William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne

William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne

William Waldegrave Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne KG GCMG PC (1859–1942), was a British politician.

The son of the 1st Earl, he was educated at Winchester and University College, Oxford, where he took a first class degree in history. In 1883, while still Viscount Wolmer, he married Lady Maud Cecil, elder daughter of Robert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. He served a political apprenticeship as assistant private secretary to the chancellor of the exchequer (Hugh Childers) from 1882 to 1885, when he was elected Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) for East Hampshire. Like his father, he became a Liberal Unionist when in 1886 Gladstone proposed Irish Home Rule, and he retained his seat till 1892, when he was elected for Edinburgh West. From 1895 to 1900 he was Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, under Joseph Chamberlain, and during the difficult period before the outbreak of the Second Boer War he progressed rapidly.

In 1900 he entered the cabinet as First Lord of the Admiralty, and held this office till 1905, when he succeeded Lord Milner as high commissioner for South Africa and governor of the Transvaal and Orange River colonies. He assumed office at Pretoria in May of that year. He had gone out with the intention of guiding the destinies of South Africa during a period when the ex-Boer republics would be in a transitional state between crown colony government and self-government, and letters patent were issued granting the Transvaal representative institutions.

But the Liberal Party came into office in Britain the following December, before the new constitution had been established, and, the decision was now taken to give both the Transvaal and Orange River colonies self-government without delay. Lord Selborne accepted the changed situation, and the experiment proved successful. He ceased to be governor of the Orange River Colony on its assumption of self-government in June 1907, but retained his other posts until May 1910, retiring on the eve of the establishment of the Union of South Africa.

The despatch, dated January 7, 1907 and known as the Selborne Memorandum, in which he reviewed the situation in its economic and political aspects, was a masterly and comprehensive statement of the dangers inherent in the existing system and of the advantages likely to attend union. The document had in fact been compiled by Lionel Curtis and other members of Milners' Kindergarten. The force of its appeal had a marked influence on the course of events, while the loyalty with which Lord Selborne co-operated with the Botha administration was an additional factor in reconciling the Dutch and British communities.

He returned to England with his reputation as a statesman enhanced by the respect of all parties, and with a practical experience, second only to that of Lord Milner, of British imperialism in successful operation. This experience made him a valuable ally in the movement among the Unionist party at home for Tariff Reform and Colonial Preference, to which he could now give his whole-hearted support.

In 1910, he served as Master of the Worshipful Company of Mercers, as his father had done before him, in 1875. He served a second term as Master in 1933.

In 1915 Selborne returned to government during the First World War in war time coalition of Liberal prime minister H.H. Asquith . He became President of the Board of Agriculture but resigned the following year. Selborne did not hold high political office again. He was Warden of Winchester College 1920-1925 and High Steward of Winchester 1929-1942.

His eldest son, Roundell, inherited the title. Another son, Robert, was a Captain in the Hampshire Regiment and was killed on active service in 1916. His letters home were privately published as "Letters from Mesopotamia".



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