a scarcity of Libby-Owens-Ford stock to drive up the value of their own holdings in the stock, using inside information and the public's lack of knowledge. Pool operators would bribe journalists to present information in the most advantageous manner. Attempts to corner stocks were made that would cause the price to go up, and bear raids could cause the price to collapse downward. Kennedy got into a bidding war seeking control of founder John Hertz's company Yellow Cabwhich is recounted in a book ['The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys' (1987) by Doris Kearns Goodwin pp 330-333 [http://books.google.com/books?id=bGSSl9I4maEC&pg=PA330&lpg=PA330&dq=fitzgeralds+kennedys+yellow+cab&source=web&ots=_WRoFoxYIi&sig=h_yHitemEZz4TYe5Uxuh4SyKcXw&hl=en#PPA334,M1] ] .
Kennedy later claimed he knew the rampant stock speculation of the late 1920s would lead to a crash. He received stock tips from a shoe-shine boy. [ "Ecommerce: Who wants to be a millionaire", 'Computer Business Review', February 2000. [http://www.cbronline.com/article_cbr.asp?guid=45E2E90F-060B-4661-BFC7-9931211A4FCF] ] It has been noted that during the Depression Kennedy vastly increased his financial fortune by investing most of his fortune in real estate. In 1929 Kennedy's fortune was estimated to be $4 million. By 1935, his wealth had increased to $180 million.
Movie Production, Liquor Importing, Real Estate
Kennedy made huge profits from reorganizing and refinancing several Hollywood studios. Film production in the U.S. was much more decentralized than it is today, with many different movie studios producing film product. One small studio was FBO,
Film Booking Offices of America, which specialized in Westerns produced cheaply. Its owner was in financial trouble and asked Kennedy to help find a new owner. Kennedy formed his own group of investors and bought it for $1.5 million.
Kennedy moved to Hollywood in March 1926 to focus on running the studio. Movie studios were then permitted to own exhibition companies which were necessary to get their films on local screens. With that in mind, in a hostile buyout, he acquired the Keith-Albee-Orpheum Theaters Corporation (KAO) which had more than seven hundred
vaudevillemovie theaters across the United States. He later purchased another production studio called Pathe Exchange.
In October 1928, he formally merged his film companies FBO and KAO to form
Radio-Keith-Orpheum(RKO) and made a large amount of money in the process. Then, keen to buy the Pantages Theatrechain, which had 63 profitable theaters, Kennedy made an offer of $8 million. It was declined. He then stopped distributing his movies to Pantages. Still, Alexander Pantagesdeclined to sell. However, when Pantages was later charged and tried for rape, his reputation took a battering and he accepted Kennedy's revised offer of $3.5 million.
It is estimated that Kennedy made over $5 million from his investments in Hollywood. During his affair with film star
Gloria Swanson, he arranged the financing for her films " The Love of Sunya" (1927) and the ill-fated " Queen Kelly" (1928).
Kennedy was reputed to be an importer of alcoholic drinks from Canada into the USA during Prohibition. The allegations were never proven. After
Prohibitionended, Kennedy consolidated an even larger fortune when his company, Somerset Importers, became the exclusive American agent for Gordon'sDry Gin and Dewar'sScotch. Anticipating the end of Prohibition, he assembled a large inventory of stock, which he later sold for a profit of millions of dollars when Prohibitionwas repealed in 1933. He invested this money in residential and commercial real estate in New York, and Hialeah Race Track in Hialeah, Florida. His most important purchase was the largest office building in the country, Chicago's Merchandise Mart, which gave his family an important base in that city and an alliance with the Irish-American political leadership there.
Kennedy's first major involvement in a national political campaign was his support in 1932 for Franklin D. Roosevelt's bid for the Presidency. He donated, loaned, and raised a substantial amount of money for the campaign. Roosevelt rewarded him with an appointment as the inaugural Chairman of the
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC). Kennedy had hoped for a Cabinet post, such as Treasury. After Franklin Roosevelt called Joe to Washington to clean up the Securities and Exchange Commission, somebody asked F.D.R. why he had tapped such a crook. "Takes one to catch one," replied Roosevelt. [ The TIME 100, Heroes & Icons, http://www.time.com/time/time100/heroes/profile/kennedys01.html.]
