Dunyā (دُنْيا) is a word in Arabic (also Persian, Dari, Pashto, Bangla, Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi, Turkish and loanword in Malay language) which means, in Islamic terminology, the temporal world—and its earthly concerns and possessions—as opposed to the eternal spiritual realm, or the hereafter (ākhira). Dunyā literally means 'closer' or 'lower'. In the Qur'an, dunyā and ākhira represent oppositions in temporal, spatial and moral dimensions: now and later, below and above, evil and good, respectively. Two Qur'anic ayat (verses) illustrating these points are:
- "Ordain for us the good in this world [al-dunyā] and in the hereafter [al-ākhira]." (Surah Al A'râf 7:156)
- "You are my friend in this world [al-dunyā] and the next [al-ākhira]." (Surah Yusuf 12:101)
Muslims are encouraged[by whom?] to ponder the verses of the Qur'an, and to do their best to not get too attached to this temporal existence and its trappings. In Islam, dunyā is a test; success and failure lead to paradise and hell respectively.
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