Tupolev Tu-114

Tupolev Tu-114

infobox Aircraft
name =Tu-114 Rossiya
type =Airliner
manufacturer =Tupolev OKB

caption =
designer =
first flight = 15 November 1957
introduced = 24 April 1961
retired = 1975
status =
primary user =Aeroflot
more users =Japan Airlines (in association with Aeroflot)
produced =
number built =31
unit cost =
developed from = Tupolev Tu-95
variants with their own articles = Tupolev Tu-126

The Tupolev Tu-114 Rossiya (Russian:Tyполев Тy-114 Poccия) (NATO reporting name Cleat) is a turboprop powered long-range airliner designed by the Tupolev design bureau.


The Tupolev design bureau was instructed by the government of the Soviet Union to develop an airliner with intercontinental range based on the Tupolev Tu-95 strategic bomber. The result was a large airliner powered by 4 powerful Kuznetsov NK-12 engines driving massive contra-rotating propellers which was similar to the later Antonov An-22. It came as a surprise to Western observers that a propeller-driven aircraft could operate at jet-like speeds. It was huge by 1950s standards, the largest landbased airliner of its time, with accommodation for 120 to 220 passengers.

In response to a demand from the Soviet Civil Aviation Authority for a long range passenger aircraft, the Tupolev Design Bureau was ordered in 1955 to create an aircraft that had a range of 8,000 kilometers. Given the technology available at that time, the best starting point was the existing Tu-95 bomber. An interim design, originally designated Tu-95P (p for Passenger), later known as the Tu-116, was a simple adaptation of the existing Tu-95 bomber. Two Tu-116s were built, and were used to pioneer some of the routes and operational procedures for the dedicated passenger version, to be known as the Tu-114.

The Tu-114 used the basic wing, empennage, landing gear, and powerplants of the Tu-95 bomber, mated to a totally new pressurized fuselage of much larger diameter. To cope with its higher weights, increased
landing flap surface area was required, and the flap chord was increased compared to the bomber's flaps. The wing was mounted low on the fuselage, giving the Tu-114 a much higher stance on its landing gear than the bomber. As a result a new nose landing gear strut was required, although the main gear remained unchanged. Part of the Tu-114's bomber heritage remained in the navigator's glass nose.


This airliner has several unique technological features for its time such as:

* Wings swept back at 35 degrees – the same angle as for the Boeing 707 and several other jet airliners
* Powerful Kuznetsov NK-12MV turboprops, the most powerful turboprop engines ever produced, each driving two AV-60H counter-rotating four-bladed reversible-pitch propellers.
* Lower deck galleys.
* Lower deck aircrew rest area.
* Long landing gear (the nose gear is 3 meters high) due to its large propeller diameter (during a test flight to Washington prior to Nikita Khrushchev's first visit to the United States, the destination airport did not have steps tall enough to reach the Tu-114's cabin door because of this feature)

The production version originally seated 170 passengers, with an additional dining salon (sometimes used as regular seating) and sleeping area. Later, the sleeping area was converted to normal seating, raising the capacity to 200 passengers. Initially it was used on the main international routes for Aeroflot, but when the Ilyushin Il-62 started to appear, it was relegated to domestic flights. The main problem for these domestic operations was the large amount of runway needed for takeoff and landing.

JAL service

For operating the Moscow - Tokyo route, Japan Air Lines made an agreement with Aeroflot to use the Tu-114 on that route. For these flights, the seating arrangement was changed to a two-class layout with 105 seats. In 1969 the Tu-114 flights were stopped, and the four involved planes converted back to the 200 seat domestic layout.

Operational history

The Tu-114 had a fairly short commercial service life, being operated on regular flights from 1962 to 1976. While in service the plane was known for its reliability, speed and fuel economy, as it used less fuel than the Ilyushin Il-62 that replaced it.

