- SCO v. IBM
SCO v. IBM is a civil
lawsuitin the United StatesDistrict Court of Utah. The SCO Groupasserted that there are legal uncertainties regarding the use of the Linuxoperating system due to alleged violations of IBM's Unix licensesin the development of Linuxcode at IBM.
March 6, 2003, the SCO Group(formerly known as Caldera Systems) filed a $1 billion lawsuit in the US against IBM for allegedly “devaluing” its version of the UNIX operating system. The amount of alleged damages was later increased to $3 billion, and then $5 billion. SCO claimed that IBM had, without authorization, contributed SCO's intellectual propertyto the codebase of the open source, Unix-likeLinux operating system. In May 2003 SCO Group sent letters to members of the Fortune 1000and Global 500companies warning them of the possibility of liability if they use Linux.
The claims and counter-claims made by both sides then escalated, with both IBM and Linux distributor
Red Hatstarting legal action against SCO, SCO threatening Linux users who do not take out SCO UNIX licenses, and SCO suing Novell (see also SCO-Linux controversies), AutoZone and DaimlerChrysler.
September 30, 2003, Judge Kimball (the presiding federal district judge) granted the SCO Group's request for a delay until February 4, 2004, “to file any amended pleadings or add parties to this action”. The schedule was amended again on July 1, 2005. In December 2006 the trial date was vacated pending the resolution of SCO's litigation with Novell, all parties agreeing that " SCO v. Novell" would resolve issues relating to "SCO v. IBM".
In an “Order Granting in Part IBM's Motion to Limit SCO's Claims” dated
June 28, 2006, Judge Brooke Wells (the federal magistrate judge presiding over discovery aspects of the case) barred SCO from asserting 187 of the 298 allegedly misused items that IBM had moved to exclude from the lawsuit for lack of specificity,cite web| last= Jones | first= Pamela | authorlink = Pamela Jones| title= Wells' Order Granting in Part IBM's Motion to Limit SCO's Claims, as text| publisher= Groklaw| date= 2006-06-29 | url=http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20060628203537917 | accessdate= 2007-08-12] stating “many of SCO’s arguments and much of Mr. Rochkind’s declaration miss the mark”, and comparing SCO's tactics with those of an officer who accuses a citizen of theft, but will not disclose what the citizen is accused of stealing. “Certainly if an individual was stopped and accused of shoplifting after walking out of Neiman Marcus, they would expect to be eventually told what they allegedly stole. It would be absurd for an officer to tell the accused that ‘you know what you stole I'm not telling.’ Or, to simply hand the accused individual a catalog of Neiman Marcus' entire inventory and say ‘it's in there somewhere, you figure it out.’”cite web|title=Wells Grants in Part IBM's Motion to Limit SCO's Claims! In *Large* Part. |publisher = Groklaw|date = 2006-06-28| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20060628175203644 | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
August 10, 2007Judge Kimball, who also presides over the "SCO v. Novell" case, ruled that Novell, not the SCO Group, is the rightful owner of the copyrights covering the Unix operating system. The court also ruled that "SCO is obligated to recognize Novell's waiver of SCO's claims against IBM and Sequent". After the ruling Novell announced they have no interest in suing people over Unix and stated "We don't believe there is Unix in Linux". [cite web|title=MEMORANDUM DECISION AND ORDER Civil Case No. 2:04CV139DAK | publisher = TuxRocks.com | url = http://sco.tuxrocks.com/Docs/Novell/Novell-377.pdf | accessdate= 2007-08-15] [cite web|title=Novell doesn't believe there is Unix in Linux | publisher = PCWorld | date = 2007-08-15| url = http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,135959-c,unix/article.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15] cite web|title=Judge Says Unix Copyrights Rightfully Belong to Novell |publisher = New York Times|date = 2007-08-11| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/11/technology/11novell.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15] cite web|title=Court Rules: Novell owns the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights! Novell has right to waive! |publisher = Groklaw|date = 2007-08-10| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20070810165237718 | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
SCO's lawsuit has been consistent only in its claim of
breach of contract(since the abandonment in early 2004 of its claim of misappropriation of trade secrets). SCO's initial claims were:cite web|title=Caldera's Complaint - Caldera v. IBM - as text |publisher = Groklaw|date = 2004-01-04| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20040704170212250 |accessdate = 2007-08-15]
