- House of Stuart
surname = House of Stuart
estate = Scotland, England, Ireland and Great Britain
coat of arms =
parent house =
High Steward of Scotland, Earl of Lennox, Duke of Aubigny, Earl of Moray, Marquess of Bute, King of Scots, King of England, King of Ireland, Queen of Great Britain
Robert II of Scotland
final ruler =
Anne of Great Britain
current head = None agnatically. The current Jacobite claimant is
Franz, Duke of Bavaria, a member of the House of Wittelsbach. The cadet branches of Bute, Moray and Appin are headed by the Earl of Dumfries, the Earl of Morayand the 17th Chief of Appin respectively.
founding year = 1371
dissolution = 1714
nationality = Scottish
cadet branches = "extant"
Stewarts of Appin
Stewarts of Castle Stewart
Stewarts of Galloway
Stuarts of Bute
Stuarts of Moray
Scott of Buccleuch and Queensberry
Lennox of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon
Fitzroy of Grafton
Beauclerk of Saint-Albans
Stewart of Albany Stewart of Darnley"dubious status"
Stewarts of Londonderry
The House of Stuart or Stewart was a
royal houseof the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of Englandand the Kingdom of Ireland, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britainand the Kingdom of Ireland. Mary Queen of Scotsadopted the French spelling Stuart while in Franceto ensure that the Scots Stewart was pronounced correctly. The name itself originates from the ancient hereditary Scottish title High Steward of Scotland.
The House of Stuart ruled the
Kingdom of Scotlandfor 336 years, between 1371 and 1707. Queen Elizabeth I of England's closest heir was King James VI of Scotland via her grandfather King Henry VII of England, who was founder of the Tudor dynasty. At Elizabeth's death, James Stuart ascended the thrones of the Kingdom of Englandand the Kingdom of Irelandand inherited the English claims to the French throne. From 1603, the Stuarts styled themselves "Kings/Queens of Great Britain", though there was no parliamentary union until the reign of Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart. The Stuarts were followed by the House of Hanover, under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701. Members of various cadet and illegitimate branches still survive today.
The earliest known member of the House of Stewart was Flaald I (Flaald the Seneschal), an 11th century Breton follower of the Lord of Dol and
Combourg. Flaald and his immediate descendants held the hereditary and honorary post of Dapifer (food bearer) in the Lord of Dol's household. His grandson Flaald II was a supporter of Henry I of Englandand made the crucial move from Brittanyto Britain, which was where the future fortunes of the Stewarts lay. Walter the Steward (died 1177), the grandson of Flaald II, was born in Oswestry( Shropshire). Along with his brother William, ancestor of the Fitzalan family (the Earls of Arundel), he supported Empress Matildaduring the period known as the Anarchy. Matilda was aided by her uncle, David I of Scotland, and Walter followed David north in 1141, after Matilda had been usurped by King Stephen. Walter was granted land in Renfrewshireand the position of Lord High Steward. Malcolm IV made the position hereditary and it was inherited by Walter's son, who took the surname Stewart. The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart (1293-1326), married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and also played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburncurrying further favour. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce; he eventually inherited the Scottish throne when his uncle David II died childless in 1371.
1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VII's daughter, Margaret Tudor. The birth of their son, later James V, brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor, and the English throne. Margaret Tudor later married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and their daughter, Margaret Douglas, was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1565, Darnley married his half-cousin Mary, the daughter of James V. Darnley's father was Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, a member of the Stewart of Darnleybranch of the House. Lennox was a direct descendant of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, also descended from James II, being Mary's heir presumptive. Therefore Darnley was also related to Mary on his father's side and at the time of their marriage was himself second in line to the Scottish throne. Because of this connection, Mary's heirs remained part of the House of Stewart. Because of the long French residence at Aubigny, held by Darnley's branch in the Auld Alliance, the surname was altered to "Stuart". In feudal and dynastic terms, the Scottish reliance on French support was revived during the reign of Charles II, who had an illegitimate son by Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. This descent received the main Stuart appanages of Lennox and Aubigny, as well as the main Tudor appanage of Richmond.