In regular service with Aeroflot, the plane was first used for flights to international destinations like Copenhagen, Havana, Montreal, New Delhi, Paris, Belgrade and Tokyo (in co-operation with JAL). After being replaced by the Il-62 on these routes, the Tu-114 was frequently used on long range domestic flights. The end of the commercial use was set at around 14 thousand flying hours. After the end of commercial service, it was used by the Soviet Army and Air Force until 1991.


Tu-114A Prototype

The first produced Tu-114, registration CCCP-L5611 was first shown to the west in 1958 at the Brussels World Exhibition. It later carried Nikita Khrushchev to on his first trip to the United States, and the first visit to the U.S. by any Soviet leader. The last flight of this plane was in 1968, and it is now on display at the Monino museum.

Tu-114D variant

Long range version of the Tu-114, specially adapted for non-stop flights to Cuba.After US policy helped persuade West African countries like Senegal from granting refueling rights to Aeroflot, the Cuba flights had to be operated non-stop. To make these flights possible, the seating of the plane was reduced from 170 to 60, and 15 extra fuel tanks were added. In most cases this fuel load was enough to make it to the intended destinations, but in case of strong headwinds, a refuelling stop in Nassau on the Bahamas was necessary. All planes operating this route were converted back to the normal specifications after the Ilyushin Il-62 began flying the Moscow - Havana route.

Nuclear-powered proposal

A nuclear powered version called Tu-114PLO was suggested, although it was deemed impractical and never got further than drawings.fact|date=April 2008

Related developments


"Main Article:Tupolev Tu-116"

The Tu-116 was a Tu-95 bomber fitted with passenger cabins.


The Tu-126 (NATO reporting name "Moss") was used by the Soviet Air Force in the AEW role until being replaced by the Beriev A-50.



* Japan Airlines - In association with Aeroflot.;USSR
* Aeroflot


* Soviet Air Force (Tu-114, Tu-116)


During its service only two planes were lost. One crashed at takeoff in bad weather, the only fatal accident of the Tu-114, and the second one suffered a nosegear collapse while being serviced.

pecifications (Tu-114)

aircraft specifications

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop

capacity=120-220 passengers
length main=54.10 m
length alt=177 ft 4 in
span main=51.1 m
span alt=167 ft 7.75 in
height main=15.44 m
height alt=50 ft 8 in
area main=311.1 m²
area alt=3,349 ft²
empty weight main=91,000 - 93,000 kg
empty weight alt=200,621 - 205,030 lb
loaded weight main=131,000 kg
loaded weight alt=289,000 lb
payload main=:*Normal: 15,000 kg (30,070 lb):*Maximum: 30,000 kg
payload alt=66,140 lb
normal takeoff weight=164,000 kg
normal takeoff weight alt=361,558 lb
max takeoff weight main=175,000 kg
max takeoff weight alt=385,809 lb

number of props=4
engine (prop)=Kuznetsov NK-12MV
type of prop=turboprops driving contra-rotating props
power main=11,000 kW
power alt=14,800 hp
power original= 15,000 PS

max speed main=870 km/h
max speed alt= 470 kt, 541 mph
cruise speed main= 770 km/h
cruise speed alt= 415 kt, 478 mph
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
range main=6,200 km
range alt=3,300 nm, 3,900 mi
ceiling main=12,000 m
ceiling alt=39,000 ft
climb rate main= m/s
climb rate alt= ft/min
loading main=421 kg/m²
loading alt=86.2 lb/ft²
power/mass main=168 W/kg
power/mass alt=0.102 hp/lb

ee also

* Tupolev Tu-95
* Tupolev Tu-126
* Tupolev Tu-142

similar aircraft=
* Boeing 707
* Douglas DC-8
* Ilyushin Il-62
* Vickers VC-10


* List of airliners

see also=


External links

* [http://scalemodels.ru/modules/photo/viewcat_cid_192.html Tu-114 in Museum of Civilian Aviation, Ulyanovsk, Russia]

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