Anshan, China

Anshan, China

Infobox Settlement
name = Anshan
official_name =
other_name =
native_name =
nickname =
settlement_type = Prefecture-level city
total_type =
motto =
translit_lang1_info2=Saddle Mountain

imagesize =
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flag_size =

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mapsize = 220px
map_caption = Location of Anshan in Liaoning

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pushpin_label_position = top
pushpin_map_caption = Location in China
pushpin_mapsize = 250
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = China
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = Liaoning
subdivision_type2 =
subdivision_name2 =
seat_type =City Seat
seat =Tiedong District
parts_type =Districts and Counties
parts_style =coll
parts =
p1 =Tiedong District
p2 =Tiexi District
p3 =Lishan District
p4 =Qianshan District
p5 =Haicheng City
p6 =Tai'an County
p7 =Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County
government_footnotes =
government_type =
leader_title =CPC Anshan
leader_name =Zhang Jiehui Committee Secretary
leader_title1 =Mayor
leader_name1 =Gu Chunli
established_title =
established_date =
area_magnitude =
unit_pref =
area_footnotes =
area_total_km2 = 9252
area_land_km2 = 8563
area_water_km2 = 689
area_total_sq_mi =
area_land_sq_mi =
area_water_sq_mi =
area_water_percent = 7.4
area_urban_km2 = 624
elevation_footnotes =
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population_as_of =
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population_total = 3584000
population_density_km2 = auto
population_density_sq_mi =
population_urban = 1285849
population_density_urban_km2 = auto
timezone = China Standard
utc_offset = +8
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latd=41 |latm=06 |lats=30 |latNS=N
longd=122 |longm=59 |longs=00 |longEW=E
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area_code =412
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footnotes =
Ānshān zh-cp|c=鞍山|p=Ānshān; lit. 'saddle mountain') is the third largest prefecture level city in Liaoning province of China. Situated in the central area of the province, Anshan is about 92km south of Shenyang, the province's capital. Anshan is on the boundary between the Mountains of eastern Liaoning and the plains of the west. The prefecture has a population of 3,584,000 people and covers an area of about 9,252 square kilometres. The distance from the east to the west of the prefecture is 133 kilometres. The area contains the famous Qiānshān National Park. The city's name is derived form the shape of a nearby mountain that resembles the shape of a horse's saddle. Anshan is home to the Angang Iron and Steel Company, one of the largest steel producers in China.


The area of Anshan has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The area remained of little significance, a small city in Liaodong province, overshadowed by neighbouring Liaoyang city, until the mid 20th Century. In 1587 Anshan was fortified by the Ming Dynasty to combat the growing power of the Manchu. The city was burnt down during the Boxer Rebellion, and was destroyed again in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). As a result of this war, Japan had gained influence in Liaoning and was engaged in industrialising the region. Anshan lay beside the new South Manchuria Railway line that ran from the port of Dalian to the major city of Shenyang. As a joint Sino-Japanese venture, Anshan Zhenzing Iron Ore Company Unlimited was started in Anshan in 1918. After the Mukden Incident in 1931, Japan occupied the northeast of China. The mills were turned into a Japanese owned monopoly. In 1933, the site was expanded to include steel production and the company was renamed Showa Steel Works. [Yoshihisa Tak Matsusaka, "The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932" (2001), p.222-3.] Anshan became part of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Additional industries developed around the iron and steel mills. The city of Anshan grew significantly in size around this new industrial site.

Anshan had become one of the largest producers of iron and steel in Asia if not the world. [cite book
last = Beasley
first = W.G.
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 1991
title = Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945
publisher = Oxford University Press
location =
id = ISBN 0198221681
] It was therefore of strategic importance in the Pacific War, and was subject to constant attack by B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers of the USAAF. Japanese Army detached the 1st "Chutai" (unit) of 104th "Sentai" (squadron) of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, to Anshan, with other air squadrons for industrial defense purposes. Although this unit was equipped with modern Nakajima Ki-84 Ia (Manshu Type) Hayate "Frank" fighters, manufactured by Manshūkoku Hikōki Seizo KK, the plant suffered heavy damage from the air raids, losing up to 30% of its capacity. [cite book
last = Astor
first = Gerald
year = 2004
title = The Jungle War: Mavericks, Marauders and Madmen in the China-Burma-India Theater of World War II
publisher = Wiley
location =
pages = 312
id = ISBN 0471273937

At the end of the war, Soviet Red Army forces launched Operation August Storm, which captured Manchuria form the Japanese. The Soviets looted the ruins of Shōwa Steel Works for anything that could be taken back to the Soviet Union. With the defeat of Japan in 1945, Anshan was returned to China along with the rest of Chinese Manchuria. However, peace had not yet arrived. Civil war continued between the Chinese Nationalist Government and the Communist People's Liberation Army. The city of Anshan was the scene of one of the battles of this war. A monument in Lieshishan park commemorates the battle. On the 19th of February 1948, Anshan was liberated by the PLA.

