Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Crotalinae
Genus: Trimeresurus
Species: T. purpureomaculatus
Binomial name
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus
(Gray, 1832)
  • Trigonocephalus purpureo-maculatus - Gray, 1832
  • Trimesurus purpureus - Gray, 1842
  • Trimesurus carinatus - Gray, 1842
  • C[ryptelytrops]. carinatus - Cope, 1860
  • [Trimesurus] porphyraceus - Blyth, 1861
  • Trimeresurus purpureus - Günther, 1864
  • T[rimeresurus]. carinatus - Theobald, 1868
  • Crotalus Trimeres[urus]. carinatus - Higgins, 1873
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus - Boulenger, 1890
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus - Boulenger, 1896
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus - M.A. Smith, 1943
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus - M.A. Smith, 1943[1]
Common names: mangrove pit viper,[2] mangrove viper,[3] shore pit viper,[4] more.

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus is a venomous pitviper species found in parts of India and Southeast Asia. Two subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.[5]



Males grow to a total length of 66.5 cm, females 90 cm. The tail lengths are then 12.5 cm and 14 cm respectively.[6]

Scales in 25-27 longitudinal rows at midbody; 11-13 upper labials, the first partially or completely united with the nasal; supraocular very narrow, sometimes broken into small scales, 12-15 scales between them; head scales small, subequal, tuberculate or granular; temporal scales keeled; body color highly variable, above olive, grayish, to dark purplish brown, below whitish, greenish or brown, uniform or spotted with brown; a light line on scale row one bordering ventrals present or absent; head olive, heavily suffused with brown; ventrals: males 160-179, females 168-183; subcaudals: males 74-76, females 56-63, paired; hemipenes without spines.[6]

Common names

Mangrove pit viper,[2] mangrove viper,[3] shore pit viper, purple-spotted pit viper,[4] shore pitviper.[7]

Geographic range

Found in India (Assam, Andaman Islands), Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra). The type locality is listed as "Singapore."[1]


Subspecies[5] Taxon author[5] Common name[2] Geographic range[1]
T. p. andersoni Theobald, 1868 Nicobar mangrove pit viper The Andaman Islands.
T. p. purpureomaculatus (Gray, 1832) Mangrove pit viper India (Assam), Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra).

See also


  1. ^ a b c McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b c Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  3. ^ a b U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  4. ^ a b Brown JH. 1973. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.
  5. ^ a b c "Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 1 January 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Leviton AE, Wogan GOU, Koo MS, Zug GR, Lucas RS, Vindum JV. 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar, Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407-462.
  7. ^ Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. GeitjeBooks Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.

Further reading

  • Gray, J. E. 1831 Illustrations of Indian Zoology: chiefly selected from the collection of Major General Hardwicke. Vol. 1, London (1830-1835)
  • Gumprecht,A. 2001 Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004 Asian Pit Vipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Pope,C.H. & Pope, S.H. 1933 A study of the green pit-vipers of southeastern Asia and Malaysia, commonly identified as Trimeresurus gramineus (Shaw), with description of a new species from Peninsular India. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 620: 1-12
  • Whitaker, R. 1978 Birth Record of the Andaman Pit Viper (Trimeresurus Purpureomaculatus ) J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75 (1): 233

External links

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