- Land art
Land Art, Earthworks or Earth Art is an art movement which emerged in America in the late 1960s and early 1970s, in which landscape and the work of art are inextricably linked. Sculptures are not placed in the landscape, rather the landscape is the very means of their creation. The works frequently exist in the open, located well away from civilization, left to change and erode under natural conditions. Many of the first works, created in the deserts of Nevada, New Mexico, Utah or Arizona were
ephemeralin nature and now only exist as video recordings or photographic documents.
Land Art is to be understood as a protest against the artificiality, plastic aesthetics and ruthless commercialisation of art at the end of the 1960s in America.Exponents of Land Art rejected the museum as the setting of artistic activity and developed monumental landscape projects which were beyond the reach of the commercial art market. Land Art was inspired by
Minimal Artand Concept artbut also by modern and minimal movements such as De Stijl, Cubism, Minimalismand the work of Constantin Brancusiand Joseph Beuys. Many of the artist associated with "Land Art" had been involved with Minimal Artand Conceptual Art. Isamu Noguchi's 1941 design for Contoured Playground in New York is sometimes interpreted as an important early piece of Land Art even though the artist himself never called his work "Land Art" but simply "sculpture". His influence on contemporary Land Art, landscape architectureand environmental sculptureis evident in many works today. Alan Sonfistis a pioneer of an alternative approach to working with nature and culture that he began in 1965 by bringing historical nature and sustainable artback into New York City. According to the critic Barbara Rosewriting in ' Artforum' in 1969 she herself had become disillusioned with the commodification and insularity of gallery bound art. In 1967 the art criticGrace Glueck writing in the New York Timesdeclared the first earthwork was done by Douglas Leichter and Richard Saba at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. The sudden appearance of Land Art in 1968 can be located as a response by a generation of artists mostly in their late twenties to the heightened political activism of the year and the emerging environmental and women's liberation movements.
The movement was 'launched' in October 1968 by the group exhibition 'Earthworks' at the
Dwan Galleryin New York. In February, 1969, Willoughby Sharpcurated the historic "Earth Art" exhibition at the Andrew Dickson White Museum of Artat Cornell University, Ithaca New York. The artists included in the "Earth Art" exhibition were: Walter De Maria, Jan Dibbets, Hans Haacke, Michael Heizer, Neil Jenney, Richard Long, David Medalla, Robert Morris, Dennis Oppenheim, Robert Smithson, and Gunther Uecker. Gordon Matta-Clark, who lived in Ithaca at the time, was invited by Willoughby Sharpto help the artists in "Earth Art" with the on-site execution of their works for the exhibition. Perhaps the best known artist who worked in this genre was the American Robert Smithsonwhose 1968 essay "The Sedimentation of the Mind: Earth Projects" provided a critical framework for the movement as a reaction to the disengagement of Modernismfrom social issues as represented by the critic Clement Greenberg. His best known piece, and probably the most famous piece of all land art, is " Spiral Jetty" (1970), for which Smithson arranged rock, earth and algaeso as to form a long (1500 ft) spiral-shape jettyprotruding into Great Salt Lakein Utah. How much of the work, if any, is visible is dependent on the fluctuating water levels. Since its creation, the work has been completely covered, and then uncovered again, by water.
Smithson's "Gravel Mirror with Cracks and Dust" (1968) is an example of land art existing in a gallery space rather than in the natural environment. It consists of a pile of gravel by the side of a partially mirrored gallery wall. In its simplicity of form and concentration on the materials themselves, this and other pieces of land art have an affinity with
minimalism. There is also a relationship to Arte Poverain the use of materials traditionally considered "unartistic" or "worthless".
Land artists have tended to be American, with other prominent artists in this field including Nancy Holt,
Walter De Maria, Hans Haacke, Alice Aycock, Dennis Oppenheim, Michael Heizer, Andrew Rogers, Alan Sonfist, and James Turrell. Turrell began work in 1972 on possibly the largest piece of land art thus far, reshaping the earth surrounding the extinct Roden Crater volcanoin Arizona. Perhaps the most prominent non-American land artists are the British Chris Drury, Andy GoldsworthyRichard Long and the Australian Andrew Rogers.
Some projects by the artist
Christo(who is famous for wrapping monuments, buildings and landscapes in fabric) have also been considered land art by some, though the artist himself considers this incorrect, as explained on his [http://christojeanneclaude.net/errors.html web page] . Joseph Beuys' concept of 'social sculpture' influenced 'Land art' and his 'Eichen' project of 1972 to plant 7000 Oak trees has many similarities to 'Land art' processes. Rogers' “Rhythms of Life” project is the largest contemporary land-art undertaking in the world, forming a chain of stone sculptures, or geoglyphs, around the globe – 12 sites – in disparate exotic locations (from below sea level and up to altitudes of 4,300 m/14,107 ft). Up to three Geoglyphs (ranging in size up to 200 sq m/660 sq ft) are located in each site.