The north east of china was marked out to become a major industrial centre for the new People's Republic of China. Anshan was set to become a key part of this industrial development. The steel mills had been damaged during the wars. In December 1948, the Anshan Iron and Steel Company - also known as Angang - was founded. Production in the newly repaired steel plant resumed on July 9th 1949. The plant was expanded to become the largest steel producer in China. Other industries setup along side the steel plant including mining for coal, iron and other minerals. This industrial wealth had a environmental cost. The open-hearth furnaces of the steel mill created large amounts of dust and other pollution. Along with its growing reputation as a major steel producer, Anshan was also gaining a reputation as a dirty, smelly town.

Anshan became a formal administrative region under the Northeastern People's Government(later renamed as the Northeastern Administration Commission) in November, 1949. On March 12, 1953, the city became a municipality under the Central Government direct administration. Haicheng County and Xiuyan County were subordinated to Liaodong Province. Tai'an County was subordinated to Liaoxi Province. August 22,1954, the central government decided that Anshan should be administered by Liaoning Province. The State Council confirmed that Anshan should be in charge of Xiuyan County and Haicheng city in 1985.

The furnaces of the steel plant were changed in the 1980's to designs which blow oxygen in form the front. This increased the production and also reduced the pollution. In the 1990's, they were additionally altered to blow oxygen in form the top as well. This further increase production and reduced pollution. In December 2000, all three production lines of Anshan Iron and Steel company switched form mould-casting to continuous casting. This new technology has significantly reduced the dust and other pollution in the city. The new plant equipment is also much less labour intensive. This has meant a reduction in the workforce has caused a unemployment problem in the city. A new drive to market Anshan as a tourist destination is hoped to help bolster the cities economy.


The north east of China is a major industrial zone and Anshan is one of the key sites of the north east. The city is renowned as "China's capital of iron and steel." Prior to the development of the Iron and Steel industries, Anshan was a relatively small city of little importance. As the steel mills expanded, so to did the city. Spin off industries developed along side the steel plant making the area a centre of heavy industry.

Total production of processed iron in Manchuria reached 1,000,000 tonnes in 1931-32, of which almost half was made by Shōwa Steel in Anshan. Iron production grew to 7,000,000 tonnes in 1938 and by 1941, Shōwa Steel Works had a total capacity production of 1,750,000 tonnes of iron bars and 1,000,000 tonnes of processed steel. By 1942, Anshan's Shōwa Steel Works total production capacity reached 3,600,000 tonnes, making it one of the major iron and steel centers in the world. [cite book
last = Beasley
first = W.G.
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 1991
title = Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945
publisher = Oxford University Press
location =
id = ISBN 0198221681

In 1945 the steel plant was looted by soviet forces. The Republic of China government partially repaired the site but it was destroyed again during the Chinese civil war that saw the Communist forces victorious. The mills were once again repaired and Anshan Iron and Steel Company (Angang) was founded in 1948. Form then to 2001, the company produced 290 million tons of steel, 284 million tons of pig iron and 192 million tons of rolled steel. Until relatively recently, when a new steel plant opened in Shanghai, Angang was the largest steel producer in China. Today, Angang consists of three steelworks with 13 rolling mills plus supporting plants which produce coke, refractory materials and machinery for the steel plants. The company has an annual production capacity of 10 million tons of pig iron, 10 million tons of steel and 9.5 million tons of rolled steel. A quarter of China's total iron ore reserves, about 10 billion tons, are located in Anshan ensuring that the city will remain an important steel producer well into the future. [cite book
last = Huang
first = Youyi
authorlink =
coauthors = Xiao Siaoming, Li Zhenguo, Zhang Zouku
title = Liaoning, Home of the Manchus & Cradle of Qing Empire
publisher = Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, China
date = 2006
location =
pages = 227
url =
doi =
id =
isbn = ISBN 7-119-04517-2

Anshan is rich in other mineral wealth too. The southern and south eastern areas of Anshan are rich in magnesite. Reserves of magnesite here are equivalent to a quarter of all world wide reserves. Anshan also has the worlds largest reserve of talcum accounting for fully one third of the entire world supply. The Xiuyan area of Anshan is known for the production of the precious stone, Jade. The largest single jade stone ever found came form Xiuyan, now carved into the form of a Buddha, it is a major tourist attraction in the area.


