Treaty Faction

Treaty Faction

The nihongo|Treaty Faction|条約派|Jōyaku-ha was an unofficial and informal political faction within the Imperial Japanese Navy in the 1920s-1930s of officers supporting the Washington Naval Treaty.

Background

The "Washington Naval Treaty", also known as the "Five-Power Treaty", limited the naval armaments of its five signatories: the United States, the British Empire, the Empire of Japan, the France, and Italy. The treaty was agreed at the Washington Naval Conference, which was held in Washington, D.C. from November 1921 to February 1922.

The treaty limited the total capital ship tonnage of each of the signatories; no single ship could exceed 35,000 tons, and no ship could carry a gun in excess of 16 inches. Only two large aircraft carriers were permitted per nation. No new fortifications or naval bases could be established, and existing bases and defenses could not be improved in the external territories and possessions specified in the treaty. The tonnage allotment to Japan was based on a 5:5:3 ratio compared with the United States and United Kingdom, with the justification being that the latter countries needed to maintain fleets on more than one ocean, whereas Japan had only the Pacific Ocean.

Development

The terms of the treaty were extremely unpopular with Japanese public, many of whom saw the 5:5:3 ratio as another way of being regarded as an inferior race by the West.

The Imperial Japanese Navy was also split into two opposing factions, Fleet Faction and Treaty Faction. The Treaty Faction argued that Japan could not afford an arms race with the western powers, and hoped through diplomacy to restore the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. It argued that the current treaty limitations would serve Japan for the time being.

The Treaty Faction was composed of the political left-wing within the Navy, including influential admirals in the Navy Ministry such as Takarabe Takeshi, Taniguchi Naomi, Yamanashi Katsunoshin, Sakonji Seizo and Hori Taikichi.

In the 1920s, the Treaty Faction, which was supported by the civilian government, was predominant. However, the even more restrictive London Naval Treaty of 1930 divided the Treaty Faction into two parts. The “Anti-London Treaty Faction” pushed for military and economic expansion into the South Pacific, and thus became more closely aligned with the "Fleet Faction".

With increasing Japanese militarism in the 1930s, the growing conflict with the United States over China, and the blatant disregard for the terms of the Treaty by all major powers, the Fleet Faction gradually gained the upper hand. Furthermore, many of the Treaty Faction members who had direct first-hand experience in England or the United States went into retirement from 1933-1934, including Isoroku Yamamoto's mentor, Hori Teikichi.

On 29 December 1934, the Japanese government gave formal notice that it intended to terminate the treaty. Its provisions remained in force until the end of 1936, and it was not renewed.

ee also

*Fleet Faction

Bibliography

* Goldman, Emily O. "Sunken Treaties: Naval Arms Control between the Wars." Pennsylvania State U. Press, 1994. 352 pp.
* Erik Goldstein. "The Washington Conference, 1921-22: Naval Rivalry, East Asian Stability and the Road to Pearl Harbor" (1994)
* Kaufman, Robert Gordon. "Arms Control during the Prenuclear Era: The United States and Naval Limitation between the Two World Wars." Columbia U. Press, 1990. 289 pp.
* Carolyn J. Kitching; "Britain and the Problem of International Disarmament, 1919-1934" [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108212804 Routledge, 1999 online]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Treaty of Berlin (1899) — The Treaty of Berlin, known in the Pacific as the Anglo German Samoa Convention, [Austin Coates. Western Pacific Islands . London: Her Majesty s Stationery Office, 1970; 229 230.] was signed on 14 November, 1899 between the United States, Germany …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of New Echota — The Treaty of New Echota was a removal treaty signed in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and several members of the so called Ridge faction within the Cherokee Nation on December 29, 1835. The Ridge Party held that …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Antwerp (1609) — The Treaty of Antwerp, which initiated the Twelve Years Truce, was an armistice signed in Antwerp on April 9, 1609 between Spain and the Netherlands, creating the major break in hostilities during the Eighty Years War for independence conducted… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Åbo — The Treaty of Åbo or the Treaty of Turku was a peace treaty signed between the Russian Empire and Sweden in Turku ( sv. Åbo) on 7 August, 1743 in the wake of the Russo Swedish War of 1741 1743.By the end of the war, the Russian army had occupied… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Washington (1826) — The 1826 Treaty of Washington was a settlement between the United States government and the Creek National Council of Native Americans, led by their spokesman Opothleyahola. The Creeks ceded much of their land in the State of Georgia to the… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Purandar (1776) — The Treaty of Purandar (or Treaty of Purandhar) was a doctrine signed on March 1, 1776 by the peshwa of the Maratha people and the supreme government of the British East India Company in Calcutta. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Breda (1650) — The Treaty of Breda (1660) was signed on May 1, 1660 between Charles II (King in exile of England, Scotland and Ireland) and the Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.BackgroundThe Scots Covenanters had taken the side of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Newport — The failed treaty between Parliament and King Charles I of England, intended to bring an end to the hostilities of the English Civil War. Negotiations were conducted from 15 September, 1648Parliament appointed 15 Commissioners: Denzil Holles lead …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Tours — The Treaty of Tours was an agreement between Henry VI of England and the French King Charles VII, signed on May 22 1444. The terms stipulated the marriage of Charles VII s fifteen year old niece, Margaret of Anjou, to Henry VI and the agreement… …   Wikipedia

  • Fleet Faction — The nihongo|Fleet Faction|艦隊派|Kantai ha was an unofficial and informal political faction within the Imperial Japanese Navy in the 1920s 1930s of officers opposed to the conditions imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty.BackgroundThe Washington… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”