Fixed Service Satellite

Fixed Service Satellite

Fixed Service Satellite (or FSS), is the official classification (used chiefly in North America) for geostationary communications satellites used for broadcast feeds for television and radio stations and networks, as well as for telephony and data communications.

FSS satellites have also been used for Direct-To-Home (DTH) satellite TV channels in North America since the late 1970s. This role has been mostly supplanted by direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television systems starting in 1994 when DirecTV launched the first DBS television system. However, FSS satellites in North America are also used to relay channels of cable tv networks from their originating studios, to local cable headends and to the operations centers of DBS services (such as DirecTV and Dish Network) to be re-broadcasted over their DBS systems.

FSS satellites were the first geosynchronous communications satellites launched in space (such as Intelsat 1 (Early Bird), Syncom 3, Anik 1, Westar 1, Satcom 1 and Ekran) and new ones are still being launched and utilized to this day.

FSS satellites operate in either the C band (from 3.7 to 4.2 GHz) or the FSS Ku bands (from 11.45 to 11.7 and 12.5 to 12.75 GHz in Europe, and 11.7 to 12.2 GHz in the United States).

FSS satellites operate at a lower power than DBS satellites, requiring a much larger dish than a DBS system, usually 3 to 8 feet for Ku band, and 12 feet or larger for C band (compared to 18 to 24 inches for DBS dishes). Also, unlike DBS satellites which use circular polarization on their transponders, FSS satellite transponders use linear polarization.

Systems used to receive television channels and other feeds from FSS satellites are usually referred to as TVRO (Television Receive Only) systems, as well as being referred to as big-dish systems (due to the much larger dish size compared to systems for DBS satellite reception), or, more pejoratively, BUD, or big ugly dish systems.

The Canadian Star Choice satellite TV service relies on FSS satellite technology in the Ku band. Primestar in the USA used Ku transponders on an FSS satellite as well for its delivery to subscribing households, until Primestar was acquired by DirecTV in 1999.

FSS and the rest of the world

The term of Fixed Service Satellite is chiefly a North American one, and is seldom used outside of the North American continent. This is because most satellites used for direct-to-home television in Europe, Asia, and elsewhere have the same high power output as DBS-class satellites in North America, but use the same linear polarization as FSS-class satellites.

Dish Network and FSS

The DiSH Network satellite TV service also relies on FSS satellite technology in the Ku band to provide the necessary additional capacity to handle local channels required by FCC must-carry rules and make room for HDTV resolution. The recently-introduced SuperDish system receives circularly-polarized DBS 12.7 GHz from both 110-degree (the Echostar 8 & 10 satellites) and 119-degree (the Echostar 7 satellite) orbital locations as well as linearly-polarized FSS 11.7 GHz from either the 121-degree (Echostar 9) or 105-degree (AMC 15) orbital locations depending on consumer choice. Dish has started using 118.7-degree (AMC-16 -FSS) on their Dish 500+ and Dish 1000+ dishes. It has an oval LNB called a DP DBS/FSS Dual Band. This LNB will receive both the 119-degree and 118.7-degree satellites.

While the original DiSH Network satellites use circular polarity at 12.7 GHz, the newer Intelsat 13/Echostar 9 satellite at 121-degrees uses the older FSS technology to broadcast local channels and international packages such as the Chinese Great Wall TV Package. As a result, newer DiSH Network receivers are designed to receive both circular and linearly-polarized signals at two different intermediate frequencies from up to 5 different orbital locations.

The SuperDish has three low-noise block downconverters to accommodate the three satellites and two different technologies. SuperDish comes in two configurations: SuperDiSH 121 is for international programming (but is no longer in use) and SuperDiSH 105 is intended for high definition and for those customers in areas whose local channels are only available on the 105-degree satellite. As with other FSS technologies these signals are much lower power and as a result the SuperDiSH is a very large and lopsided appendage. However, since the SuperDiSH is under 1-meter in width it cannot be banned by homeowners' associations.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Satellite television — List of digital television broadcast standards DVB standards (Europe) DVB S (satellite) DVB S2 DVB T (terrestrial) DVB T2 DVB C …   Wikipedia

  • Satellite Distribution System — The Satellite Distribution System (SADIS) is a worldwide satellite based broadcast system dedicated to primarily distributing aeronautical meteorological information in line with ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) standards.… …   Wikipedia

  • Communications satellite — A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to COMSAT) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya… …   Wikipedia

  • Satellite radio — is an analogue or digital radio signal that is relayed through one or more satellites and thus can be received in a much wider geographical area than terrestrial FM radio stations. While in Europe many primarily FM radio stations provide an… …   Wikipedia

  • Satellite Internet access — Satellite Internet services are used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available and in locations which move frequently. Internet access via satellite is available worldwide, including vessels at sea and mobile land… …   Wikipedia

  • Fixed wireless — is the operation of wireless devices or systems used to connect two fixed locations (e.g., buildings) with a radio or other wireless link, such as laser bridge. [citeweb|title=Wireless Broadband and Other Fixed Wireless… …   Wikipedia

  • List of the largest fixed satellite operators — The following is a list of the world s largest fixed service satellite in the world as of 2004. *Note: Revenue in U.S. Dollars References* [ satellite 2004.html Space News] Link to… …   Wikipedia

  • Satellite — This article is about artificial satellites. For natural satellites, also known as moons, see Natural satellite. For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). An animation depicting the orbits of GPS satellites in medium Earth orbit …   Wikipedia

  • Satellite phone — A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites. Depending on the architecture of a particular system, coverage may include the entire Earth, or… …   Wikipedia

  • satellite communication — Introduction  in telecommunication, the use of artificial satellites to provide communications links between various points on Earth (Earth satellite). Communications satellites relay voice, video, and data signals between widely separated fixed… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”