- USS New Orleans (CA-32)
USS "New Orleans" (CA-32) (formerly CL-32) was a
United States Navy heavy cruiser, the lead shipof her class. The "New Orleans"-class represented the last of the "Treaty Cruisers", build to the specifications and standards of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. Originally the " USS Astoria (CA-34)" was the lead ship of this class. However, the "Astoria" received a later hull number than the "New Orleans" due to the fact she was launched later despite the fact she was laid down first. The class was renamed because the "Astoria" was sunk at the Battle of Savo Islandin 1942. Also, immediately following the Guadalcanal Campaignthe remaining ships of the class would go through major overhauls in order to lessen top heaviness of the ships due to new electrical and radar systems as well as more anti-aircraft weaponry which was being added as technology advanced. In doing so the ships took on a new appearance, most notably in the bridge area, and became known as the "New Orleans"-class.
She was laid down
14 March 1931by New York Navy Yard, launched 12 April 1933, sponsored by Cora S. Jahncke, daughter of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy; and commissioned 15 February 1934, Captain Allen B. Reedin command.
"New Orleans" made a shakedown cruise to Northern Europe in May and June 1934, returning to New York
28 June. On 5 July, she sailed to rendezvous with "Houston", President Franklin Delano Rooseveltembarked, for a cruise through the Panama Canaland an exercise with the United States Airship Macon (ER-5)and her brood of aircraftoff California. The cruise ended at Astoria, Oregon, 2 August, and "New Orleans" sailed at once for Panamaand Cuba. "New Orleans" exercised off New Englandinto 1935, then visited her namesake city while en route to join Cruiser Division 6in operations in the eastern Pacificfor over a year. She returned to New York from 20 Augustto 7 December 1936and was once more in the Pacific early in 1937. Aside from winter training in the Caribbeanearly in 1939, she served out of California ports until joining the Hawaiian Detachment, 12 October 1939, for exercises, training, and, as war drew close, vigilant patrol.
Pearl Harbor, December 7 1941
Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, "New Orleans" was taking power and light from the dock, her engines under repair. With yard power out during the attack, "New Orleans" 'engineers fought to raise steam, working by flashlight, while on deck men fired on the Japanese attackers with rifles and pistols. The crew was force to break the locks on the ammunition ready boxes as the keys couldn't be located and because the ship was taking power from the dock the 5" 25 AA gun had to be aimed and fired manually. The gunners topside were ducking machine gun bullets and shrapnel, training their guns by sheer guts and sweat, they had no ammunition other than the few shells in their ready boxes. The ammunition hoists did not have power making it nearly impossible to get more ammunition topside to the gun crews. The 100lbs shells had to be pulled up the powerless hoists by ropes attached to their metal cases. Every man with no specific job at the moment formed ammunition lines to get the shells to the guns. A number of her crew were injured when a fragmentation bombexploded close aboard. The "New Orleans" suffered no severe damage during the attack.
Before having the engine work complete at
Pearl Harborthe cruiser convoyed troops to Palmyraand Johnston Atolloperation on only 3 of her 4 engines; she then returned to San Francisco 13 January 1942for engineering repairs and installation of new search radar and 20 mm guns. She sailed 12 February, commanding the escort for a troop convoy to Brisbane; from Australiashe screened a convoy to Nouméa, and returned to Pearl Harbor to join TF 11.
Battle of Coral Sea
sortied 15 Aprilto join the "Yorktown" task force southwest of the New Hebrides. It was this joint force, together with a cruiser-destroyer group, which won the great Battle of the Coral Sea 7 May– 8 May, driving back a southward thrust of the Japanese which threatened Australia and New Zealand and their seaborne life lines. This mighty duel of carrier aircraft was not without price, "Lexington" was mortally wounded and "New Orleans" stood by, her men diving overboard to rescue survivors and her boat crews closing the burning carrier, oblivious to the dangers of flying debris and exploding ordnance as they saved 580 of "Lexington's" crew who were landed at Nouméa. "New Orleans" then patrolled the eastern Solomonsuntil sailing to replenish at Pearl Harbor.
