- Hurricane Pauline
Image location=Hurricane Pauline 08 oct 1997 1849Z.jpg
Formed=October 5, 1997
Dissipated=October 10, 1997
Mexico, especially Acapulco
1997 Pacific hurricane season
Hurricane Pauline was one of the strongest and deadliest
Pacific hurricanes to make landfall on Mexico. The sixteenth tropical storm, eighth hurricane, and seventh major hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season, Pauline developed out of a tropical waveon October 5 about 250 miles (410 km) south-southwest of Huatulcoin the state of Oaxaca. It initially moved eastward, then turned northwestward and quickly strengthened to reach peak winds of 135 mph (215 km/h). It paralleled the Mexican coastline a short distance offshore before weakening and hitting Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca, on October 9, and dissipated the next day.
Pauline produced torrential rainfall along the Mexican coastline, peaking at 16 inches (406 mm) in
Acapulco. Intense flooding and mudslides in some of the poorest areas of Mexico killed between 230 to 400 people, making it one of the deadliest Eastern Pacific storms in recorded history. The passage of the hurricane destroyed or damaged tens of thousands of houses, leaving around 300,000 homeless and causing $7.5 billion in damage (1997 USD, 80 billion 1997 MXNpesos, $9.3 billion (2006 USD).cite web|author=Centro Nacional para la Prevención de Desastres|year=1999|title=Estadisticas sobre los riesgos a atenuar de fenomenos perturbadores|language=Spanish|accessdate=2007-01-09|url=http://www.cofemermir.gob.mx/uploadtests/4054.66.59.1.STAD%C3%8DSTICAS-RIESGOS-ATENUAR.DOC]
tropical waveexited the coast of Africa on September 16. It traversed steadily westward, with the southern portion of the wave axis moving across northern South America. On September 26 the wave entered the eastern Pacific Oceannear Panama, and slowly organized. A weak low-level trough extended from the Caribbean Seato south of Mexico, disrupting the normal flow of westward steering currents. On October 3, the tropical wave developed a distinct area of deep convection, and began to drift eastward to the south of Mexico. Two days later a low-level circulation formed, and midday on October 5 the system developed into Tropical Depression Eighteen-E while located about 250 miles (410 km) south-southwest of Huatulcoin the state of Oaxaca.cite web|author=Miles B. Lawrence|year=1997|title=Hurricane Pauline Tropical Cyclone Report|publisher= National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-01-02|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1997pauline.html]
With an absence of vertical
wind shear, the depression drifted just south of due east and steadily organized. The system developed banding features and a central dense overcast, and early on October 6 the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Pauline while located about 295 miles (475 km) south-southeast of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca. A strong high pressure system eroded the trough over southeastern Mexico, which turned Pauline to the northeast. An eye feature developed late on October 6, and early the next day Pauline intensified into a hurricane about 265 miles (425 km) southeast of Salina Cruz after turning to the north and northwest.
Pauline rapidly intensified after becoming a hurricane with favorable conditions for continued development, and 18 hours after becoming a hurricane it attained a peak intensity of 135 mph (215 km/h). The winds of the hurricane weakened slightly to 115 mph (185 km/h), but on October 8 Pauline re-strengthened to reach winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) a short distance off the coast of Mexico. The hurricane turned more to the west-northwest while paralleling the southern coast of Oaxaca, and Pauline quickly weakened due to interaction with the mountainous terrain before landfall near Puerto Escondido as a 110 mph (175 km/h) hurricane early on October 9. The storm continued to weaken as it paralleled the coast a short distance inland, and on October 10 Pauline dissipated over the state of
Early forecasts underforecasted the peak intensity of Pauline by 65 mph (105 km/h). On October 7, about 41 hours before landfall, the government of Mexico issued a hurricane warning from
Tapachulain the state of Chiapasto Punta Maldonadoin the state of Guerrero. Shortly after it made landfall, the warning was extended northwestward to Manzanillo, Colima, and later to Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. Its turn to the west-northwest near landfall was unexpected, resulting in some experiencing hurricane conditions with only a few hours notice.
Puerto Maderoclosed port facilities to all ships, excluding ships in open seas seeking shelter.cite web|author=CNN|year=1997|title=Powerful Hurricane Pauline churns toward Mexico|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.cnn.com/WEATHER/9710/07/pauline/index.html] Officials ultimately closed six major ports between Acapulcoand Puerto Madero. State authorities in Oaxacaopened 75 emergency shelterscite web|author=CNN|year=1997|title='Dangerous' Hurricane Pauline to hit southwest Mexico|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.cnn.com/WEATHER/9710/08/pauline/index.html] and prepared 50 schools to house up to 10,000 people.cite web|author=CNN|year=1997|title=Southern Mexico facing perils of Pauline|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.cnn.com/WEATHER/9710/08/pauline.update/index.html] In preparation, many residents removed light-weighing objects from the outside and taped up their windows.cite web|author=CNN|year=1997|title='Dangerous' Hurricane Pauline to hit southwest Mexico|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.cnn.com/WEATHER/9710/08/pauline/index.html]
El Salvadordeclared a national state of alert in response to the potential threat from the hurricane. Residents in flood-prone areas were warned of potential flash flooding. As the hurricane turned sharply to the northwest, there are no reports of damage or deaths from Pauline in the country.