French connections were notoriously unpopular and resulted in the downfall of the Stuarts, whose mutual enemies identified with the emergent Protestant nationalism and urban
mercantilismas opposed to Catholic feudalism and rural manorialism. The Glorious Revolutioncaused the deposition of James II in favor of his son-in-law and his daughter, William and Mary. James continued to claim the thrones of England and Scotland, and encouraged revolts in his name, and his grandson Charles led an ultimately unsuccessful rising in 1745, becoming ironic symbols of conservative rebellion and Romanticism. Due to the identification of the Roman Catholic Churchwith the Stuarts, Catholic Emancipationwas not passed until Jacobitism (as represented by direct Stuart heirs) was extinguished. Despite the Whig intentions of tolerance to be extended to Irish subjects, this was not the preference of Georgian Tories and their failure at compromise played a subsequent role in the present division of Ireland.
Heads of the House of Stewart
Dapifers of Dol
*Flaithri I (died c.1080)
*Alan I (died ?)
*Alan II (died 1095)
*Flaithri II (died c.1101-1102)
*Alan III (died c.1121)
High Stewards of Scotland
Walter the Steward, 1st High Steward of Scotland(died 1177)
Alan Stewart, 2nd High Steward of Scotland(died 1204)
Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland(died 1246)
Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland(died 1283)
James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland(died 1309)
Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland(died 1326)
*Robert Stewart, 7th High Steward of Scotland (became Robert II, King of Scots)
Kings of the Scots
* Robert II (1371-1390)
* Robert III (1390-1406)
* James I (1406-1437)
* James II (1437-1460)
* James III (1460-1488)
* James IV (1488-1513) - married
Margaret Tudor, thus establishing the kinship to the English royal House of Tudor
* James V (1513-1542)
* Mary I, Queen of Scots (1542-1567)
* James VI (1567-1625)
Kings of Great Britain, France and Ireland
* James VI of Scotland and I of England (1603-1625) - Jacobean Age
Charles I of Englandand Scotland(1625-1649) - CaroleanAge
*During the period between Charles I and Charles II, England was a
Republican Commonwealth, and then a Protectorate under Oliver Cromwelland Richard Cromwell. This period of 11 years is known as the English Interregnum.
Charles II of England(1660-1685) and Scotland(1649-1685) - Restoration Age
* James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701)
* Mary II of England and Scotland (1689-1694) - with
William III of Englandand II of Scotland(1689-1702), of the House of Orange-Nassau, a descendant of Charles I
Anne of Great Britain(1702-1714) - Augustan Age
James Francis Edward Stuart(called the "Old Pretender" by his detractors, and "the King Across the Water" by his supporters) claimed throne as James VIII of Scotland and III of England, (1701-1766)
Charles Edward Stuart(called the Young Pretender by the English), claimed throne as Charles III, known to the Scots as Bonnie Prince Charlie, (1766-1788)
Henry Benedict Stuart, claimed throne as Henry IX (1788-1807)
Patrilineal descent, descent from father to son, is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that the "historically accurate" royal house of the Stuart monarchs was the House of Stuart. [Descent from before Walter fitz Alan is from [http://fabpedigree.com/s056/f400642.htm] and may be unreliable.]
Alan of Dol, b. 1020
Flaald fitz Alan, Baron of St. Florent
Alan FitzFlaald, d. after 1114
Walter fitz Alan, 1106 - 1177
Alan fitz Walter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland, d. 1204
Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, 1178 - 1241
Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, 1214 - 1283
#Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, 1246 - 1298
#Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn, 1280 - 1333
#Sir Alexander Stewart, d. 1374
#Sir Alexander Stewart, d. 1404
#Sir John Stewart, 1st Lord Aubigny, 1370 - 1429
#Sir Alan Stewart of Darnley, 1407 - 1439
John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox, 1430 - 1495
Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox, 1472 - 1513
John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox, 1490 - 1526
Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, 1516 - 1571
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, 1545 - 1567
James I of England, 1566 - 1625
Charles I of England, 1600 - 1649
James II of England, 1633 - 1701
Mary II of England, 1662 - 1694 and Anne of Great Britain, 1665 - 1714
Jacobitism, for further information on the House of Stuart and their decline
* The family trees of the Stuarts: Scottish branch - England and Scotland united
List of British monarchs
List of Monarchs of Scotland
CorsehillStewarton in Ayrshire and the Stuart connection.
*Addington, Arthur C. "The Royal House of Stuart: The Descendants of King James VI of Scotland (James I of England)". 3v. Charles Skilton, 1969-76.
*Cassavetti, Eileen. "The Lion & the Lilies: The Stuarts and France". Macdonald & Jane’s, 1977.
* [http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page72.asp Stewart Scotland]
* [http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page74.asp Stuart Britain]
* [http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page73.asp Jacobites]
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