- Gresley conjugated valve gear
The Gresley conjugated valve gear was a
valve gearfor steam locomotives designed by Sir Nigel Gresley, chief mechanical engineer of the LNER, assisted by Harold Holcroft. It enables a three-cylinder locomotive to operate with only the two sets of valve gear for the outside cylinders, and derives the valve motion for the inside cylinder from them by means of levers (the "2 to 1 lever" and "equal lever"). [ [http://www.watercressline.co.uk/tw/pics/bitn2to1.jpgRestoration of Gresley A4 #60019 Bittern] Diagram of Gresley and Walschaerts valve gear arrangement on LNER A4 locomotive] - retrieved 4th October 2006] The gear is sometimes known as the Gresley-Holcroft gear, acknowledging Holcroft's major contributions to its development.
The Gresley conjugated gear is effectively an adding machine, where the position of the valve for the inside cylinder is the sum of the positions of the two outside cylinders, but reversed in direction. It can also be thought of as a rocking lever between one outside cylinder and the inside cylinder, as is common on 4-cylinder steam locomotives, but with the pivot point being moved back and forth by a lever from the other outside cylinder.
Locomotives with Gresley valve gear must have the three pistons operating at precisely 120 degree intervals. In order for the inside crank to clear the leading coupled axle, the inside cylinder of a locomotive with Gresley valve gear is typically positioned higher than the outside cylinders and angled downward. [ [http://www.prov.vic.gov.au/images/12800/12800-00001-000058-140.asp Public Record Office Victoria photograph of cylinder castings for VR S class] -retrieved 4th October 2006. Note incline of centre cylinder.] To maintain a smooth flow of torque, the crank angles are offset from equal 120 degree spacing to compensate for the angle of the inside cylinder (eg. 120/113/127 degrees). The resultant timing of the blast from steam exiting the cylinders still gives these three-cylinder locomotives a regular exhaust beat.
Although the conjugated design functioned well in a peacetime environment with regular maintenance and inspections, it proved to be poorly suited to the rigours of heavy running and low maintenance levels of World War 2. This gave rise to big-end problems on the center cylinder connecting rod on the famous A4 class of streamlined pacifics, and many of these locomotives were fitted with a reduced diameter piston and had the inside cylinder lined up as a temporary measure. Gresley's successor at the LNER, Edward Thompson, was critical of this particular
valve gear. [ [http://www.lner.info/eng/thompson.shtml (LNER) Encyclopedia Edward Thompson page] retrieved 1st October 2006] As well as introducing new two-cylinder designs, he set about rebuilding Gresley locomotives with Walschaerts valve gearon all three cylinders. [ [http://www.lner.info/locos/A/a1_1.shtml (LNER) Encyclopedia A1/1 page] retrieved 1st October 2006]
USA and Australia
Gresley conjugated valve gear was used by the
American Locomotive Companyunder license and the 4-12-2locomotives they built for the Union Pacific Railroadwere the largest locomotives to use this valve gear. It was also used in Australia for the Victorian RailwaysS class 4-6-2[ [http://www.railwaymuseum.org.au/history2.html AHRS Railway Museum History: 1900 - 1950] retrieved 1st October 2006] and New South Wales Government RailwaysD57 class 4-8-2. [ [http://www.australiansteam.com/nsw.htm australiansteam.com NSW page] retrieved 1st October 2006]
[http://www.trainweb.org/rlhs/collection/UP_locomotives/UP_9000.html Southern California Chapter of the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society] Information on Union Pacific ALCO-built three cylinder 4-12-2 UP9000, including sound recordings and photographs
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