Battle of Midway
"New Orleans" sailed
28 May, screening "Enterprise", to surprise the Japanese in the Battle of Midway. On 2 June, she made rendezvous with the "Yorktown" force, and two days later joined battle. Three of the 4 Japanese carriers were sunk by hits scored in the dive bomberattacks, the fourth went down later, but not before her dive bombers had damaged "Yorktown" so badly she had to be abandoned. "New Orleans", veteran of the battle that halted Japanese expansion southward, had now played a significant role protecting her carrier in the great victory that turned back Japan's eastward movement and heavily crippled her naval air arm in a decisive battle.
Battle of the Eastern Solomons
Again "New Orleans" replenished at Pearl Harbor, sailing
7 Julyto rendezvous off Fiji for the invasion of the Solomons during which she screened "Saratoga". Fighting off vicious enemy air attacks 24 August– 25 August, "New Orleans" aided the Marines holding the precious toehold on Guadalcanal, as a Japanese landing expedition was turned back in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. At this point "New Orleans" had been in the Coral Seafor two full months, food began to run low. The crew went on half ration and spam became the main course of every meal, and eventually ran out of rice. When "Saratoga" was torpedoed 31 August, "New Orleans" guarded her passage to Pearl Harbor, arriving 21 September.
Battle of Tassafaronga
With the repaired carrier, "New Orleans" sailed to
Fijiearly in November, then proceeded to Espiritu Santo, arriving 27 Novemberto return to action in the Solomons. With four other cruisers and six destroyers, she fought in the Battle of Tassafarongaon the night of 30 November, engaging a Japanese destroyer-transport force. When flagship "Minneapolis" was struck by two torpedoes, "New Orleans", next astern, was forced to sheer away to avoid collision, and ran into the track of a torpedo, detonating the ship's forward munition magazines and gasoline tanks which severed 150ft of her bow just forward of turret #2. The severed bow, including turret #1, swung around the port side and punched several holes in the length of "New Orleans" 'hull before sinking at the stern and damaging the port inboard propeller. A fourth of her length gone, slowed to 2 knots (4 km/h), and blazing forward, the ship fought for survival. Individual acts of heroism and self-sacrifice along with skillful seamanship kept her afloat, and under her own power she entered TulagiHarbor near daybreak 1 December. Camouflaging their ship from air attack, the crew jury-rigged a bow of coconut logs, and worked fervorously clearing away wreckage. 11 days later, "New Orleans" sailed to replace a damaged propeller and make other repairs including the installment of a temporary stub bow in Sydney, Australia, arriving 24 December. On 7 March 1943, she was underway for Puget Sound Navy Yard, where a new bow was fitted, interestingly enough with the use of "Minneapolis"'s #1 Turret and all battle damage repaired as well as a major refit and overhaul. The Battle of Tassafaronga, although being a tactical victory for the Japanese, it was a strategic victory for the United States as it was the last effort the Tokyo Expressmade to resupply their troops on Guadalcanal.
Returning to Pearl Harbor
31 Augustfor combat training, "New Orleans" next joined a cruiser-destroyer force to bombard Wake Island, 5 October– 6 October, repulsing a Japanese torpedo-plane attack. Her next sortie from Pearl Harbor came 10 Novemberwhen she sailed to fire precision bombardment in the Gilberts 20 November, then to screen carriers striking the eastern Marshalls 4 December. In aerial attacks that day, the new "Lexington", namesake of the carrier whose men "New Orleans" had pulled from the Coral Sea, was torpedoed, and "New Orleans" guarded her successful retirement to repairs at Pearl Harbor, arriving 9 December.
