- Brown Pelican
name =Brown Pelican
status = LC
status_system = iucn3.1
image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Pelecanus occidentalis californicus"
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Pelecaniformes
genus = "
species = "P. occidentalis"
binomial = "Pelecanus occidentalis"
binomial_authority = Linnaeus, 1766
The brown pelican ("Pelecanus occidentalis") is the smallest of the eight species of
pelican, although it is a large bird in nearly every other regard. It is 106-137 cm (42-54 in) in length, weighs from 2.75 to 5.5 kg (6-12 lb) and has a wingspan from 1.83 to 2.5 m (6 to 8.2 ft).
It lives strictly on coasts from
Washingtonand Virginiasouth to northern Chileand the mouth of the Amazon River, as well as the island of Saut d'Eauin Trinidad and Tobago. Some immature birds may stray to inland freshwater lakes. After nesting, North American birds move in flocks further north along the coasts, returning to warmer waters for winter. Their young are hatched in broods of about 3, and eat around 150 lbs. of fish in the 8-10 month period they are cared for.
birdis distinguished from the American White Pelicanby its brown body and its habit of diving for fishfrom the air, as opposed to co-operative fishing from the surface. It eats mainly herring-like fish. Groups of Brown Pelicans often travel in single file, flying low over the water's surface.
The nest location varies from a simple scrape on the ground on an island to a bulky stick nest in a low tree. These birds nest in colonies, usually on islands.
DDTand dieldrinthreatened its future in the southeast United Statesand Californiain the early 1970s. Pesticides also threatened the pelican population in Florida in this period. A research group from the University of Tampaheaded by Dr. Ralph Schreiber conducted research in the Tampa Bay/St Petersburg area and found that DDT caused the pelican eggshells to be overly-thin and incapable of supporting the embryo to maturity. As a result of this research, DDT usage was eliminated in Florida and the rest of the country. Along with the American White Pelican, the Brown Pelican is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. Normal pelicans can live more than 30 years.There are four subspecies:
*"P. o. californicus" (California Brown Pelican)
*"P. o. carolinensis" (Eastern Brown Pelican)
*"P. o. occidentalis" (Caribbean Brown Pelican)
*"P. o. urinator" (Galápagos Brown Pelican)
Peruvian Pelican, "Pelecanus thagus", used to be considered a subspecies of the Brown Pelican ("P. o. thagus"). However, due to its well-defined allopatry and because it is much larger and heavier than its relatives, it was reclassified as a separate species.
The Brown Pelican is the state bird of
Louisiana.It is also one of the mascots of Tulane Universityand is on its seal because of the Louisianaconnection.
*http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/intrnltr/mbta/mbtandx.html List of birds protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act
* [http://ibc.hbw.com/ibc/phtml/especie.phtml?idEspecie=221 Brown Pelican videos] on the Internet Bird Collection
* [http://www.sdakotabirds.com/species/brown_pelican_info.htm Brown Pelican Information and Photos] South Dakota Birds and Birding
* [http://www.flickr.com/groups/birdguide/pool/tags/Pelecanus%20occidentalis Field Guide Page on Flickr]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.