* Misappropriation of trade secrets
* Interference with contract
* Breach of IBM Software Agreement
July 22, 2003, SCO amended its complaint. It added two new claims: [cite web|title=SCO's amended complaint | url = http://sco.tuxrocks.com/Docs/IBM/Doc-25.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
* Breach of IBM Sublicensing Agreement
* Breach of Sequent Software Agreement
February 27, 2004SCO amended the complaint again. It dropped the trade secrets claim, but added the following claims:cite web|title=Chart of SCO's Amended Complaints and IBM's 2nd Amended Answer|publisher = Groklaw|date = 2004-05-08| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20040508214237601 |accessdate = 2007-08-15]
* Breach of Sequent Sublicensing Agreement
* Interference with contract
* Interference with business relationships
SCO's claims in press releases and interviews have changed repeatedly as the affair has progressed. SCO has also both claimed and denied that the alleged copyright violations involved the
Linux kernel. [cite web|title=SCO-Caldera v IBM: SCO Clears Linux Kernel but Implicates Red Hat and SUSE Linux and the SCO-Caldera v IBM Lawsuit | publisher = MozillaQuest | date = 2003-04-28 | url = http://www.mozillaquest.com/Linux03/ScoSource-10_Story02.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15] "Computerworld" reported Chris Sontag of SCO as saying:
SCO refuses to allow access to the samples of code containing the alleged copyright violations except under a
non-disclosure agreement(NDA). SCO's NDA would not only require that the signer keep confidential which lines of code SCO contested, but would also require that they hold confidential any information SCO told them, even if they already knew that information before being informed of it by SCO; all Linux kernel developers have considered this to be far too restrictive, so none of them have signed it. However, at SCO's annual reseller's convention in August 2003 they revealed two short sections of code they alleged were copyright violations, and images of Darl McBride's presentation of this code were soon after published on German computer magazine publisher Heinz Heise's website. [cite web|title=SCO sagt der Open Source den Existenzkampf an|publisher = Heise Online|date = 2003-08-19|url=http://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/39519 |accessdate = 2007-08-11]
May 30, 2003, SCO Group's CEO Darl McBridewas quoted as saying that the Linux kernel contained "hundreds of lines" of code [cite web|title=SCO to Novell: See you in court | publisher = News.com | date = 2003-05-30 | url = http://news.com.com/2100-1016-1011627.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15] from SCO's version of UNIX, and that SCO would reveal the code to other companies under NDA in July. [cite web|title=SCO Promises To Show Offending Code Next Week|last=Ricadela|first=Aaron|publisher=InformationWeek|date= 2003-05-30|url=http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=10100587|accessdate=2007-08-11] To put this into context, [http://www.dwheeler.com/sloc/redhat71-v1/kernel_sloc David Wheeler's SLOCCount] estimates the size of the Linux 2.4.2 kernel as 2,440,919 source lines of code out of over 30 million physical source lines of code for a typical GNU/Linux distribution. Therefore, as per SCO's own estimate, the allegedly infringing code would make up about 0.001% of the total code of a typical GNU/Linux installation. [cite web | title=Counting Source Lines of Code (SLOC) | url=http://www.dwheeler.com/sloc/] SCO has since upwardly revised this figure to over a million lines of code, however. [cite web|title=SCO: No choice but to go after Linux | publisher = Enterprise Linux News | date = 2003-10-08 | url = http://searchenterpriselinux.techtarget.com/qna/0,289202,sid39_gci931259,00.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15] [cite web|title=Getting a glimpse at SCO's evidence | publisher = News.com | date = 2003-08-19 | url = http://news.com.com/2100-1016_3-5065422.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15] [cite web|title=Legal Analysts Examine SCO Claims Against GPL | publisher = Linux Today | date = 2003-08-22 | url = http://www.linuxtoday.com/infrastructure/2003082201426NWCDLL | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
SCO's major claims have now been reported as relating to the following components of the Linux kernel:
non-uniform memory access(NUMA) multiprocessing,
read-copy-update(RCU) locking strategy,
** This technique is widely believed to have been developed at
Sequent Computer Systems, who were then bought by IBM, who holds several patents (including patent US patent|5442758|5,442,758) on this technique.