Kennedy's reforming work as SEC Chairman was widely praised on all sides, as investors realized the SEC was protecting their interests. His knowledge of the financial markets equipped him to identify areas requiring the attention of regulators. One of the crucial reforms was the requirement for companies to regularly file financial statements with the SEC, which broke what some saw as an information monopoly maintained by the Morgan banking family. (Kennedy would have known all about information monopolies.) He left the SEC in 1935 to take over the
Maritime Commission, which built on his wartime experience in running a major shipyard.
Disputes with Father Charles Coughlin
Father Charles Coughlin was an
Irish-Canadianpriest in Detroit, who became perhaps the most prominent Roman Catholic spokesman on political and financial issues in the 1930s, with a radio audience that reached millions every week. A strong supporter of Roosevelt in 1932, Coughlin broke with the president in 1934 and became a bitter opponent in his weekly, anti-communist, anti-Federal Reserve and isolationist radio talks. Roosevelt sent Kennedy and other prominent Irish Catholics to try to tone down Coughlin. [Leamer 93; Brinkley 127.] Coughlin swung his support to Huey Longin 1935 and then to William Lemke's Union Party in 1936. Kennedy strongly supported the New Deal and believed as early as 1933 that Coughlin was "becoming a very dangerous proposition" as an opponent of Roosevelt and "an out and out demagogue." Coughlin opposed the idea of a World Court. In 1936, Kennedy worked with Roosevelt, Bishop Francis Spellman and Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII), who was supportive of the World Court, to shut Coughlin down. [ Maier pp 103-107] When Coughlin returned to the air in 1940, Kennedy continued to battle against his influence among the Irish. [Smith pp 122, 171, 379, 502; Alan Brinkley, "Voices of Protest" (1984) p 127; Michael Kazin, "The Populist persuasion" (1995) pp 109, 123.]
Ambassador to Britain
In 1938, Roosevelt appointed Kennedy as the United States Ambassador to the
Court of St. James's(Britain). Kennedy's Irish and Catholic status did not bother the British; indeed he hugely enjoyed his leadership position in London society, which stood in stark contrast to his outsider status in Boston. His daughter Kathleen married the heir to the Duke of Devonshire, the head of one of England's grandest aristocratic families. Kennedy rejected the warnings of Winston Churchillthat compromise with Nazi Germany was impossible; instead he supported Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasementin order to stave off a second world war that would be a more horrible "armageddon" than the first. Throughout 1938, as the Nazi persecution of Jewsintensified, Kennedy attempted to obtain an audience with Adolf Hitler. [Hersh 64.] Shortly before the Nazi aerial bombing of British cities began in September 1940, Kennedy sought a personal meeting with Hitler, again without State Department approval, "to bring about a better understanding between the United States and Germany." [Hersh 63.]
Kennedy argued strongly against giving aid to Britain.
"Democracy is finished in England. It may be here," stated Ambassador Kennedy, Boston Sunday Globe of November 10, 1940. In that one simple statement, Joe Kennedy ruined any future chances of becoming US president, effectively committing political suicide. While bombs fell daily on England, Nazi troops occupied Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France, Ambassador Kennedy unambiguously and repeatedly stated his belief that the war was not about saving democracy from National Socialism (Nazism) or Fascism. In the now-infamous, long, rambling interview with two newspaper journalists,
Louis M. Lyonsof the Boston Globeand Ralph Coghlanof the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Kennedy opined:
"It's all a question of what we do with the next six months. The whole reason for aiding England is to give us time." ... "As long as she is in there, we have time to prepare. It isn't that [Britain is] fighting for democracy. That's the bunk. She's fighting for self-preservation, just as we will if it comes to us... I know more about the European situation than anybody else, and it's up to me to see that the country gets it," [Boston Sunday Globe of November 10, 1940]
In British government circles during the Blitz, Ambassador Kennedy was widely disparaged as a defeatist and also known as a coward. He became known as "Jittery Joe" for his propensity to run for cover to an air raid shelter located near Windsor at the slightest sign of an air raid. Fact|date=August 2008
When the American public and Roosevelt Administration officials read his quotes on democracy being "finished", and his belief that the Battle of Britain wasn't about "fighting for democracy," all of it being just "bunk", they realized that Ambassador Kennedy could not be trusted to represent the United States. In the face of national public outcry, he was offered the chance to fall on his sword, and he submitted his resignation later that month.