29 January 1944, "New Orleans" fired on targets in the Marshalls, hitting air installations and shipping as the Navy took Kwajalein. She fueled at Majuro, then sailed 11 Februaryto join the fast carriers in a raid on Truk, Japanese bastion in the Carolines 17 February– 18 February. While air strikes were flown, "New Orleans", with other warships circled the atoll to catch escaping ships; the task force's combined gunfire sank a light cruiser, a destroyer, a trawler, and a submarine chaser. The force sailed on to hit the Marianas, then returned to Majuro and Pearl Harbor.
The carriers, with "New Orleans" in escort, again heaped destruction on targets in the Carolines late in March, then in April, sailed south to support Allied landings at Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura),
New Guinea. There, 22 April, a disabled "Yorktown" plane flew into "New Orleans" 'mainmast, hitting gun mounts as it fell into the sea. The ship was sprayed with gas as the plane exploded on hitting the water, one crew member was lost, another badly injured, but "New Orleans" continued in action, patrolling and plane guarding off New Guinea, then joining in further raids on Truk and Satawan, which she bombarded 30 April. She returned to Majuro 4 May.
Preparations were made in the Marshalls for the invasion of the Marianas, for which "New Orleans" sortied from Kwajalein
10 June. She bombarded Saipan 15 Juneand 16 June, then joined the screen protecting carriers as they prepared to meet the Japanese Mobile Fleetin the Battle of the Philippine Sea. In this last major carrier combat the Japanese were able to mount, American naval aviators and submariners sank three enemy carriers and destroyed almost every aircraft launched against them, 395 in all. The few enemy planes which penetrated to the American carriers were shot down by "New Orleans" and other escorts. The Marianas operation continued, and Japanese naval aviation was virtually nonexistent after this great victory of 19 June– 20 June.
"New Orleans" made patrols and bombardments on Saipan and
Tinianinto August, returned to Eniwetokthe 13th, and sailed the 28th for carrier raids on the Bonins, bombardments of Iwo Jima, 1 September– 2 September, and direct air support for the invasion of the Palaus. After re-provisioning at Manus, the task force assaulted Okinawa, Formosa, and Northern Luzon, destroying Japanese land-based aviation which otherwise would have threatened the landings on Leyte 20 October. The carriers continued to send raids, aiding troops ashore, as they prepared to meet the Japanese, who were sending almost every surface ship left afloat in one great effort to break up the Philippines operation. "New Orleans" guarded her carriers as they joined in the great Battle for Leyte Gulf, first attacking the Japanese Southern Force 24 October, then raiding the Center Forcein the Sibuyan Sea, and next destroying the Japanese Northern Forceof decoy carriers in the Battle off Cape Engano. The carriers then sped south to aid the gallant escort carriers holding off the powerful Japanese battleship-cruiser force in the Battle off Samar. A stunning American victory was followed by strikes against the retreating Japanese remnant.
After replenishing at
Ulithi, "New Orleans" guarded carriers during raids throughout the Philippines in preparation for the invasion of Mindoro, then late in December sailed for a Mare Island Navy Yardoverhaul, followed by training in Hawaii. She returned to Ulithi 18 April 1945, and two days later, departed to give direct gunfire support at Okinawa, arriving 23 April. Here, she dueled with shore batteries and fired directly against the enemy lines. After nearly two months on station, she sailed to replenish and repair in the Philippines, and was at Subic Bay when hostilities ceased.
"New Orleans" sailed
28 Augustwith a cruiser-destroyer force to ports of Chinaand Korea. She covered the internmentof Japanese ships at Tsingtao, the evacuation of liberated Allied prisoners-of-war, and the landing of troops in Korea and China, until sailing 17 Novemberfrom the mouth of the Peking River, carrying veterans homeward bound. More returning troops came aboard at the Sasebo U.S. Fleet Activities base, and all were disembarked at San Francisco 8 December. After similar duty took her to Guamin January 1946 she sailed through the Panama Canal for a 10 day visit to her namesake city, then steamed to Philadelphia Navy Yard, arriving 12 March. There, she decommissioned 10 February 1947and lay in reserve until struck from the Naval Vessel Register 1 March 1959and sold for scrapping 22 September 1959to Boston Metals Company, Baltimore, Maryland.