Few surface observations were taken during the passage of the hurricane, though officials estimate portions of southern Mexico experienced the brunt of the storm.
Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca, near where Pauline made landfall, reported a peak wind gust of 70 mph (115 km/h) several hours before the hurricane moved through the area; no reports were available after that time. An anemometerin Acapulcoreported a wind gust of 59 mph (95 km/h) with sustained winds of 46 mph (75 km/h). However, officials estimate Pauline might have been a hurricane while passing through the area.
The hurricane produced heavy rainfall along its path, peaking at 16.2 inches (412 mm) in a 24 hour period at
Acapulcoin the state of Guerrero. Numerous other locations reported over 10 inches (255 mm) of rain between October 3 and October 10, with a peak of 32.62 inches (930 mm) at Puente Jula, near Paso Overjas. Roughly 30 ft (9 m) seas were reported along the Oaxaca coastline while the hurricane made landfall.
Hurricane Pauline lightly affected the state of
Chiapas, but severely affected Oaxacaand Guerrero, two of the poorest regions of Mexico. The area most impacted was the region in and around Acapulco.cite web|author=Church World Service|year=1997|title=Situation Report Hurricane Pauline|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2007-01-09|url=http://wwwnotes.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/3dbfbae1700246fbc125652f002f42bb?OpenDocument] The hurricane caused severe damage to the environment; 200 square miles (700 km²) of low-lying rainforestand pine and evergreen oak woodlands were greatly damaged in southern Mexico.cite web|author=North American Forest Commission|year=1998|title=Impact of climatic factors such as El Niño on forests|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.fao.org/UNFAO/Bodies/NAFC/nafc98/NAFC4-E.HTM] Strong waves produced severe beach erosion in some locations. The erosion affected two nesting cycles for the Olive Ridleyturtle,cite web|author=Laura Sarti, Juan Díaz, Manuel Garduño, Javier Vasconcelos, Ernesto Albavera, Cuauhtemoc Peñaflores, andRené Márquez M.|year=1998|title=Effect of Hurricane Pauline on the Nesting of Olive Ridley Turtle in Escobilla Beach, Oaxaca, Mexico|publisher=United States Department of Commerce|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/species/turtlesymposium1998.pdf] destroying about 40 million eggs.cite web|author=Marine Turtle Newsletter|year=1998|title=United States - Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.sice.oas.org/DISPUTE/wto/58r00/shrus19e.asp] The deadliest and most severe hurricane to hit Mexico since a hurricane in 1959,cite web|author=Action by Churches Together International|title=Alert Mexico Hurricane Pauline|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2007-01-09|url=http://wwwnotes.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/d1fa410d4559f30fc125652f00544db9?OpenDocument] Hurricane Pauline resulted in $7.5 billion (1997 USD, 80 billion pesos 1997 MXN, $9.3 billion 2006 USD) in damage.
The exact death toll is unknown. By one day after the storm, 123 deaths were confirmed. A report issued by the
United NationsDepartment of Humanitarian Affairs reported 137 deaths by three days after the storm.cite web|author= United NationsDepartment of Humanitarian Affairs|year=1997|title=Mexico Hurricane Pauline Situation Report No.1|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2007-01-09|url=http://wwwnotes.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/6bd520b8a7152d6fc125652f0026ca50?OpenDocument] Four days after the passage of the hurricane, a Reutersnews report stated there were 173 dead with about 200 missing,cite news|author=David Luhnow|date=1997-10-13|title=Plague Fears Mount in Storm-Wrecked Acapulco|publisher= Reuters|accessdate=2007-01-09|url=http://wwwnotes.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/ba8d97d063e14a11c12565300042fdbd?OpenDocument] while the government of Mexico issued a statement reporting 149 deaths.cite web|author=Australian Broadcasting Corporation|year=1997|title=Survivors of Mexican hurricane facing shortages of food and water|accessdate=2007-01-09|url=http://wwwnotes.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/eeaf6f69881dc467c125652f002b27d5?OpenDocument] Ultimately, media reports indicated a death toll of at least 230 people, and the Mexican Red Crossestimated 400 dead and at least 1,900 missing. The Church World Serviceestimated at least 500 people were killed.cite web|author=Church World Service|year=1997|title=Situation Report Hurricane Pauline|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://wwwnotes.reliefweb.int/w/RWB.NSF/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/c18304c69c7d102ec12565330028138e?OpenDocument]
A state of emergency was declared for the state of
Oaxacashortly after Pauline made landfall.cite web|author=CNN|year=1997|title=Pauline hits Mexico's Pacific coast resorts|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.cnn.com/WEATHER/9710/09/pauline/] Abundant rainfall caused the River Los Perrosto overflow its capacity, flooding 50 municipalities in Oaxaca. The flooding damaged 12 bridges, of which two were destroyed,cite web|author=UN Department of Public Information|year=1997|title=Mexican states of Oaxaca and Guerrero ask UNICEF for assistance following destruction by hurricane Pauline|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://wwwnotes.reliefweb.int/w/RWB.NSF/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/3af67ce5d0ae2afac1256530002d7466?OpenDocument] and cut off some areas of electricity, drinking water, and telecommunications for several days. The passage of the hurricane affected thousands of houses, leaving roughly 250,000 homeless in the state.cite web|author=National Drought Mitigation Center|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://drought.unl.edu/risk/world/table2.pdf|year=1997|title=Reported Effects of the 1997-98 El Niño] At least 110 people died in the state, with hundreds of thousands of residents and 1,278 communities being affected.