* SGI's Extended File System (
* IBM's JFS
journaling file system
These claims flow from the accusation of breach of contract. The contract between IBM and
AT&T(to which SCO claims to be successor in interest) allows IBM to use the SVR4 code, but the SVR4 code, plus any derivative works made from that code, must be held confidential by IBM. According to IBM's interpretation of the contract, and the interpretation published by AT&T in their "$ echo" newsletter in 1985, "derivative works" means any works containing SVR4 code. But according to SCO's interpretation, "derivative works" also includes any code built on top of SVR4, even if that does not contain, or even never contained, any SVR4 code. Thus, according to SCO, any AIX operating systemcode that IBM developed must be kept confidential, even if it contains nothing from SVR4.
August 10, 2007a federal district court judge in Utah ruled that Novell, not the SCO Group, is the rightful owner of the copyrights covering the Unix operating system.
Free software and open source community reaction
The lawsuit caused moral indignation and outrage in the
free softwareand open sourcecommunities, who consider SCO's claims to be without merit and even cynically dishonest. Open source advocates' arguments include:
* that SCO does not even own the code in question. SCO has often called themselves "The owner of the UNIX operating system." But that claim is dubious at best. SCO certainly has no clear claim to SVR4 code. This view is now upheld by summary judgment in the SCO vs Novell Slander of Title case.
* that the Linux operating system was unlikely to contain UNIX code, as it had been written from scratch by hundreds of collaborators, with a well-documented
provenanceand revision history that was entirely in the public view;
* that it made no technical sense to incorporate SCO UNIX code in Linux, as Linux had the technical features that are claimed to have been appropriated already implemented before SCO UNIX had them;
* that even if Linux and SCO UNIX had some code in common, this did not necessarily mean that this code was copied to Linux from SCO UNIX -- perhaps the common pieces of code had been legitimately copied from another open source operating system, perhaps a BSD-derived one, or one of the historical UNIX versions previously released by SCO;
Caldera Systemshad begun as a Linux company before buying SCO's UNIX business and certain assets related to it, and has added many Linux-like features to SCO UNIX, and any common code may have in fact been copied from Linux into SCO UNIX:
** and furthermore, that if such reverse copying from Linux itself had occurred, that the distribution of SCO UNIX binaries containing GPL'd contributions may therefore require SCO either to remove their product from the market until GPL'd code has been removed, or to release their source code under the GPL to their users;
* that even if Linux did contain copied SCO UNIX code, the UNIX source code had already been made widely available without a
non-disclosure agreement, and therefore had no trade secretstatus (as a judge found in " USL v. BSDi");
* that even if Linux did contain some UNIX code, the SCO Group had lost any right to sue IBM for trade secret or other intellectual property infringement by distributing Linux itself (their Caldera distribution) under the
GNU General Public License(GPL), both before and after their announcement, which precludes them from pursuing any other user of Linux.
SCO and its officers have been the subject of much criticism by the free software community, some of whom have stated that SCO's behavior may amount to illegal conduct. [cite web|title= Groklaw gets a subpoena? | publisher = lamlaw.com |date = 2007-04-04| url = http://www.lamlaw.com/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=192 | accessdate= 2007-08-26] SEC filingswhere show that senior SCO executives dumped their personal holdings in SCO shortly after counter-suits were filed by IBM and Red Hat. SCO Group's CEO
Darl McBridehas been the subject of particular criticism, because of his extreme statements to the press.
