Chris Brand

Chris Brand
Christopher Richard Brand
Born June 1, 1943 (1943-06-01) (age 68)
Preston, United Kingdom
Citizenship British
Fields Psychometrics
Institutions formerly University of Edinburgh
Alma mater University of Oxford
Known for Inspection time as a correlate of intelligence,
The g Factor: General Intelligence and Its Implications

Christopher Richard Brand (born in Preston, England, 1 June 1943) is an English psychological and psychometric researcher who gained media attention for his controversial statements on race and intelligence and pedophilia.[1] He went to Queen Elizabeth's, Barnet, and is a graduate of The Queen's College, Oxford, and a fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford, 1968-70. He was a Lecturer at Edinburgh University from 1970 (teaching in personality, psychopathology and philosophical problems). He is a Fellow of the Galton Institute. He has three children and was into the tenth year of his third marriage in 2011.

Brand is a proponent of IQ testing and the general intelligence factor and was "a major influence in the spread of influence of inspection time as a theoretically interesting correlate of psychometric intelligence," according to Ian Deary and Pauline Smith in the International Handbook of Intelligence, edited by Robert Sternberg.[2][3] Deary and Smith report the correlation of inspection time with psychometric intelligence is currently considered to be .4.[4] The 25th anniversary of the original discovery of this relationship was observed in 2001 by a special issue of Intelligence.[5]



Race and IQ

Brand's discussion of the disparity between races in average cognitive ability test scores has caused controversy, especially because of his support for the hereditarian hypothesis of such differences. Brand refers to himself as a race realist and has been called a "scientific racist."[6][7] His views are those of the classical 'London School' of psychology -- other prominent members of which would be professors Richard Lynn and Phil Rushton.

Race, IQ and women

Brand's most controversial views generated headlines in April 1996, when he was quoted in the Independent on Sunday recommending that "low-IQ girls" be "encouraged to have sex with higher-IQ boys" rather than with their more usual low-IQ companions (resulting in genetic deterioration). "There are plenty of intelligent African men for black girls to be having sex with,"[8] he said, though adding that blacks probably needed to be allowed polygamy.[9]

Brand has also written that "women are inclined to deceitful promiscuity" and that Sigmund Freud was therefore right to ascribe weaker super-egos to women than to men. (Brand is a supporter both of psychometrician-psychologist Hans Eysenck and of Freud.) His 1996 book The g Factor: General Intelligence and Its Implications led to accusations of scientific racism and sexism, and his university lectures were protested and closed by the Anti-Nazi League of Edinburgh. Brand's book was subsequently withdrawn by publisher John Wiley & Sons.[10] It was then published free on the web by Douance.[11]


Also, after months of public 'anti-racist' outrage, in October 1996 Brand came to the defense of Nobel laureate Daniel Carleton Gajdusek who had been charged with paedophilia. Brand argued that non-violent paedophilia with a consenting partner over age 12 does no harm so long as both are of above-average IQ.[12][13]

The proceedings were initiated in 1996 after the dean of social sciences complained.[13] (Edinburgh University's Chaplain, a supporter of the Anti-Nazi League, had taken Brand's e-mailed reflections on pederasty to the Scottish press. Edinburgh's Student newspaper's frontpage banner headline was FIRST IT WAS BLACKS, THEN IT WAS WOMEN, NOW IT'S KIDS.)

Brand was fired a year later after hearings from his 27-year tenured position at Edinburgh University in 1997.[14][15] The University said this was for conduct that "brought the university into disrepute."

Brand appealed and sued the University for unfair dismissal, and received £12,000 (in those days the maximum obtainable from an Employment Tribunal) in an out-of-court settlement.[16] His case became a cause célèbre among advocates of academic freedom. Marek Kohn cited the Brand incident in a defence of intellectual freedom on the Internet.[17] Others, however, including a former Brand student, considered academic freedom a privilege that carried with it an expectation of 'social responsibility.'[18]

Eric Barendt (University College London), in the chapter on 'The Chris Brand Case' in his 2010 book Academic Freedom, said Brand should have tried harder to get on with his colleagues [19] - who Brand replied were "Jew-leftie-commie[s]"[20].

Work outside of academia

From 2000 to 2004, Brand was a research consultant to the Woodhill Foundation and its CRACK program based in Baltimore, Maryland, which pays drug-addicted mothers $200 to be sterilized.[21] His recent thinking can be sampled via his reviews at Amazon Books,[1] his articles in American Renaissance and The Occidental Quarterly, his (co-authored) chapter 'Why ignore the g factor?'[22] and his weblog. His defence of Hans Eysenck (in a review of the biography Playing with Fire) was published in the journal Intelligence and at in 2011.[23]

