The letter A is the first letter in the
Latin alphabet. Its name in English is a ["a", "Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged," (1993)] (pronEng|eɪ), plural "A" 's, "A"s, "a"s, or "a's". ["Merriam-Webster's Manual for Writers and Editors" p. 61 (1998); "Chicago Manual of Style," 15th ed. (University of Chicago Press, 2003) p. 281]
The letter A can be traced to a
pictogramof an oxhead in Egyptian hieroglyphor the Proto-semitic alphabet. [cite encyclopedia
title = A
encyclopedia = The World Book Encyclopedia
volume = 1
pages = 1
publisher = Field Enterprises, Inc
date = 1956 ]
Circa 1600 B.C. the
Phoenician alphabet's letter had a linear form that served as the basis for some later forms. Its name must have corresponded closely to the Hebrew aleph.
When the Ancient Greeks adopted the alphabet, they had no use for the
glottal stopthat the letter had denoted in Phoenician and other Semitic languages, so they used the sign for the vowel IPA|/a/, and kept its name with a minor change (alpha). In the earliest Greek inscriptions after the Greek Dark Ages, dating to the 8th century BC, the letter rests upon its side, but in the Greek alphabetof later times it generally resembles the modern capital letter, although many local varieties can be distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle at which the cross line is set.
Etruscansbrought the Greek alphabet to their civilization in the Italian Peninsulaand left the letter unchanged. The Romans later adopted the Etruscan alphabet to write Latin, and the resulting letter was preserved in the modern Latin alphabetused to write many languages, including English.
The letter has two minuscule (lower-case) forms. The form used in most current
handwriting, and in italic type, consists of a circle and vertical stroke (Unicode|ɑ), called Latin alphaor "script a". Most printed material uses a form consisting of a small loop with an arc over it (IPA|a). Both derive from the majuscule (capital) form. In Greek handwriting, it was common to join the left leg and horizontal stroke into a single loop, as demonstrated by the Uncial version shown. Many fonts then made the right leg vertical. In some of these, the serifthat began the right leg stroke developed into an arc, resulting in the printed form, while in others it was dropped, resulting in the modern handwritten form.
In English, the letter "A" by itself usually denotes the
near-open front unrounded vowel(IPA|/æ/) as in "pad", the open back unrounded vowel(IPA|/ɑː/) as in "father", or, in concert with a later orthographic vowel, the diphthong IPA|/eɪ/ (though the pronunciation varies with the dialect) as in "ace" and "major", due to effects of the great vowel shift.
In most other languages that use the Latin alphabet, the letter A denotes either an
open back unrounded vowel(IPA|/ɑ/), or an open central unrounded vowel(IPA|/a/). In the , variants of the letter A denote various vowels. In X-SAMPA, capital A denotes the open back unrounded voweland lowercase a denotes the open front unrounded vowel.
"A" is the third-most common letter in English, and the second-most common in Spanish and French. On average, about 8.2% of letters in English tend to be "A"s, while the number is 6.2% in Spanish and 4% in French. [cite web|url=http://starbase.trincoll.edu/~crypto/resources/LetFreq.html|title=Percentages of Letter frequencies per Thousand words|accessdate=2006-05-01]
Codes for computing
Unicodethe capital A is codepoint U+0041 and the lowercase a is U+0061.
In positional numeral systems with base higher than 10, A is the character used to represent decimal 10, or in binary, 1010
ASCIIcode for capital A is 65 and for lowercase a is 97; or in binary 01000001 and 01100001, respectively.
EBCDICcode for capital A is 193 and for lowercase a is 129.
morse codefor A is dit dah or a dot and a dash.
numeric character references in HTMLand XMLare "&#65;" and "&#97;" for upper and lower case respectively.
* Cyrillic A
af:A als:A ar:A an:A arc:A ast:A az:A zh-min-nan:A bar:A bs:A bg:A ca:A cs:A co:A cy:A da:A de:A et:A el:A eml:A es:A eo:A eu:A fa:A fur:A gan:A gd:A gl:A ko:A hr:A io:A ilo:A ia:A is:A it:A he:A ka:A kw:A sw:A ht:A la:A lv:A lt:A hu:A mzn:A ms:A nah:A ja:A no:A nn:A nrm:A pt:A crh:A ro:A qu:A se:A scn:A simple:A sk:A sl:A szl:A srn:A fi:A sv:A tl:A th:A vi:A tk:A vo:A wuu:A yi:A yo:A zh-yue:A diq:A bat-smg:A zh:A
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