March 10, 2003, the Open Source Initiative(OSI) released a position paper on the "SCO v. IBM" complaint, written by Eric S. Raymond, president of the OSI and author of The Cathedral and the Bazaar. [cite web|title= OSI Position Paper on the SCO-vs.-IBM Complaint | publisher = Eric Raymond | date = 2003-03-10 | url = http://web.archive.org/web/20060407033041/http://www.opensource.org/sco-vs-ibm.html | accessdate= 2007-09-01]
May 16, 2003, Groklaw, a website founded by journalist/paralegal Pamela Jonesbegan covering the SCO litigation on a daily basis, and became a voice for the community to express its views of SCO's claims, as well as being an experiment in applying Open Source principles to legal research. The SCO Group has singled the site out as a particular thorn in its side. [cite web| url=http://www.groklaw.net/articlebasic.php?story=20050414214437589| title=SCO's 1Q 2005 Earnings Conference Call — transcript| work=Groklaw| date=2005-04-18| accessdate=2007-02-18]
May 30, 2003, Linus Torvalds, developer of the Linux kernel, was quoted as saying, regarding the case:
"The Inquirer" reported on
June 15, 2003, that an unnamed Linux kernel programmer has written to SCO, threatening action based on their distribution of a Linux distribution that, according to their own claims, contains code not licensed under the GPL. According to the letter reproduced there, the programmer claimed that SCO's doing so was an infringement of his own copyright. SCO's response to this letter is not known. [cite web|title= Linux kernel coder puts SCO on notice | publisher = The Inquirer |date = 2003-06-15| url = http://www.theinquirer.net/?article=10018 | accessdate= 2007-08-26]
In an interview on
June 23, 2003, Torvalds responded to SCO's allegation that Linux development had no process for vetting kernel contributions: [cite web|title= Torvalds Speaks Out on SCO, Linux | publisher = eWeek |date = 2003-06-23| url = http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,1576610,00.asp | accessdate= 2007-08-26]
June 27, 2003, Eben Moglen, the counsel for the Free Software Foundation, released a fuller statement regarding the SCO lawsuit. In this statement, he reiterates many of the points made above, and states that:cite web|title= FSF Statement on SCO v. IBM | publisher = FSF |date = 2003-06-27| url = http://www.fsf.org/licensing/sco/sco-v-ibm.html | accessdate= 2007-08-26]
July 31, 2003, the Open Source Development Labs released a position paper on the ongoing conflict, [cite web|title=OSDL Releases Position Paper on SCO and Linux | publisher = PR Newswire | date = 2003-07-31 | url = http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/07-31-2003/0001992992&EDATE= | accessdate= 2007-08-15] [cite web|title=Questioning SCO: A Hard Look at Nebulous Claims|last=Moglen|first=Eben|publisher=OSDL|date=2003-07-31|format=PDF| url=http://old.linux-foundation.org/docs/osdl_eben_moglen_position_paper.pdf|accessdate=2007-08-20] written by the FSF's Eben Moglen.
Accusations of creating fear, uncertainty and doubt
A number of Linux supporters have characterized SCO's actions as an attempt to create
fear, uncertainty and doubtabout Linux. Many believe that SCO's aim is to be bought out by IBM. [cite web|title= SCO plays a nasty game with Linux market | publisher = TechRepublic |date = 2003-06-20| url = http://articles.techrepublic.com.com/5100-6298_11-5055277.html | accessdate= 2007-08-26] Others have pointed to Microsoft's subsequent licensing of the SCO source code as a possible " quid pro quo" for SCO's action. [cite web|title= Update: Microsoft behind $50M SCO investment | publisher = Computerworld |date = 2004-03-11| url = http://www.computerworld.com/softwaretopics/os/linux/story/0,10801,91145,00.html?nas=PM-91145 | accessdate= 2007-08-26] Univention GmbH, a Linux integrator, reported [cite web|title= SCO Stands Defiant, German Court Grants Preliminary Injunction | publisher = Linux Today | date = 2003-05-30| url = http://www.linuxtoday.com/developer/2003053001926NWLLDV | accessdate= 2007-08-20] [cite web|title= German company clogs SCO's legal machine | publisher = InfoWorld | date = 2004-03-26 | url = http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/03/26/HNclogslegal_1.html | accessdate= 2007-08-20] on May 30, 2003it was granted an injunction by a Bremen court under German competition law that prohibits the SCO Group's German division from claiming that Linux contains illegally obtained SCO intellectual property. If the SCO Group continued to express this position, they would have to pay a fine of €250,000. A similar injunction was sought around the same time in Poland. [cite web|title= SCO Shuts Down Polish Office; Former Manager Opens Linux Business | publisher = Groklaw| date = 2004-05-10| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20040510195102144 | accessdate= 2007-08-20]
July 23, Open Source Victoriaannounced that they had filed a complaint with the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, "asking the ACCC to investigate the SCO Group's activities in light of their unsubstantiated claims and their extortive legal threats for money against possibly hundreds of thousands of Australians." [cite web|title= OSV Files Complaint against The SCO Group with ACCC | publisher = Open Source Victoria | date = 2003-07-23| url = http://www.osv.org.au/index.cgi?tid=74 | accessdate= 2007-08-20]
SCO Group then filed
subpoenas for Richard Stallmanand Linus Torvaldson November 13, 2003. [cite web|title=SCO Files Subpoenas To Summon Stallman and Torvalds | publisher = LinuxInsider| date = 2003-11-13 | url = http://www.linuxinsider.com/story/32140.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
The GPL issue
Within a few months of the filing of the lawsuit, Eben Moglen, the
Free Software Foundation's legal counsel, stated that SCO's suit should not concern Linux users other than IBM. In an interview with "internetnews.com", he was reported as saying:cite web|title= SCO Faces Hurdles in Linux Claims | publisher = internetnews.com |date = 2003-05-16| url = http://www.internetnews.com/dev-news/article.php/2207791 | accessdate= 2007-08-26] quote|There is absolute difficulty with this line of argument which ought to make everybody in the world aware that the letters that SCO has put out can be safely put in the wastebasket... From the moment that SCO distributed that code under the GNU General Public License, they would have given everybody in the world the right to copy, modify and distribute that code freely... From the moment SCO distributed the Linux kernel under GPL, they licensed the use. Always. That's what our license says.
