The First Men in the Moon

The First Men in the Moon
The First Men in the Moon  
Author(s) H. G. Wells
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) Science fiction
Publisher George Newnes
Publication date 1901[1]
Media type Print (Hardcover)
Pages 342 pp
OCLC Number 655463
Preceded by Love and Mr Lewisham
Followed by The Sea Lady

The First Men in the Moon is a 1901 scientific romance novel by the English author H. G. Wells. The novel tells the story of a journey to the moon undertaken by the two protagonists, the impoverished businessman Mr Bedford and the brilliant but eccentric scientist Dr. Cavor. On arrival, Bedford and Cavor find the moon inhabited by an extraterrestrial civilization the two refer to as "Selenites".


Plot summary

Mr. Bedford is an English businessman with many financial problems. He is working on a play to bring in some money. He rents a small countryside house to get some peace while writing the play. However, every day a scientist passes by his house, making odd noises. After two weeks Bedford questions the scientist, Dr. Cavor, about his odd behaviour. It turns out that Cavor is developing a new material, cavorite, which is supposed to shield off gravity.

As they discover when some is prematurely produced, cavorite shields the air above from Earth's gravity, making that air weightless, and then shoots off into outer space by the pressure of the air below. Bedford tells Cavor of the financial possibilities of this. Cavorite is later used to build a small spherical spaceship, which they use to travel to and land on the Moon.

At the Moon, the two men at first discover a desolate landscape, but as the sun rises, the thin atmosphere of the Moon, frozen out overnight, begins to melt and vaporize. Soon strange fast-growing plants start to grow in the landscape, producing a very thorny vegetation called "bayonet scrub". Bedford and Cavor leave the capsule, but they get lost in the rapidly growing jungle, where strange creatures can be seen. Growing hungry, the pair sample native flora, described as fungus. Soon after ingestion a hazy euphoric state overtakes them, and they wander drunkenly, speaking gibberish, before falling unconscious.

They are captured by the insectoid lunar natives (referred to as "Selenites", after Selene, the moon goddess), who have formed a relatively advanced society underground. After some time in captivity, Bedford and Cavor manage to flee. They discover that gold is a common mineral here, seeing their chains are made of gold. They are able to kill several of their captors and numerous other Selenites due to their superior strength that results partly because of previously having lived in the Earth's stronger gravity. They find some Selenites carving up Mooncalves, a large creature they farm, in another cave and fight their way past them. When Bedford and Cavor reach the surface, they devise a plan to locate their spaceship, which involves them separating. Bedford finds his way back to the spaceship and returns to Earth while Cavor becomes injured and is unable to escape recapture by the Selenites, although Bedford finds a note from him.

Back in Britain, Bedford undertakes to publish the details of the story, including some additional material from Cavor received through one-way radio transmission from the Moon. Apparently, Cavor had enjoyed a period of relative freedom in the Lunar society, during which a few of their number learned English. He also manages to build or gain access to a radio transmitter, which he uses to tell the story of his time inside the Moon using Morse code.

Cavor recounts near everything that happened to him after being re-captured, but some pieces of his story are not received due to curious "interference" with the radio signal. Through these messages, Bedford learns of Cavor's meeting with the "Grand Lunar", who is the ultimate ruler of the Selenites and the Moon. At this meeting, Cavor inadvertently portrays humanity as predatory, delighting in war, and with little redeeming value. In response, the Grand Lunar decides to cut off all contact with the Earth. Cavor's transmissions end in mid-sentence as he is trying to say how to make cavorite, and his fate is never revealed.

Influence on C.S. Lewis

C.S. Lewis explicitly stated that his science fiction books were both inspired by and written as an antithesis to those of H.G. Wells. Specifically, he acknowledged The First Men in The Moon to be "the best of the sort [of science fiction] I have read...." (From a letter to Roger Lancelyn Green).