Situated in the North East of China, what the Chinese now call Dongbei (East-north), and known to history as Manchuria, it is not surprising that Anshan prefecture is home to many people form the Manchu ethnic group. However this ethnic population is now relatively small. Of the 3,584,000 people living in Anshan prefecture, only 519,400 are Man nationals. They are mainly in or around the Xiuyan Man regional national autonomy area which is within Anshan's borders. During the last years of the Qing dynasty, large numbers of Han people migrated to the north east in search of work. This pattern continued into the 20th century. The development of Anshan as a large industrial center during and after world war II caused the cities population to increase rapidly. The new arrivals significantly out numbering the local Man people. As of the last census data, Anshan was home to 48 Chinese ethnic groups. The Han people make up the lions share at 3,020,500 people. Next, after the Han and Man people, come the Hui nationality and the Chaoxian with 23,400 and 10,000 people respectively. The Hui population is widely dispersed but the Chaoxian population is mostly concentrated in Teixi (West district) and Qianshan district. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Population and Nationality
work =
publisher = Anshan Municipal Government
date =
url =
format = HTML
doi =
accessdate = 05-12-2007

The city of Anshan can be divided into districts. The East district, Tiedong has a population of 452,900. The western district, Tiexi has 311,600 people. These two districts are demarcated by the railway lines that run north to south through the city. The north western portion of the city is dominated by the large steel works of Angang. The district of Lishan houses 425,600 people and the suburbs of Qianshan district have 366,200 soles. Within Anshan prefecture lies the subordinate city of Haicheng which accounts for 1,181,100 people. The neighbouring subordinate town of Tai'an has 354,700 people.

Tourist attractions

In recent years, Anshan has been trying to through off its image as a heavy industrial town along with the dirt and pollution that goes with such industry. It has remodeled itself as a tourist destination.

Foremost among the attractions in Anshan is Qianshan National Park (千山) which is about 18km, by road, to the south east of the city. Qianshan literally means, 'Thousand Mountains'. The name is actually and abbreviation of 'Thousand lotus flower mountains'. The peaks were said to resemble the petals of the lotus flower which had been dropped to earth by a goddess. The park area of 44 square kilometers, is filled with both Buddhist and Taoist temples, monasteries and nunneries. It is one of few locations where both religions are found sharing the same site.

Motor cars are not allowed within the park. Tourists must either walk or hire one of the electric taxis. Many foot paths climb steeply up the hillsides through thick forest. These foot paths lead past, Steele, honoring the dead, small shrines, pagodas and temples. For those who are less fit, three cable car routes can convey you up the hill sides. However, none of the cable cars will take you the whole way, leaving you some climbing to do by yourself. One mountain in the park is shaped in such a way that it resembles a Matria Buddha. It is claimed to be the largest naturally occurring image of Matria Buddha in the world. Several temples have been built on the peaks of the overlooking hills. Near the Matria Buddha is a large net enclosed area which contains an bird park.

Another major tourist location is Anshan's 219 park. The name of the park commemorates the liberation of Anshan by the People's Liberation Army on the 19th of February 1948. The park contains the Dongshan (East Mountain) scenic area as well as numerous lakes. Of particular note is the Jade Buddha temple (Yufo yuan). This large Buddhist temple complex of 22,104 square metres, houses the worlds large statue of Buddha made of Jade. It is a single piece of jade stone measuring 6.88 metres in width, 4.10 metres front to back and 7.95 metres high. The jade stone weighs 260.76 tons. [cite web|url=|title=Anshan Municipal Government - Jade Buddha Park|publisher=Anshan Municipal Government|accessdate=2008-10-03] The front of the stone has been carved with an image of Sakyamuni (aka. Gautama) Buddha. On the back of the stone Guanyin (aka. Avalokitesvara) Buddha has been carved. The jade stone was found in 1960 in Xiuyan County. It was declared a treasure of the State and listed as a protected property by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Anshan city government commissioned the carving which took a team of 120 sculptures 18 months to complete. The temple complex was opened on the 3rd of September 1996. The building that houses the Jade Buddha statue is 33 metres tall, representing the 33 layers of heaven in Buddhism. It claims to be one of the tallest buildings of ancient Chinese architectural style in China.

Anshan contains naturally hot spring water spas. There are four spas/hotels in Anshan. Visitors may shower and bathe in the spring water. At Tanggangzi Spa, once frequented by the Qing Emperors of China, visitors may have mud treatment where they are buried in hot volcanic sand, which has been infused with the spring water. The geothermal energy is also used to provide hot steam and water for winter heating throughout the area.