Throughout the rest of the war, relations between Kennedy and the Roosevelt Administration remained tense (especially when Joe Kennedy, Jr., vocally opposed FDR's renomination). Having effectively removed himself from the national stage, Joe Sr. sat out the war on the sidelines. Kennedy did however stay active in the smaller venues of rallying Irish and Roman Catholic Democrats to vote for Roosevelt's reelection in 1944. He claimed to be eager to help the war effort, but as a result of his previous gaffes, he was neither trusted nor re-invited. [Leamer pp 152-3; William E. Leuchtenburg, "In the Shadow of FDR: From Harry Truman to George W. Bush" (2001) pp 68-72 ]
With his own ambitions for the White House in self-inflicted ruins, he held out great hope for his eldest son Joseph Jr. to gain the presidency. However, Joe Jr. was killed in England while undertaking a high-risk bombing mission. Kennedy then turned his attention to grooming the second son,
John F. Kennedy, who won the 1960 election.
Kennedy was (for a while) a close friend with the leading Jewish lawyer
Felix Frankfurter, who helped Kennedy get his sons into the London School of Economics, where they worked with Harold Laski, a leading Jewish intellectual and prominent Socialist. [ Leamer 66, 72; Renehan 5.] While holding positive attitudes towards individual Jews, Kennedy's views of the Jews as a people were allegedly, by his own admission, overwhelmingly negative.
Harvey Klemmer, who served as one of Kennedy's embassy aides, Kennedy habitually referred to Jews as " kikes or sheenies." Kennedy allegedly told Klemmer that " [some] individual Jews are all right, Harvey, but as a race they stink. They spoil everything they touch." [Hersh 63.] When Klemmer returned from a trip to Germany and reported the pattern of vandalism and assault on Jews by Nazis, Kennedy responded "well, they brought it on themselves." [Leamer 115.]
On June 13, 1938, Kennedy met with
Herbert von Dirksen, the German ambassador in London, who claimed in Berlin that Kennedy had told him that "it was not so much the fact that we want to get rid of the Jews that was so harmful to us, but rather the loud clamor with which we accompanied this purpose. [Kennedy] himself fully understood our Jewish policy." [Hersh 64; Renehan 29.] Kennedy's main concern with such violent acts against German Jews as Kristallnachtwas that they generated bad publicity in the West for the Nazi regime, a concern he communicated in a letter to Charles Lindbergh. [Renehan 60.]
Kennedy had a close friendship with
Nancy Astor; the correspondence between them is reportedly replete with anti-Semitic tropes. [Renehan 26-27; Leamer 136.] As Edward Renehan notes::"As fiercely anti-Communist as they were anti-Semitic, Kennedy and Astor looked upon Adolf Hitler as a welcome solution to both of these "world problems" (Nancy's phrase).... Kennedy replied that he expected the "Jew media" in the United States to become a problem, that "Jewish pundits in New York and Los Angeles" were already making noises contrived to "set a match to the fuse of the world." [Renehan, "Kennedy and the Jews".]
By August 1940, Kennedy worried that a third term for Roosevelt meant war; as Leamer reports, "Joe believed that Roosevelt, Churchill, the Jews and their allies would manipulate America into approaching Armageddon." [Leamer 134.] Nevertheless, Kennedy supported Roosevelt's third term in return for Roosevelt's support of Joseph Kennedy Jr. for Governor of Massachusetts in 1942. [Fleming, Thomas The New Dealers' War: F.D.R. And The War Within World War II, Basic Books, 2001.] Even during the height of the conflict, however, Kennedy remained "more wary of" prominent American Jews such as
Felix Frankfurterthan he was of Hitler. [Renehan 311.]
Kennedy told reporter
Joe Dinneen::"It is true that I have a low opinion of some Jews in public office and in private life. That does not mean that I... believe they should be wiped off the face of the earth... Jews who take an unfair advantage of the fact that theirs is a persecuted race do not help much... Publicizing unjust attacks upon the Jews may help to cure the injustice, but continually publicizing the whole problem only serves to keep it alive in the public mind."When Dinneen wrote "The Kennedy Family", he was pressured to remove these quotations from the book by John F. Kennedyhimself. Dineen complied. [Hersh 64, at fn.]