Apparently noticing the incongruity of their selling a Linux distribution while suing IBM for stealing their intellectual property and giving it to the developers of that operating system, the SCO Group then announced on
May 14, 2003that they would no longer distribute Linux. According to their press release, [cite web|title= SCO Suspends Distribution of Linux Pending Intellectual Property Clarification; Announces Greater Focus on UNIX and SCOx Strategy | publisher = SCO |date = 2003-05-14| url = http://ir.sco.com/ReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=109149 | accessdate= 2007-08-26] "SCO will continue to support existing SCO Linux and Caldera OpenLinuxcustomers and hold them harmless from any SCO intellectual property issues regarding SCO Linux and Caldera OpenLinux products."
SCO currently claims: [cite web|title= SCO's Supplemental Responses to IBM's 2nd Interrogatories and Requests for Documents | publisher =
Groklaw|date = 2003-11-29| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20031129053244861 | accessdate= 2007-08-27] [cite web|title= SCO Intellectual Property License FAQ for Linux | publisher = SCO | url = http://www.sco.com/scosource/linuxlicensefaq.html | accessdate= 2007-08-27]
*Any code belonging to SCO that might have been GPL'd was done by SCO employees without proper legal authorization, and thus is not legally GPL'd.
*That for code to be GPL'd, the code's copyright owner must put a GPL notice before the code, but since SCO itself was not the one to add the notices, the code was never GPL'd.
GPL and the US Constitution
During a certain period of its litigation against IBM, SCO alleged that the GPL violates the
United States Constitution. This allegation was dropped however from SCO's claims in April 2004 in "SCO's Answer to IBM's Second Amended Counterclaims". [cite web|title=SCO Drops Its Claim That the GPL is Unconstitutional - SCO's ANSWER TO IBM'S SECOND AMENDED COUNTERCLAIMS - as text | publisher = Groklaw|date = 2004-04-29| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20040428235932742 | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
SCO originally based its views on the following considerations:
Section 8 of Article One of the
United States Constitutionstates that
Since the GNU General Public License for the most part disclaims exclusive rights, SCO claimed that its use violates this clause. SCO's argument asks the court to limit both Congress's discretion in implementing the copyright clause, which the Supreme Court refused to do in "
Eldred v. Ashcroft", and copyright holders' discretion over the enjoyment of their exclusive rights. The GPL specifically prohibits, in section 7, distribution of software in jurisdictions where the laws are incompatible with the GPL, so a ruling that upheld SCO's constitutional argument would prevent distribution of Linux (and other copylefted software) in the United States.
Other commentators disagree however. One such commentator, Tom Carey, partner and chairman of a Boston intellectual property law firm, even went so far as to say "Attacks on the GPL are far-fetched and a little bit desperate."cite web|title=SCO Still Contends GPL Is Unconstitutional | publisher = eWeek | date = 2004-04-30 | url = http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1581586,00.asp | accessdate= 2007-08-15] Stacey Quandt, principal analyst at Quandt Analytics, remarked, "SCO's prior claim that the GPL was unconstitutional was equivalent to Microsoft's claims about open source being un-American — totally ridiculous.".
