- Battle of Lake Maracaibo
Battle of Lake Maracaibo Part of Venezuelan War of Independence
Painting by José María Espinosa Prieto (1796-1883)
Date 24 July 1823 Location Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela Result Decisive Colombian Victory Belligerents Gran Colombia Spanish Monarchy Commanders and leaders José Prudencio Padilla Ángel Laborde
The Battle of Lake Maracaibo also known as the "Naval Battle of the Lake" was fought on 24 July 1823 in Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo between Admiral José Prudencio Padilla and royalist Captain Ángel Laborde.
The battle was won by the republican forces, and was the last battle of the Venezuelan War of Independence in particular and the larger Spanish American wars of independence. The ships belonged to the forces of Gran Colombia led by Simón Bolívar.
The Battle of Carabobo of 1821 is usually seen in the historiography as the culminating battle for Venezuelan independence, but many historians point out that if the Battle of Lake Maracaibo had been a victory for the royalist forces, the Spanish Crown might have set a new front in Western Venezuela from which to attack the republican forces stationed in Venezuela. As a result of the loss, the Spanish Crown did not send any new regiments to Venezuela, and finally accepted Venezuelan independence as a result of this second decisive patriot victory, although it did not formally recognize the new nation for more than a decade afterward.
24 July is a regional holiday of Zulia State.
In the Naval Battle of the Lake the republican squadron leaded by the Admiral José Prudencio Padilla and the royalist Ángel Laborde. After three partial encounters with the Spanish squad, the republican squadron went to Moporo port, where they spent the first half of July without mayor activities until July 17. when the commander Labordex sent to Padilla an intimation and this rejected it, so the following days were spent in feverish war, where the two commanders kept their ships, concentrating supplies, and training their crews in order to combat.
July 23 on the afternoon the Royalists went to the occidental coast of the lake with Captain Chico and anchored between this site and Bella Vista, north of Maracaibo, being in line of battle, but the Republicans remained in the sail until the evening which ended going to Los Puertos de Altagracia, and all the ships in a parallel line to the East Coast, moving the subtle forces to Punta de Piedra.
The morning of July 24, the Republican boat commanders were called to the Independent brig where Padilla Almirante gave final instructions to the match, making some changes and still not satisfied, at 10:30, went in person to board the whole squadron, in order to rally their endowments and encourage in an effective manner so that when the time to attack the Royalists, with the utmost boldness and enthusiasm. At 10:40 the wind veered to the northwest and 10 minutes after the signal was prepared to sail, but having loosened the south calling, reserved the decision to raise anchor until it affirmed the breeze where it was favorable, despite all invited to attack the Royalist squad was anchored at its head in a line parallel to the coast and very close to it.
At 14:00, the commander ordered the subtle forces and continue to weigh on Royalist boats in its class, at 14:20, made the signal to sail, and minutes later, to form the front line to attack simultaneously all enemy ships, observing movements that were agreed. As the brig Mars was located on the windward side and the Independent, to leeward, were providing the ride so that it is perfectly formed and follow the line of battle for the implementation of the plan that Padilla had been proposed.
The Republicans ships moved quickly over the Royalist squad who remained anchored waiting for the attack, the south wing of the squad carrying the Admiral Padilla and the north wing was commanded by Captain Nicholas Joly, cutting off the retreat to the bay. At 15:04, they placed the sign of approaching the opponent, however raised have been answered by all vessels, to show thereby that nothing remained to be done. At 15:45, Royalist fleet squadrons opened fire on the Patriots, but the square of the Great Colombia, continued to advance without firing a shot, until being broken by the cannon fire and musketry. When broken bowsprits the Independent brig, threw themselves over the San Carlos, and began the approach, phase which decided the victory for Republicans.
As a result of the Patriot attack, many Royalist and other vessels were destroyed and captured. Royalists, in the most dire situation, strung cables and tried to escape, but failed in the attempt, because their larger vessels were captured. Most of the crew of the San Carlos jumped into the water and the same fate befell the other ships, except the brig-schooner Esperanza, which was destroyed by an explosion. Ultimately, only three schooners escaped.
At the end of the day, the Admiral Padilla ordered the squad to rest where they had the combat. Shortly after he went to the Ports of Altagracia to repair the damage of their crafts. Republican losses were 8 officers and 36 crew people and troops killed, 14 of the first and 150 second and an officer wounded and bruised, while the Royalist casualties were higher, not including 69 officers and 368 soldiers and sailors who were prisoners.
In two hours of fierce battle the action was decided, which paved the way for negotiations with the captain general of Venezuela, who, on August 3, was forced to hand over the rest of the Spanish ships: the Plaza de Maracaibo, The Castillo de San Carlos, San Felipe in Puerto Cabello, and all other sites occupied by the Spanish. The Spanish finally evacuated on the 5th and left Venezuelan territory.
Gran Colombia independence Background Overview Political historyLuz de América (1809) · Colombian Declaration of Independence (1810) · First Republic of Venezuela (1810 - 1812) · Venezuelan Declaration of Independence (1811) · United Provinces of New Granada (1811 - 1816) · Second Republic of Venezuela (1813 - 1814) · Gran Colombia (1819 - 1831) (Ecuador, 1830 · Venezuela/Republic of New Granada, 1831) Military history: part 1 Military history: part 2 Colombian figures Venezuelan figuresSimón Bolívar · Francisco de Miranda · José Antonio Páez · Manuel Piar · José Félix Ribas · Antonio José de Sucre · Carlos Soublette · Santiago Mariño · Cristóbal Mendoza · Mariano Montilla · Pedro Camejo · Juan Bautista Arismendi · Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi · Luis Brión · José Antonio Anzoátegui · Rafael Urdaneta Other figures Other
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