Selected publications

  • Brand CR (1972). Relations between emotional and social behaviour: a questionnaire study of individual differences. Br J Soc Clin Psychol. 1972 Feb;11(1):10-9. PMID 5024653
  • Brand CR (1981). New IQ test? Nature. 1981 Mar 12;290(5802):82. PMID 7207601
  • Brand CR, Deary IJ (1982). Intelligence and "inspection time." In Eysenck HJ (Ed.) A Model for Intelligence, pp. 133-148. Springer-Verlag, ISBN 9780387116761
  • Brand CR (1984). Personality dimensions: an overview of modern trait psychology. Inn Psychology Survey 5, British Psychological Society. George Allen & Unwin., ISBN 9780901715272
  • Brand CR (1989). The "big five" dimensions of personality? Evidence from ipsative, adjectival self-attributions. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 1165- 1171. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(89)90080-9
  • Brand CR, Freshwater S (1989). Has there been a "massive" rise in IQ levels in the West? Evidence from Scottish children. Irish Journal of Psychology, 10 (3), 388-393.
  • Brand CR, Caryl PG, Deary IJ, Egan V, Pagliari HC (1991). Is intelligence illusory? The Lancet. 1991 Mar 16;337(8742):678-9. PMID 1672021
  • Brand CR (1992). Sizing-up the brain. Nature. 1992 Oct 29;359(6398):768. PMID 1436046
  • Brand CR (1994). How many dimensions of personality? The "Big 5", the "Gigantic 3" or the "Comprehensive 6"? Psychologica Belgica 1994, vol. 34, no 4
  • Brand CR (1994). Open to experience-closed to intelligence: Why the 'Big Five' are really the 'Comprehensive Six.' European Journal of Personality Volume 8, Issue 4, pages 299–310, November 1994 DOI: 10.1002/per.2410080407
  • Brand CR (1994). Intelligence and Inspection Time: An Ontogenetic Relationship? The biology of human intelligence: proceedings of the twentieth annual symposium of the Eugenics Society London Nafferton Books, ISBN 9780905484457
  • Brand CR (1996). The importance of intelligence in western societies. Journal of Biosocial Science, 1996 Oct;28(4):387-404. PMID 8973000
  • Brand CR (1996). The g Factor: General Intelligence and Its Implications. John Wiley & Sons Inc., ISBN 9780471960706
  • Brand CR (1997). Hans Eysenck's personality dimensions: Their number and nature. In H. Nyborg (Ed.), The scientific study of human nature: Tribute to Hans J. Eysenck at eighty, (pp. 17-35). Pergamon, ISBN 9780080427874
  • Brand CR, Constales D (1997). Why ignore the g factor? Historical considerations. In Nyborg H (Ed.) The Scientific Study of General Intelligence: Tribute to Arthur Jensen. Pergamon, ISBN 9780080437934
  • Kane HD, Oakland TD, Brand CR (2006). Differentiation at Higher Levels of Cognitive Ability: Evidence From the United States. The Journal of Genetic Psychology Volume 167, Number 3 / September 2006 pp. 327 - 341 DOI: 10.3200/GNTP.167.3.327-341 PMID 17278419


  1. ^ Holden, Constance (22 August 1997). Controversial Academic Gets the Axe. Science 22 August 1997: 1045. doi: 10.1126/science.277.5329.1045a
  2. ^ Deary, I., Smith, P. (February 2 2004). "Intelligence Research and Assessment in the United Kingdom". In Robert Sternberg. The International Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge University Press. pp. 14–15. 
  3. ^ Beck, Joan (November 3, 1982). Testing the Intelligence Quotient. The News and Courier
  4. ^ Deary and Smith 2004 p. 15.
  5. ^ Deary and Smith 2004 p. 14. Original discovery was by Nettelbeck and Lally.
  6. ^ Wynne-Jones, Ros (August 18, 1996). 'Scientific racist' must not be gagged, say opponents. The Independent
  7. ^ Younge, Gary (May 26, 1996). Race scientists - the colour of intelligence. New Straits Times Reprinted as The scientists who are proud to be racists. Mail & Guardian
  8. ^ Wynne-Jones, Ros (April 14, 1996). 'Stupid blacks' book row. The Independent
  9. ^ Editorial staff (9 May 1997). The personal views of a 'scientific racist.' Times Higher Education
  10. ^ Eysenck, Hans (April 26, 1996). The colour of Intelligence. Times Higher Education
  11. ^ Brand CR (1996). The G Factor: General Intelligence and Its Implications (free online text). originally John Wiley & Sons Inc., ISBN 9780471960706
  12. ^ 'Racist' Brand loses dismissal appeal, Olga Wojtas, Times Higher Education, 27 March 1998, retrieved 22 December 2009
  13. ^ a b Key factors in the fall of a 'scientific racist', Olga Wotjas, Times Higher Education, 10 April 1998, retrieved 22 December 2009
  14. ^ Ward, Lucy (August 9, 1997). Lecturer sacked for saying child sex "harmless." The Independent
  15. ^ Hinde, Julia (August 15, 1997). Branded an outcast. Times Higher Education
  16. ^ Rudbeck, Clare (30 May 2002). Free to speak out? The Independent
  17. ^ Kohn, Marek (May 19, 1996). Technofile. The Independent
  18. ^ Swain, Harriet (January 3, 2008). Dealing with controversial colleagues. Times Higher Education
  19. ^ Eric Barend - Academic Freedom and the Law: A Comparative Study - Hart Publishing - 2010
  21. ^ Editorial staff (August 4, 2003). The guise of caring. Greensboro News & Record
  22. ^ Brand CR, Constales D (1997). Why ignore the g factor? Historical considerations. In Nyborg H (Ed.) The Scientific Study of General Intelligence: Tribute to Arthur Jensen. Pergamon, ISBN 9780080437934
  23. ^ Brand, Chris (2011). Psychology's Ulysses wins through. Intelligence Volume 39, Issue 1, January-February 2011, Pages 74-75, doi:10.1016/j.intell.2010.09.006

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