Strong winds from the hurricane downed trees and power lines throughout southern Oaxaca. The storm temporarily isolated Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca and a navy base there by cutting off communications from the rest of Mexico. In
Huatulco, the winds blew down antennas at the local television station and destroyed at least 30 cardboard houses. A community near the airport of the city was hit hard, with several people left homeless. Heavy rainfall from the storm caused severe flooding in portions of Oaxaca and neighboring Chiapas. A total of about 500 entire communities were destroyed in Oaxaca; the areas worst affected were Zapotecos, Chatino, and Mixtecos.
Heavy rainfall led to severe mudslides and flooding throughout southern
Guerrero. Entire communities were nearly destroyed, with some remaining flooded for a week after the hurricane. The flooding washed out or destroyed thousands of acres of crops, and killed thousands of cattle. The flooding and mudslides isolated more than 45,000 people from the outside world. The passage of the hurricane resulted in damage to houses, bridges, and electrical and water supply. According to one preliminary estimate, 123 people died in Guerrero, primarily in Acapulco. Over 200 were missing by four days after the hurricane due to being washed out to sea or buried in mudslides. 50,000 people were left homeless across the state.
Striking the week after Tropical Storm Olaf, previously wet grounds combined with heavy rainfall from Pauline resulted in severe mudslides and
flash flooding in shanty towns around Acapulco Bay.cite web|author= International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement|year=1997|title=Mexico Hurricane Pauline Information Bulletin No.1|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2007-01-09|url=http://wwwnotes.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/0eb810441809da44c12565390053d195?OpenDocument] There, around 5,000 homes were destroyed with another 25,000 damaged, with 10,000 people left homeless in and around the city. The luxury resort hotels near the beach were largely unaffected by the hurricane, though residents in the shanty towns lost what little they had. Much of the city was covered in mud, and 70 percent of Acapulco was without water as a result of the hurricane. Most of the city's one million residents were also left without power or telephone, as well.
Volunteers from the Mexican
Red Crossquickly went to disaster areas with search and rescue teams, including using specially trained dogs to search for hurricane victims trapped under muddy areas of Acapulco. By four days after the storm each team was finding one or two corpses per day, with officials stating the search could take weeks. In Guerrero, the teams rescued a total of 35 people from hazard. Hours after the hurricane passed through the area, relief works traveled by boat through flooded areas to assist the worst-hit areas. The Red Cross provided food, water, clothing, blankets, water purification supplies, milk powder and other non-perishable foods, and medical supplies to those staying in government shelters in Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas. The Mexican Red Cross also set up shelters to house and feed hundreds of displaced people, and by four days after the storm, the Red Cross distributed 100 tonnesof relief supplies to hurricane victims. Medical workers were also deployed to the area to aid the injured.
Officials set up emergency water purification plants in
Acapulco, though water remained largely unavailable. Water trucks were sent to the city, with thousands standing in line for fresh water. Tourists in luxury hotels of Acapulco, for the most part generally unaffected by the hurricane, were forced to use bottled water and ration their available water to as little as possible to provide water for the rest of the city.cite news|author=David Luhnow|date=1997-10-15|title=Mexico Storm Victims Desperate for Food, Water|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/OCHA-64BKES?OpenDocument&rc=2&emid=ST-1997-0243-MEX] Severe price gougingoccurred in the city following the hurricane, with one consumer protection official reporting shopkeepers charging 200 percent more for milk, 500 percent more for tortillas, and 1000 percent more than usual for water. The government set up 39 aid centers for Acapulco citizens, though some residents were unable to get food and water. Some residents suspected officials of President Ernesto Zedilloin the Institutional Revolutionary Partyof taking aid supplies for their own purposes. The president promised to seek charges and decided to close aid centers in favor of opening soup kitchens. Despite having the food, the Mexican army did not set up the kitchens, nor was aid distributed at the aid centers.