*"New Orleans" received 17
battle stars for World War II service, placing her among the highest decorated ships of the second world war.
*Other honors include 5
Navy Crosses, 10 Silver Stars, 1 Bronze Star, 1 Air Medaland 206 Purple Hearts awarded to members of her crew.
*One Destroyer (DD) and four Destroyer Escorts (DE) were named after "USS New Orleans" sailors killed in action at the
Battle of Tassafaronga." USS Rogers (DD-876)"," USS Hayter (DE-212)"," USS Foreman (DE-633)"," USS Swenning (DE-394)","USS Haines (DE-792)(APD-84)".
*Diosdado Rome, OCC of the "New Orleans" has been additionally honored by the naming of a Mess Hall at the Naval Station Pearl Harbor in his name, the
Diosdado Rome Gallery.
*The famous song "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition" written by Frank Loesser was inspired by those heartened words uttered by Champlain Howell M. Forgy of the "New Orleans" during the attack on Pearl Harbor,
December 7, 1941.
*When the "New Orleans" was sold for scrap, little was saved. However a few items from the ship are on display at the [http://www.usskidd.com/ "USS Kidd" & Louisiana Veterans Memorial] in
Baton Rouge, Louisiana. In particular are the ship's bell and the builders model of the ship as well as some momentous of the launching ceremony. There are some items at the [http://www.patriotspoint.org/ Patriots Point Naval & Maritime Museum] in Charleston Harbor, South Carolinaand at the Navy Marine Corps Memorialin Annapolis, Maryland. A plaque was donated to the [http://www.nimitz-museum.org/ Nimitz Museum] in Fredericksburg, Texasby the "New Orleans" Reunion Association. A memorial honoring the "New Orleans" has been installed in the New Orleans Walk of Fameoutside the Hilton Hotel in downtown New Orleans.
*New Orleans Class Cruiser
Battle of Tassafaronga
*Forgy, Chaplain Howell M. (1944). "... And Pass The Ammunition"- First Hand accounts from the Chaplain of the New Orleans from the attack on Pearl Harbor to Bremerton after the Battle of Tassafaronga.
*Harrtzell, Carl T. (1997). "From Bremerton To Philadelphia" - First Hand accounts from Bremerton after the New Orleans received a new bow till the end of hostilities in the Pacific.
*Brown, Herbert C. (2000). "Hell at Tassafaronga" - An intensely personal and gripping memoir, a veteran of the gallant ship tells its history from rollicking peacetime days, on through 17 Pacific battles, to the hauling down of its commission pennant and its finally being broken up for scrap.
*Classic Warship Publishing: Wiper, Steve (2000). "New Orleans Class Cruisers" -Warship Pictorial
*Squadron/Signal Publications: Adcock, Al (2001). "US Heavy Cruisers in Action part 1" -Warship Pictorial
* [http://www.ussneworleans.com USS "New Orleans" (CA-32) Reunion Association]
* [http://www.navsource.org/archives/04/032/04032.htm navsource.org: photographs of USS "New Orleans" (CL/CA-32)]
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-n/ca32.htm Navy photographs of "New Orleans" (CA-32)]
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/docs/wwii/pearl/ph60.htm USS "New Orleans Pearl Harbor Action Report"]
* [http://www.ibiblio.net/hyperwar/USN/ships/logs/CA/CA32-Coral.html USS "New Orleans Coral Sea Action Report"]
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/n4/new_orleans-ii.htm history.navy.mil: USS "New Orleans"]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-CN-Tassafaronga/index.html "Battle of Tassafaronga"]
* [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tassafaronga "Battle of Tassafaronga Images"]
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