Professor Eben Moglen, on leave from the Columbia University law faculty for the year 2006-2007, speaking as counsel to the Free Software Foundation (FSF) who is responsible for drafting the GPL, also takes this view. He says, "I believe the constitutionality attack on the GPL is not a tenable legal argument but is rather a public relations argument." In a talk at Harvard in February, he addressed the issue of constitutionality by referring to Congress' recent extension of copyright term limits. "It turns out that there's no such thing as an unconstitutional copyright rule," he said, "if Congress passes it, and if it observes the distinction between expression and idea." [cite web|title=The Future of the GPL | publisher = LinuxInsider| date = 2004-03-15 | url = http://www.linuxinsider.com/story/33121.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
Novell enters the controversy
Novellentered the controversy by publishing on May 28, 2003, a press release concerning the SCO Group's ownership of UNIX. "To Novell's knowledge, the 1995 agreement governing SCO's purchase of UNIX from Novell does not convey to SCO the associated copyrights," a letter to the SCO Group's CEO Darl McBride said in part. "We believe it unlikely that SCO can demonstrate that it has any ownership interest whatsoever in those copyrights. Apparently you share this view, since over the last few months you have repeatedly asked Novell to transfer the copyrights to SCO, requests that Novell has rejected."
SCO later claimed to have discovered an amendment to their contract with Novell transferring partial ownership to SCO. Novell stated that the amendment "appears to bear a valid Novell signature, and the language, though convoluted, seems to support SCO's claim that ownership of some copyrights for Unix did transfer to SCO"; Novell also said that it could not find its own copy of the amendment.
But in subsequent letters to SCO that Novell released as part of a press release on
December 22, 2003, Joseph LaSala Jr., Novell's general counsel, argued that the amendment provided for a copyright transfer only under certain conditions that SCO has allegedly failed to meet.
SCO was quick to dismiss Novell's claims. The same day, during a conference call to discuss SCO's quarterly financial results, SCO CEO Darl McBride said "We see this as a fraudulent filing of copyright notices ... and we'll take the appropriate measures as necessary with our legal team." SCO made good on this threat on
January 20, 2004, when it filed " SCO v. Novell". On August 10, 2007, Judge Kimball issued a ruling which says in part "the court concludes that Novell is the owner of the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights." This decision is expected to impact the SCO v. IBM since the ruling states that Novell "is entitled, at its sole discretion, to direct SCO to waive its claims against IBM and Sequent". [cite web|title=Court Ruling Gives Novell Copyright in Unix System | publisher = Wall Street Journal | date = 2007-08-11 | url = http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118678589019694632.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
IBM's AIX license
Reuters reported that the SCO Group intended to revoke IBM's license to use UNIX code in their AIX operating system on Friday,
June 13, 2003if no resolution is reached before then. IBM responded that they believe that SCO has no power to do so, as their license is "irrevocable". On the following Monday, June 16, 2003, CNET News.com reported that SCO had announced it had terminated IBM's license. IBM continues to distribute and support AIX, and the SCO Group now states that they will be seeking an injunction to force IBM not only to stop selling and supporting AIX, but also to return to the SCO Group or destroy all copies of the AIX operating system. IBM's continued distribution of AIX is the basis of SCO's copyright claim.
On June 9, however, Novell privately conversed with SCO expressing their belief that SCO did not have rights to terminate the license. Three days later, Novell cited Section 4.16(b) of their Asset Purchase Agreement (APA) with SCO that gave Novell the ability to intercede in the dispute between SCO and IBM and waived SCO's rights to terminate the license. [ [http://radio.weblogs.com/0120124/2003/08/08.html The Novell Letters, Groklaw Friday, August 8, 2003.] ]
On August 10, 2007, Judge Kimball ruled that Novell was the owner of UNIX and thus could waive SCO's termination of IBM's license. [ [http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20070810165237718 Groklaw Friday August 10, 2007] ]
IBM counterclaims against SCO
August 6, 2003, IBM filed its counterclaims against SCO. [cite web|title=The text of IBM's counterclaims | publisher = LWN.net|date = 2003-08-08| url = http://lwn.net/Articles/43592/ | accessdate= 2007-08-15] [cite web|title=DEFENDANT IBM'S ANSWER TO THE AMENDED COMPLAINT AND COUNTERCLAIM-PLAINTIFF IBM'S COUNTERCLAIMS AGAINST SCO | publisher = Groklaw| url = http://www.groklaw.net/pdf/Doc-27.pdf | accessdate= 2007-08-15] It made 10 counterclaims:
breach of contract
* Intentional interference with prospective economic relations
* Unfair and deceptive trade practices
* Breach of the
GNU General Public License
* and four counts of
In response to these counterclaims, SCO asserted that the GPL is unenforceable, void, and violates the
United States Constitution, but later dropped that claim. If these claims are true, then the GPL'd applications that SCO continues to distribute (like Samba) are being distributed without the permission of the copyright owners of those applications (since the permission was the GPL itself), which would be illegal. Thus some speculate that, in order to remain legally consistent, SCO will claim that software that has been GPL'd is actually in the public domain.