Five-year plan

The government of Anshan established a five-year plan in 2000 with the aim of turning the city into a strong modern industrial city with plenty of tourism. It also aimed to make the city GDP reach 100 billion RMB by 2005 and to build a modern industrial city by using advances in technology to transform the traditional industries. Attracting foreign investment is also another main idea in the plan. The Anshan government anticipates the foreign investment assets would be around 80 billion RMB by 2005.

Education system

The city contains two large Universities.
*University of Science and Technology Liaoning
*Anshan Normal University


Anshan has four distinct seasons. General speaking, the weather is dry and sunshine is abundant.

**Spring (March to May) with a lot of windy days; less rainy days than summer; long time sunshine and low humidity.
**Summer (June to August) with heavy and frequent rain; high temperature around +30°C and high humidity.
**Autumn (September to October) with clear sky and cool air; temperature drops abruptly; wind from north gets heavier.
**Winter (November to middle of March next year) with snow and ice. The average temperature is around -20°C. Temperature turns back as time passes.

Five-Star Hotel

International Grand Hotel is one of two five-star hotels in Northeastern China, built by the Anshan Municipal Government. The construction of the hotel started in 1992 and opened for trial on August 28, 1994. The formal open date is May 1, 1995. The International Grand Hotel is situated in Dongshan Scenic Reserve where you can have a panoramic view of both the city and the mountains. Not far from the hotel you can find the king size Jade Buddha Statue. The hotel covers 25,000 m{fact} with 30 restaurants.

Famous Residents

Anshan was the birthplace of Ann Hui (born 1947), a Hong Kong-based film director, one of the most critically acclaimed amongst the Hong Kong New Wave. Hui's 2006 film "The Postmodern Life of My Aunt" was partly set and filmed in Anshan. [ [ chowofhongkong] ]


Sited on the edge of the Liao River plains, Anshan has wide flat lands in the west and central regions that develop into hilly and the mountainous terrain on the eastern fringes. The area is rich in mineral wealth including iron ore, coal, magnesite, talcum and jade. The plains of western Anshan are good for agriculture. The large flat fields make it idea for modern agricultural methods. In total, Anshan contains 24480 hectares of arable land accounting for 26.4% of the total land area. One agricultural product that Anshan has become well know for is the production of Nangua Pears.

Anshan has no public airport and no river or sea port so the only routes in or out are by land. The nearest airport is Shenyang Taoxian International Airport (SHE), about 90km to the north. The city is beside the Shenda highway (沈大高速公路) which runs between Shenyang and Dalian (the two larger cities of Liaoning province). This is a privately funded eight-lane tolled highway and was the first road of its kind in China. Anshan is also connected to the Chinese rail network with rail routes to Beijing, Dalian, and to the north-eastern provinces of Jilin and Hēilóngjiāng as well as to eastern Inner Mongolia and Russia. Long-distance coaches run to all the main cities of the province as well as to Beijing.

Local transportation is primarily by bus or taxi. Anshan used to have a single tram line along Zhonghua Avenue but this has been closed and the tracks removed. Due to the flat topography of the city centre, bicycles are popular. Almost all roads have a wide cycle lane on each side. Often this lane is further protected by a traffic island that separates the bikes from larger motor vehicles.

Administratives divisions

Anshan is divided into 4 districts, 1 town , 1 county and one autonomous county :

* Tiedong District (铁东区 ; Tiědōng Qū)
* Tiexi District (铁西区 ; Tiěxī Qū)
* Lishan District (立山区 ; Lìshān Qū)
* Qianshan District (千山区 ; Qiānshān Qū)
* Haicheng City (海城市 ; Hǎichéng Shì) (Population: 1,181,100) : A county-level city located slightly south of Anshan
* Tai'an County(台安县 ; Tái'ān Xiàn) - (Population: 354,700)
* Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County (岫岩满族自治县 ; Xiùyán Mǎnzú Zìzhìxiàn) - (Population: 491,900)

ister Cities

*flagicon|Russia Lipetsk, Russia, 1992
*flagicon|Japan Amagasaki, Japan, 1983
*flagicon|Turkey Bursa, Turkey, 1991
*flagicon|South Korea Ansan, South Korea, 1997
*flagicon|United States Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 1996
*flagicon|United Kingdom Sheffield, United Kingdom, 1983 [cite web |url= |title=International Links |accessdate=2005-12-27 |publisher=Sheffield City Council ]


External links

* [] Official website of Anshan
* [ China-Britain Business Council, Anshan page]
* [ Official site of the Municipal Government, in English]

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