- Progressive rock (radio format)
Progressive rock is a
radio stationprogramming format that prospered in the late 1960s and 1970s,Thomas Staudter, [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0DE7D81138F937A15750C0A9649C8B63&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss "On the Radio With a Mix Very Distinctly His Own"] , " The New York Times", March 24, 2002. Accessed March 23, 2008.] in which the disc jockeys are given wide latitude in what they may play, similar to the freeform format but with the proviso that some kind of rock musicis almost always what is played.Fritz E.Froehlich, Allen S. Kent, Carolyn M. Hall (eds.), "FM Commercialization in the United States", "The Froehlich/Kent encyclopedia of telecommunications", CRC Press, 1991. ISBN 0824729021. p. 179.] The name for the format came from around 1968, when serious disc jockeys were playing "progressive 'music for the head'" and discussing social issues in between records.Mike Olszewski, "Radio Daze: Stories from the Front in Cleveland's FM Air Wars", Kent State University Press, 2003. ISBN 0873387732. p. xi.]
FM broadcastinglicenses were first issued by the FCC, broadcasters were slow to take advantage of the new airwaves available to them because their advertising revenues were generated primarily from existing AM broadcastingstations and because there were few FM radio receivers owned by the general public. This void created an opportunity for the disenchanted youth counter-culture of the era to express itself by playing music that was largely ignored by mainstream outlets. In this sense, progressive rock radio was more of a social response than a product marketed to fill a need.
This change coincided with the greater emphasis on albums as opposed to singles in the rock market. Hugely popular albums such as
The Beatles' " Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" did not contain any singles, so there was clearly a need for a radio format that would explore beyond the Top 40. This in turn led to rock artists placing greater emphasis on long or experimental album tracks, knowing they could still receive radio airplay.
The progressive rock radio format should not be confused with the
progressive rockmusic genre. While progressive rock music was certainly played on progressive rock stations, so were many other genres of rock as well. Generally everything from early Beatles and early Dylan on forward was fair game. Progressive rock radio was generally the only outlet for fringe rock genres such as space rockand quiet, acoustic-based folk rockand country rock(often played on weekend mornings). Progressive stations were also known for having "turntable hits", songs by obscure artists that did not sell much and were not hits by any conventional measure, but which listeners kept calling up and requesting; Bobby Borg, "The Musician's Handbook: A Practical Guide to Understanding the Music Business", Watson-Guptill, 2003. ISBN 0823083578. p. 191.] Sweet Thursday's "Gilbert Street" was a good example on the East Coast.
The progressive rock radio format grew out of the freeform radio format,Sara Pendergast, TomPendergast, "St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture", St. James Press, 2000.] and, sharing the key characteristic of disc jockeys having the freedom to play what they chose, has sometimes been referred to as "freeform rock radio" or "freeform progressive radio"Todd Leopold, [http://archives.cnn.com/2002/SHOWBIZ/books/02/07/fm.neer/index.html "Whatever happened to rock 'n' roll radio?"] ,
CNN.com, February 7, 2002. Accessed August 24, 2007.] or simply "FM rock radio". But as they evolved there were key differences between the freeform and progressive rock formats:
* Freeform could play any kind of music; progressive rock generally limited itself to (all kinds of) rock
* After its early days, freeform tended towards small or "underground" stations in non-commercial or niche markets;
Jesse Walker, "Rebels on the Air: An Alternative History of Radio in America", NYU Press, 2001. ISBN 0814793827. pp. 71-100.] progressive rock could and did handle big-signal stations in large markets
* Progressive rock was intended to be as fully commercially viable as any other mainstream radio format; freeform usually shunned such ambitions
* The progressive rock format had a large impact on the commercial rock music industry at the time, while the freeform format generally did not.
