**Physical geodesy** — [ NOAA)] Physical geodesy is the study of the physical properties of the gravity field of the Earth, the geopotential, with a view to their application in geodesy.Measurement procedureTraditional geodetic instruments such as theodolites rely on… … Wikipedia

**Atmospheric models** — Static atmospheric models describe how the ideal gas properties (namely: pressure, temperature, density, and molecular weight) of an atmosphere change, primarily as a function of altitude. For example, the US Standard Atmosphere is essentially a… … Wikipedia

**Primitive equations** — The primitive equations are a set of nonlinear differential equations that are used to approximate global atmospheric flow and are used in most atmospheric models. They consist of three main sets of equations: # Conservation of momentum :… … Wikipedia

**Geostrophic wind** — The geostrophic wind is the theoretical wind that would result from an exact balance between the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient force. This condition is called geostrophic balance. The geostrophic wind is directed parallel to isobars… … Wikipedia

**Orbital perturbation analysis (spacecraft)** — Isaac Newton in his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica demonstrated that the gravitational force between two mass points is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the points and fully solved corresponding two body… … Wikipedia

**Contour line** — This article is about lines of equal value in maps and diagrams. For more meanings of the word contour , see Contour (disambiguation). The bottom part of the diagram shows some contour lines with a straight line running through the location of… … Wikipedia

**Sea level** — For the sea level change associated with the current episode of global warming, see current sea level rise. For other uses, see Sea level (disambiguation). This marker indicating the sea level is placed on the path from Jerusalem to the Dead Sea … Wikipedia

**Pressure gradient** — In atmospheric sciences (meteorology, climatology and related fields), the pressure gradient (typically of air, more generally of any fluid) is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the pressure changes the most… … Wikipedia