Kennedy used his wealth and connections to build a national network of supporters that became the base for his sons' political careers. He especially concentrated on the
Irish Americancommunity in large cities, particularly Boston, New York, Chicago, Pittsburgh and several New Jersey cities. [Leamer pp 313, 434; Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor. "American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley- His Battle for Chicago and the Nation" (2001) p. 250; Timothy J. Meagher. "The Columbia Guide to Irish American History" (2005) p.150. ]
=Alliance with Senator McCarthy = Kennedy's close ties with Republican Senator
Joseph McCarthystrengthened his family's position among Irish Catholics, but weakened it among liberals who strongly opposed McCarthy. Even before McCarthy became famous in 1950, Kennedy had forged close ties with the Republican Senator from Wisconsin. Kennedy often brought him to Hyannis Port as a weekend house guest in the late 1940s. McCarthy at one point dated Patricia Kennedy. When McCarthy became a dominant voice of anti-Communism starting in 1950, Kennedy contributed thousands of dollars to McCarthy, and became one of his major supporters. In the Senate race of 1952, Joseph apparently worked a deal so that McCarthy, a Republican, would not make campaign speeches for the GOP ticket in Massachusetts. In return, Congressman John F. Kennedy, running for the Senate seat, would not give any anti-McCarthy speeches that his liberal supporters wanted to hear. In 1953 at Kennedy's urging McCarthy hired Robert Kennedy(age 27) as a senior staff member of the Senate's investigations subcommittee, which McCarthy chaired. In 1954, when the Senate was threatening to condemn McCarthy, Senator John Kennedy faced a dilemma. "How could I demand that Joe McCarthy be censured for things he did when my own brother was on his staff?" asked JFK. By 1954, however, Robert Kennedy and McCarthy's chief aide, Roy Cohn, had had a falling out and Robert no longer worked for McCarthy. John Kennedy had a speech drafted calling for the censure of McCarthy but he never delivered it. When the Senate voted to censure McCarthy on December 2, 1954, Senator Kennedy was in the hospital and never indicated then or later how he would vote. Joe strongly supported McCarthy to the end. [ Michael O'Brien, "John F. Kennedy: A Biography" (2005), 250-54, 274-79, 396-400; Thomas C. Reeves, "The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy" (1982), 442-3; Maier, "The Kennedys" 270-80. ]
Presidential ambitions for family
Joe Kennedy was a fiercely ambitious individual who thrived off competition and winning. And, in his eyes, the ultimate prize was being president of the United States. Joe Kennedy wanted his first son, Joseph Kennedy Jr. to become president, but after his death in WWII, he became determined to make his eldest surviving son, John F. Kennedy, president.
Joe Kennedy was consigned to the political shadows after his remarks during WWII that "Democracy is finished...", and he remained an intensely controversial figure among U.S. citizens because of his suspect business credentials, his Roman Catholicism, his opposition to Roosevelt's foreign policy, and his support for Joseph McCarthy. As a result, his presence in John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign had to be downplayed. Having him in the spotlight would hurt John, making it look as if it were his father who was running for president.
However, Joe Kennedy still drove the campaign behind the scenes. He played a central role in planning strategy, fundraising, and building coalitions and alliances. Joe supervised the spending and to some degree the overall campaign strategy, helped select advertising agencies, and was endlessly on the phone with local and state party leaders, newsmen, and business leaders. He had met thousands of powerful people in his career, and often called in his chips to help his sons. He would use this to his son's advantage.
His father's connections and influence was turned directly into political capital for the senatorial and presidential campaigns of John, Robert and Ted. Historian
Thomas J. Whalendescribes Joe's influence on John Kennedy's policy decisions in his biography of Joseph Kennedy. Joe was influential in creating the Kennedy Cabinet (Robert Kennedy as Attorney General for example). However, in 1961, Joe Kennedy suffered from a stroke that placed even more limitations on his influence in his sons' political careers. Joseph Kennedy expanded the Kennedy Compound, which continues as a major center of family get-togethers.