The archetypal successful and influential progressive rock radio station was
WNEW-FMin New York in the late 1960s, 1970s, and into the 1980s;Robbie Woliver, [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE0D6163FF932A35757C0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1 "Disc Jockey, 55, Back In His College Booth"] , " The New York Times", April 1, 2001. Accessed March 23, 2008.] Glenn Collins, [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990DEEDE1F3DF937A2575AC0A96F958260 "WNEW-FM, Rock Pioneer, Goes to All-Talk Format"] , " The New York Times", September 14, 1999. Accessed March 23, 2008.] Varla Ventura, "Alison Steele: Song of the Nightbird", entry in "Sheroes: Bold, Brash, and Absolutely Unabashed Superwomen from Susan B. Anthony to Xena", Conari, 1998. ISBN 1573241288. pp. 196-198.] Keith Emersoncredited it for breaking Emerson, Lake & Palmerinto the United Statesmarket. Keith Emerson, [http://www.keithemerson.com/MiscPages/RememberingScottMuni.html "Remembering Scott Muni"] , keithemerson.com, September 29, 2004. Accessed August 24, 2007.] Other long-running, large-market examples included WMMRin Philadelphia[http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4717757 "David Dye, NPR Biography"] , NPR. Accessed August 24, 2007.] (credited with helping to break Bruce SpringsteenJoe Howard, [http://www.radioink.com/listingsEntry.asp?ID=469131&PT=industryqa "Bill Weston’s Resurrection Of Legendary Rocker WMMR"] , Radio Ink, October 16, 2006. Accessed August 24, 2007.] ), WMMSin Cleveland, CJOM and WABX in Detroit/Windsor, WXRTin Chicago, KQRS-FMin Minneapolis, KSAN in San Francisco, and KMET in Los AngelesPaul Friedlander, "Rock and Roll: A Social History", Westview Press, 1996. ISBN 0813327253. p. 199.] (many of these stations were owned by Metromedia), [Walker, "Rebels on the Air", p. 96.] and college radio stations such as WVBRin Ithaca, New York, WKNCin Raleigh, North Carolina, [http://www.wknc.org/about/history.php "The history of WKNC"] , wknc.org. Accessed August 24, 2007.] and WBRUin Providence, Rhode Island. [http://www.brown.edu/Administration/News_Bureau/Databases/Encyclopedia/search.php?serial=W0120 "WBRU"] , Encyclopedia Brunoniana, Brown University. Accessed August 24, 2007.] Pioneering progressive rock radio disc jockey and program directors included Scott Muniin New York [http://www.siriusbackstage.com/forum/archive/index.php/t-54257.html "Classic Vinyl and Sirius remember Scott Muni"] , Sirius Satellite Radio, October 1, 2004. Accessed August 24, 2007.] [http://rockradioscrapbook.ca/air1966.html "Scott Muni and Johnny Michaels"] , Rock Radio Scrapbook. Accessed August 24, 2007.] and Tom Donahuein San Francisco. [http://www.bayarearadio.org/history/timeline_106.9-fm.shtml "A Brief History Of 106.9 FM In San Francisco"] , Bay Area Radio Museum. Accessed August 24, 2007.]
Over time (some much faster than others), the large-city progressive rock stations usually lost DJ freedom and adopted the more structured and confined
album-oriented rockformat in the 1970s or 1980s, William Safire, quoting Stephen Holden, [http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F50712FA3D5F0C748CDDA00894DE484D81 "On Language: Don't Touch That Dial"] , " The New York Times", September 7, 1986. Accessed August 23, 2007.] and then later the nostalgic classic rockformat in the 1980s or 1990s, while the smaller progressive rock stations sometimes turned to the college rockor alternative rock.Keith Moerer, [http://www.radiodiversity.com/whokilledradio.html "Who Killed Rock Radio?"] , "Spin", February 1998. Accessed August 24, 2007.] Where once "progressiverock radio [was] the key media of ascendant rock culture", as writer Nelson Georgeput it, Nelson George, "The Death of Rhythm and Blues", Pantheon Books, 1988. ISBN 0525485104.] by 1987, musician and author Robert Palmer would write, "The glory days of 'progressive' rock radio - when the disk jockey actually chose the records he played and creatively juxtaposed songs and styles - are long gone."Robert Palmer, [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DEFD7163EF93AA15753C1A961948260 "Critic's Notebook: Now, Good Music Is Where You Find It"] , " The New York Times", October 29, 1987. Accessed August 23, 2007.] While freeform stations are still around in the 2000s (such as New Jersey's WFMU), [Walker, "Rebels on the Air", p. 127.] there may be no real examples of the specific progressive rock radio format in existence today on the FM dial. XM Satellite Radio's " Deep Tracks" channel might, however, be regarded as a contemporary equivalent. Some of the spirit of progressive rock radio (albeit in a more mellow, "adult" form) can also be found in the Triple-A format. [http://www.nyradioguide.com/formats.htm "Adult Album Alternative (AAA)" entry] , New York Radio Guide. Access August 23, 2007.]
Freeform (radio format)
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