September 25, 2003IBM amended its counterclaims bringing the total number of counterclaims to 13. The new counterclaims are:
** This counterclaim involves an alleged copyright infringement by SCO of GPL-licensed IBM code in the Linux kernel. Some commentators have pointed out that if SCO manages to invalidate the GPL, they are highly likely to be caught by this counterclaim, as it is of the same form as their claim against IBM. [cite web|title=IBM's Amended Counterclaims Against SCO as Text, Sept. 25, 2003 |publisher =
Groklaw|date = 2003-11-02| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20031102104937393 | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
* Promissory estoppel
March 29, 2004IBM amended its counterclaims again. It dropped one of the patent infringement claims, but added 2 new Declaratory judgments of Noninfringement of Copyrights. One of these seeks a declaration that IBM's AIX-related activities do not infringe any of SCO's copyrights. The other one seeks a similar declaration about IBM's Linux-related activities.
The discovery portion of the lawsuit has been dragging on for several years. The basis for SCO's suit is that any code developed on top of
SVRXis a derivative work of SVRX (which would include AIX), and that IBM has publicly admitted to contributing AIX code to the Linux kernel. Since SCO has never seen the AIX code, it has, as part of the discovery process, deposed IBM for the AIX code, so that it can compare AIX code to Linux kernel code. IBM, rejecting SCO's concept of derivative work, has deposed SCO for which lines of code it claims are infringing. SCO has responded that it can't determine which code is infringing until it has had the chance to look at the AIX code.
December 5, 2003, in the first oral arguments relating to the discovery process, a judge granted IBM's two motions to compel against SCO, and deferred consideration of SCO's motions until later. This gave SCO a 30 day deadline to provide "with specificity" which lines of code in Linux they claim form the basis of their case. This was widely regarded as a first-round victory for IBM. [cite web|title=The Transcript of Oral Arguments Friday, Dec. 5, 2003 SCO v. IBM | publisher = Groklaw| date = 2003-12-11 | url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=2003121122033016 | accessdate= 2007-08-15] [cite web|title=The Transcript of Oral Arguments Friday, Dec. 5, 2003 SCO v. IBM | publisher = Groklaw| url = http://www.groklaw.net/pdf/Doc-88-transcript.pdf | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
June 28, 2006Judge Brooke Wells granted IBM's motion to strike most of SCO's evidence, citing in part SCO's inability to provide the specificity required by the court:
SCO appealed to Judge Kimball and asked for a "de novo" review of Judge Wells' order. [cite web|title=SCO's Redacted Objections to Wells' Order & Appendix - Updated, as text | publisher =
Groklaw|date = 2006-07-18| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20060718061714121 | accessdate= 2007-08-15] On November 29, 2006, Judge Dale Kimball affirmed Judge Wells' order in its entirety. [cite web|title=Kimball Rules: SCO's Objections Denied! Wells's Order Affirmed - Novell Goes 1st. | publisher = Groklaw|date = 2006-11-29| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20061129165103775 | accessdate= 2007-08-15]
At a reseller show in August 2003, SCO revealed a sample of alleged copied code. This was later shown to be originally released under a BSD License. [cite news | coauthors = corbet | title = Why SCO won't show the code | publisher = LWN | date = 2003-08-09 | url = http://lwn.net/Articles/45019/ | accessdate = 2007-08-18 ]
The code (atealloc) has been in the
IA64version of Linux for a short period of time. It is no longer in Linux after having been removed on July 4, 2003, since much better alternatives existed. [cite web | last = Lehey | first = Greg | title = SCO's evidence of copying between Linux and UnixWare | date = 2004-01-02 | url = http://www.lemis.com/grog/SCO/code-comparison.html | accessdate = 2007-08-18 ] [cite web|title= SCO's Evidence: This Smoking Gun Fizzles Out | publisher = Eric Raymond | date = 2003-08-20 | url = http://www.catb.org/esr/writings/smoking-fizzle.html | accessdate= 2007-08-27]
Dennis Ritchieconfirms that either he or Ken Thompson wrote the atealloc code, which is released under the BSD licence. [cite web | last = Jones | first = Pamela | title = Ancient UNIX Released Under What Terms? | publisher = Groklaw | date = 2003-08-23 | url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=246 | accessdate = 2007-08-18 ] [cite web | last = Perens | first = Bruce | title = Analysis of SCO's Las Vegas Slide Show | url = http://perens.com/Articles/SCO/SCOSlideShow.html | accessdate = 2007-08-18 ] It is claimed that SCO removed the original license text from UNIX source, allegedly violating the BSD licence. [cite news | title = Embarrassing Dispatches From The SCO Front | publisher = Slashdot | date = 2003-08-23| url = http://slashdot.org/yro/03/08/23/1731245.shtml?tid=123&tid=130&tid=185&tid=190&tid=99 | accessdate = 2007-08-18 ]
Copyright claims and DMCA notices
In late December 2003, new developments involving copyright claims emerged.