When John F. Kennedy was asked about the level of involvement and influence that his father had held in his razor-thin presidential victory, JFK would joke that on the eve before the election, his father had asked him the exact number of votes he would need to win - there was no way he was paying "for a landslide." John's presidency was a victory for Joe. He saw it as a step forward for, not just his son, but the entire Kennedy family. Joe was a family man and strategically constructed his family's image towards the public. He once said,"Image is reality", and the presidency framed the Kennedy family picture. [Whalen p. 435-482] [Whalen]
troke and death
On December 19, 1961, at the age of 73, Kennedy suffered a major
stroke. He survived, but lost all power of speech, and was left paralyzed on his right side. Kennedy did regain certain functions with the help therapies. Most notably, he went to The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potentialin 1964, a Philadelphia center that teaches therapies for people with brain injuries. Kennedy made gains with therapy, and began walking with the help of a cane. His speech also showed some improvement. [Time Magazine, May 22, 1964. Website: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,871108,00.html?promoid=googlep] However, being 75 years old and greatly weakened, Kennedy was soon confined to a wheelchair. Despite being severely disabled from the stroke, Kennedy remained aware of the tragedies that befell his family until his own death, on November 18, 1969, two months after his eighty-first birthday. His final public appearance was with Rose and Ted in a videotaped message to the country a few weeks after the death of Robert Kennedy, which showed his extremely frail physical condition.
Joseph and Rose Kennedy's children today
As of May 2008, only three of Joseph and Rose Kennedy's nine children are still alive. The only two surviving daughters are 86-year old
Eunice Kennedy Shriverand 80-year old Jean Kennedy Smith, while the only surviving son is 76-year-old Senator Ted Kennedy.
Of the six deceased children of Joe and Rose Kennedy, the only two to die of natural causes to date are their daughters
Rose Marie Kennedy(commonly called Rosemary instead of Rose Marie) and Patricia Kennedy Lawford. Rose Marie (who was Joe and Rose's first daughter) underwent a lobotomyin 1941 at the age of 23 after Joe Kennedy was informed that his daughter's mental disorder could be cured by such an operation. Unfortunately, the lobotomy went wrong, and Rose Marie was left with profound brain damage. Rose Marie was cared for at St. Coletta's institution in Wisconsinfrom 1949 until her death of natural causes on January 7, 2005, at the age of 86. Patricia (who was the fourth daughter) died from complications due to pneumoniaon September 17, 2006, at the age of 82. Joseph was especially close to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. [Maier; O'Brien p. 740]
alternate historynovel " Fatherland" by Robert Harris, set in 1963, Joseph P. Kennedy - not his son John F. Kennedy - is President of the United States and about to arrive in Berlin to conclude a treaty with Adolf Hitler.
List of descendants of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy
List of well-known U.S. presidential relatives
*Brinkley, Alvin. "Voices of Protest." Vintage, 1983.
*Goodwin, Doris K., "The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys: An American Saga" (1987)
*Hersh, Seymour. "The Dark Side of Camelot." Back Bay Books, 1998.
*Leamer, Laurence. "The Kennedy Men: ." Harper, 2002.
*Thomas Maier, "The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings" (2003)
*Kessler, Ronald, "The Sins of the Father: Joseph P. Kennedy and the Dynasty He Founded", Warner , 1996, ISBN
*O'Brien, Michael. "John F. Kennedy: A Biography" (2005)
*Renehan, Edward. "The Kennedys at War", . Doubleday, 2002.
*Renehan, Edward. "Joseph Kennedy and the Jews". "History News Network". George Mason University, April 29, 2002.
*Schwarz, Ted, "Joseph P. Kennedy" 2003, ISBN
*Smith, Amanda, ed. "Hostage to Fortune: The Letters of Joseph P. Kennedy" (2002), the major collection of letters to and from Kennedy
*Whalen, Richard J., "The Founding Father: The Story of Joseph P. Kennedy". The New American Library of World Literature, Inc., 1964.
*findagrave|572|Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.
* [http://www.ytedk.com/jfk.htm Joe Kennedy's Political Influence]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/kennedys/peopleevents/p_joe.html The Kennedys - PBS Special]
* [http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/may2003/nf20030529_7026.htm Kennedy's Legacy at the SEC]
* [http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG03/omara-alwala/JPKennedy.html Biography of Joseph P. Kennedy and his early life and education]
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