The influence of Wells's book is especially visible in Out of the Silent Planet, the first book of Lewis' Space Trilogy. There, too, a central role in the story line is played by a partnership between a worldly businessman interested in the material gains from space travel (and specifically, in importing extraterrestrial gold to Earth) and a scientist with wider cosmic theories.

Also in Lewis' book, the two quietly build themselves a spaceship in the seclusion of an English country house, and take off into space without being noticed by the rest of the world (both Wells and Lewis, like virtually all Science Fiction writers until the 1950s, grossly underestimated the resources needed for even the smallest jaunt outside Earth's gravitational field). Moreover, like Wells's book, Lewis' reaches its climax with the Earth scientist speaking to the wise ruler of an alien world (in this case Oyarsa, the ruler of Malacandra/Mars) and blurting out the warlike and predatory nature of humanity.

However, in Lewis' book the businessman-scientist pair are the villains of the piece. Moreover, his scientist, Professor Weston, has a philosophy diametrically opposite to Cavor's, being an outspoken proponent of human colonization of other planets, up to and including extermination of "primitive natives". The role of the positive protagonist is given to the philologist Ransom, a Christian believer willing to act on his beliefs, "the kind of choice which Wells obviously would not have made".[2]

Other influences, references and adaptations

Brian Stableford argues this is the first alien dystopia.[3] The book could also be considered to have launched the science fiction sub-genre depicting intelligent Social Insects, in some cases a non-human species such as the space-traveling Shaara "bees" in the future universe of A. Bertram Chandler, in others (such as Frank Herbert's Hellstrom's Hive) humans who evolved or consciously engineered their society in this direction. Nigel Kneale co-adapted the screenplay (with Jan Read) for the 1964 film version; it is reasonable to assume that Kneale's familiarity with the work may have inspired the idea of the Martian hives which feature so significantly in Quatermass and the Pit, one of Kneale's most-admired creations.

Cavorite was featured as a major plot device in the first volume of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, and Cavor (given the first name of Selwyn) also appears in the volume and is mentioned in The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Black Dossier. In The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume III: Century, the Selenites will be featured as enemies of the nude lunar amazons.

Cavorite also is used as a minor plot device in Warehouse 13, with its gravity blocking properties used by Wells to make a trap.

Cavorite and Cavor also play a major role in the end of Scarlet Traces: The Great Game, with the Selenites also briefly depicted.

The video game Voyage: Inspired by Jules Verne was based both on Wells' The First Men on the Moon, along with Jules Verne's From the Earth to the Moon and Around the Moon.

Cavorite, Cavor, and the Selenites are a large factor in The Martian War, where Cavor's ship takes Wells, his wife, and T.H. Huxley first to the Moon, then to Mars. In the story, the Selenites have been enslaved by the Martians, used as food creatures and slaves to build the canals and invasion fleet.

In the short story "Moon Ants" by Zinaida Gippius, the narrator is attempting to understand the reason for a sharp increase of local suicides and for the suicide mindset in general. At one point he recollects Wells's novel and eventually decides that mankind, or just Russia in general, has become much like the Selenites in its decadent, self-destructive culture. Like the Selenites, man is seemingly tough on the outside but easily knocked aside, to crumple up and die, by the rigors of life .

Film adaptations

The First Men in the Moon has been adapted to film four times:


  1. ^ Facsimile of the original 1st edition
  2. ^ "Wells's work shows a persistant [sic?] anti-religious bent, from the curate in "War of the Worlds", a disgusting caricature, to favoring the idea of persecution and complete destruction of organised religion in "The Shape of things to Come". One need not be a religious believer oneself to decry this bias as a serious flaw" (Dr. Robert Fields, "Socilogical Themes in Science Fiction", chapter 4).
  3. ^ Stableford, Brian (1993). "Dystopias". In John Clute & Peter Nicholls (eds.). The Encyclopedia Of Science Fiction (2nd edition ed.). Orbit, London. pp. 360–362. ISBN 1-85723-124-4. 
  4. ^ Stark, Sonja (18 January 2010). "The First Men in the Moon in 3-D". Times Union. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 

External links

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