Novellregistered their claim to the copyright of original UNIX source code, effectively challenging SCO's registration of the same code. [cite web|title=Novell Statement on UNIX Copyright Registrations | publisher = Novell | url = http://www.novell.com/news/press/archive/2003/12/pr03080.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15] [cite web|title=Novell Registers UNIX System V Copyrights - Dueling Copyrights | publisher = Groklaw| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20031222051806656 | accessdate= 2007-08-15] SCO Groupclaimed in a press release to have sent DMCAnotification letters alleging copyright infringement. [cite web|title=SCO Announces New Initiatives to Enforce Intellectual Property Rights | publisher = Yahoo! Finance | url = http://web.archive.org/web/20040210221830/http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/031222/lam046_1.html | accessdate= 2007-08-15] [cite web|title=SCO Sends DMCA Notices | publisher = Groklaw| url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20031222084145237 | accessdate= 2007-08-15] Alleged copies of these letters were posted online. [cite web | last = Jones | first = Pamela | title = SCO's Letter and the Files | publisher = Groklaw | date = 2003-12-22 | url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20031222161942627 | accessdate = 2007-08-18 ] [cite web | coauthors = corbet | title = SCO's copyright letter | publisher = LWN | date = 2003-12-22 | url = http://lwn.net/Articles/64052/ | accessdate = 2007-08-18 ] The letters give the names of 65 files in the Linux source code tree which supposedly incorporate "copyrighted binary interfaces". Linus Torvalds then posted a rebuttal on Groklaw. [cite web | coauthors = Pamela Jones, Linus Torvalds | title = Linus' First Analysis of the Files | publisher = Groklaw | date = 2003-12-22 | url = http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=20031222174158852 | accessdate = 2007-08-18 ]
Red Hat v. SCO
SCO v. Novell
SCO v. AutoZone
SCO v. DaimlerChrysler
* [ftp://ftp.tribug.org/pub/tuhs/Caldera-license.pdf Caldera's announcement for the licensing of certain Unix versions under the BSD license]
* [http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=2006100901243713 Groklaw's list of unsealed court documents as of October 10, 2006]
* [http://www.lemis.com/grog/SCO/code-comparison.html Greg Lehey's analysis of the code that SCO alleges is in violation of their copyright]
Bruce Perens' [http://perens.com/Articles/SCOCopiedCode.html analysis of the code that SCO alleges is in violation of their copyright]
Eric Raymond's [http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/smoking-fizzle.html analysis of the code that SCO alleges is in violation of their copyright]
* [http://www.zen77087.zen.co.uk/nug/alleg/viols.shtml SCO's 294 Alleged Violations (Technology Disclosures)]
* [http://www.heise.de/newsticker/data/jk-19.08.03-000/imh1.jpgPhotograph of a piece of controversial code, taken at SCO Forum]
* [http://www.heise.de/newsticker/data/jk-19.08.03-000/imh0.jpgPhotograph of a piece of controversial code, taken at SCO Forum]
News articles, press releases and responses
* [http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/sco/sco-preemption.html The FSF's / Eben Moglen's reply to SCO's claims that the GPL is invalid]
* [http://www.osdl.org/newsroom/press_releases/2003/2003_08_14_beaverton.html OSDL press release for a Q&A paper written by Lawrence Rosen]
* [http://ir.sco.com/ReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=115995 SCO press release: "The SCO Group Announces Final Termination of IBM / Sequent's Contract to Use or License Dynix Software"]
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