Land artists in America relied mostly on wealthy patrons and private foundations to fund their often costly projects. With the sudden economic down turn of the mid 1970s funds from these sources largely dried up. With the death of Robert Smithson in a plane crash in 1973 the movement lost one of its most important figureheads and petered out. James Turrell continues to work on the Roden Crater project. In most respects 'Land Art' has become part of mainstream
Public Artand in many cases the term "Land Art" is misused to label any kind of art in nature even though conceptually not related to the avant-gardeworks by the pioneers of Land Art.
*Lawrence Alloway, Wolfgang Becker, Robert Rosenblum et al, Alan Sonfist, Nature: The End of Art, Gli Ori,Dist. Thames & Hudson Florence, Italy,2004 ISBN 0615125336
* Max Andrews (Ed.): Land, Art: A Cultural Ecology Handbook. London 2006 ISBN 978-0-901469-57-1
* John Beardsley: Earthworks and Beyond. Contemporary Art in the Landscape. New York 1998 ISBN 0-7892-0296-4
* Suzaan Boettger, Earthworks: Art and the Landscape of the Sixties. University of California Press 2002. ISBN 0-520-24116-9
*Amy Dempsey: Destination Art. Berkeley CA 2006 ISBN 13-978-0-520-25025-3
*Michel Draguet, Nils-Udo, Bob Verschueren, Bruseels: Atelier 340, 1992
* Jack Flam (Ed.). Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, Berkeley CA 1996 ISBN 0-520-20385-2
* John K. Grande: New York, London. Balance: Art and Nature, Black Rose Books, 1994, 2003 ISBN 1-55164-234-4
*Robert Hobbs, Robert Smithson: A Retrospective View, Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, Duisburg / Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University,
* Jeffrey Kastner, Brian Wallis: Land and Environmental Art. Boston 1998 ISBN 0-7148-4519-1
* Lucy R Lippard: Overlay: Contemporary Art and the Art of Prehistory. New York 1983 ISBN 0-394-54812-8*
Udo Weilacher: Between Landscape Architecture and Land Art. Basel Berlin Boston 1999 ISBN 3-7643-6119-0
* Edward Lucie-Smith (Intro) and John K. Grande: Art Nature Dialogues: Interviews with Environmental Artists, New York 2004 ISBN 0-7914-6914-7
*David Peat & Edward Lucie-Smith (Introduction & forward) Dialogues in Diversity, Italy: Pari Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-88-901960-7-2
* Gilles A. Tiberghien: Land Art. Ed. Carré 1995
* Gilles A. Tiberghien: Land Art, Princeton Architectural Press, 1995
Contemporary land artists
Walter De Maria
Lucien den Arend
* Richard Long
John K. Melvin
* David Nash
* Andrew Rogers
Elisabeth Wierzbicka Wela
Open-air museums and sculpture sites
* FOAM Finnish Open Air Museum - Finland , [http://foam.ws/]
* International Museum of the open-air Sculpture, "Europos Parkas", Vilnius, Lithuania, [http://www.sztukakrajobrazu.pl/europas.htm] , [http://www.europosparkas.lt/]
* Penttilä Open Air Museum POAM - Finland , [http://poam.ws/]
* Le vent de forets - France , [http://perso.wanadoo.fr/enmeuse/]
* OPAM Open Air Museum, Sculpture Park Drechtbanks - Holland , [http://st-ives.net/opam/]
* Kemyel Crease Sculpture project, [http://www.middlemissart.com/Land%20art%20projects.htm]
* Storm King Art Center - Mountainville, NY , [www.stormking.org]
* [http://www.savelandart.org/ SaveLandArt.org - Media Initiatives to Protect Land Art from Urbanization, Industry and Overcuration.]
* [http://www.earthartists.org/ EarthArtists.org - listings of Earth, Land, and Eco-artists.]
* [http://doublenegative.tarasen.net/city.html An article about "City"] on Double Negative: A website about Michael Heizer.
* [http://www.alansonfist.com/ Alan Sonfist Official Website]
* [http://maget.maget.free.fr/SiteMont/SolarMount.html Solar Mount / Le Mont Solaire]
* [http://www.sitedujour.com/dossiers/land-art.html Le Land Art (In French - www.le-site-du-jour.com)]
* [http://www.artinnature.org/formeE.html Artist in Nature International Network]
* [http://www.art-public.com/ Art-Public, First european portal on public art]
* [http://denarend.com/land_art/ About Land Art]
* [http://talesoftheunexpected.blogspot.com/ Tales of the Unexpected]
* [http://www.andrewrogers.org/ Sculptures and Art from the Air by Andrew Rogers]
* [http://www.landarts.org/ LAND ARTS OF THE AMERICAN WEST]
* [http://landartenligne.free.fr/ Land Art - Master in Contemporary Arts. University of Paris VIII - Website In French]
* [http://the-artists.org/MovementView.cfm?id=3E8DA10D%2DFCCE%2D4975%2DA80DA11B65BC4257 Land & Environmental Artists & Art]
* [http://www.land-arts.com/ Australian land arts]
* [http://www.lasersol.com/art/turrell/roden_crater.html Roden Crater by James Turrell]
* [http://maget.maget.free.fr/liendex2.htm Land Art Weblinks]
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