The floodwaters from the hurricane combined with raw sewage in many poor areas of southwestern Mexico, leading to a widespread threat for a spread of tropical diseases. As a result, government health workers opened vaccination centers in several cities along the
Guerreroand Oaxacacoasts. Thousands were inoculated for typhoid feverand tetanus. Officials noted a potential threat for dengueand choleraas a result of the spoiled water. Health workers also stated mosquitos possessing malariaand dengue feverwere likely to breed in large areas of leftover water. In Acapulco, about two days after the hurricane passed, the first day of sun in a week evaporated the areas of leftover water, spreading dust across the region with the deadly diseases. Residents were warned to boil their food and water for 30 minutes due to the threat for contamination by the dust. At least twenty cases of choleracite news|author=Julia Preston|date=1997-11-19|title=Acapulco Tourist Areas Are Open After Storm|publisher=New York Times|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=9B02EED81130F93AA35752C1A961958260] and at least six cases of dengue fever were reported.cite web|author=David Luhnow|date=1997-10-14|title=Cholera Breaks Out in Acapulco|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/OCHA-64DANJ?OpenDocument&rc=2&emid=ST-1997-0243-MEX] Army soldiers distributed chlorinetablets to disinfect water pools and wheelbarrows to remove rotting mud and sewage from their damaged homes. Two C-130 Herculesplanes and twenty helicopters airlifted food and water to smaller villages south of Acapulco that were stranded for nearly a week after the hurricane.
Most of Acapulco remained closed for at least a week after the hurricane. Initially, authorities around Acapulco gave preference to clean up tourist areas, which resulted in the scenic highway from the hotels to the airport being quickly fixed. Tourism greatly decreased following the hurricane, causing some hotels to charge 40 percent less than normal in an attempt to bring people back. One airline offered two plane tickets for the price of one from
Mexico Cityto Acapulco. Most hotels were almost completely back to normal around a month after the hurricane.
The governments of Oaxaca and Guerrero asked UNICEF for assistance, specifically water tanks, water pumps, and construction material. International aid initially focused almost solely on the damage in Acapulco. By a week after the hurricane, 500 communities in Oaxaca remained isolated and without assistance, with several large communities in Guerrero not receiving any material aid by a week after the hurricane. The
Adventist Development and Relief Agencyorganized about 7 tons of food and clothing, and sent a bus of 40 people to help isolated villages in southern Mexico.cite web|author=Adventist Development and Relief Agency International|year=1997|title=Relief continues for hurricane survivors|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/OCHA-64D42X?OpenDocument&rc=2&emid=ST-1997-0243-MEX] Around ten days after the hurricane struck, 20,000 people were still isolated from emergency crews and relief works, causing the president to suspect people could begin starving to death. Helicopters were initially sent to the remote areas, though severe fog and heavy rainfall after the hurricane grounded the operations. The government worked to bring food to remote mountain communities, though officials noted the serious risk in doing so.cite web|author=Australian Broadcasting Corporation|date=1997-10-19|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/OCHA-64C9PG?OpenDocument&rc=2&emid=ST-1997-0243-MEX|title=People in Mexico's Pacific mountains face starvation after hurricane|accessdate=2007-01-10]
Three days after the hurricane, the
American Red Crosssent an initial donation of $25,000 (1997 USD), and also sent plastic sheets for temporary roofing and cleaning supplies such as mops, brooms, buckets, sponges, bleach, and cleaning chemicals. Local chapters also offered assistance. The chapter in San Antonio, Texassent cleaning kits, and the chapter in Los Angelesdelivered 2,000 comfort kits containing hygiene supplies and crossword puzzles for children.Cite web|author=American Red Cross|year=1997|title=Hard Work Continues in the Wake of Hurricane Pauline|accessdate=2007-01-10|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/OCHA-64D527?OpenDocument&rc=2&emid=ST-1997-0243-MEX] The German Red Cross also offered assistance.
Because of the damage and deaths in Mexico, the name Pauline was retired in the spring of 1998 by the
World Meteorological Organizationand will never again used as a Pacific hurricane. It was replaced by Patricia for the 2003 Pacific hurricane season.
List of Pacific hurricanes
List of retired Pacific hurricane names
* [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1997pauline.html NHC Pauline Report]
* [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/pauline1997.html HPC Pauline Rainfall Page]
* [http://www.weather.unisys.com/hurricane/e_pacific/1997/PAULINE/track.gifStorm Path]
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